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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 




; :6orn, Hertford Co., No. Ca. Aug. 2d. 1802. Died, Washington, D. C Dec. 7th. 1882. 
*A. M. Univ. of No. Ca. 1826; State Treasurer, 1845. U. S. Envoy to Nicaragua, 1853. 
Author Hist, of No. Ca. and of Reminiscences of Eminent North CaroHnians. 








John H, Wheeler, 




" T/'s well that a State should often be reminded of her great citizens." 








President of the University of North Carolina, 

AS some evidence of 

personal regard of the author, and devotion to the fame 

AND honor of their NATIVE STATE, 

It is well known to you that your venerated father encouraged 
the preparation and publication of this work. His letters to the 
author prove this. But he died before it was completed. Lest 
the same inevitable event should occur to the author now beyond 
the allotted period of human life, these Reminiscences and Mem- 
ories, the labor and research of a life, are now given as a grateful 
legacy to his kind and generous countrymen, who will admire the 
~ generous traits exhibited, and imitate the noble examples of 
their forefathers. 



Washington City, No. 28, Grant Place, \ 

June 10, 1878. J 

ToHoji. William H. Battle, L.L.D., Chapel Hill: 

Mv Esteemed Sir — Your recent letter as to 
"The Address on the Early Times and Men of 
Albemarle," has been received. For the kind 
opinion, that "the people of the State and es- 
pecially those of the Albemarle County, owe a 
debt of gratitude for this and other contributions 
to their history," I sincerely thank you. 

Your letter further adds, that you ' ' have seen 
in the Raleigh Obscivet, a handsome tribute to 
the value and usefulness of my History of North 
Carolina, expressing a wish for an early publica- 
tion of a second edition , uniting yourself in a 
similar request. 

Like expressions have been received from 
many respectable sources. 

Recently, The News of Raleigh, The Demo- 
crat oi Charlotte, and other papers call for the 
publication of the ' ' Reminiscences of Eminent 
North Carolinians," and appeal to her sons for 
contributions "to the Grand Old History of 
North Carolina." 

It is hoped and believed this call will be heard 
and heeded. 

While Virginia on one side and South Caro- 
lina on the other, have presented to the world 
the glowing record of the patriotism, valor and 
virtues of their sons, North Carolina equally rich 

or richer in such reminiscences ; and with traits 
of virtue, and honor, and sacrifices to patriotism, 
deserving of record, allows this record to be ob- 
scured by time, and to 

"Waste its fragrance on the desert air." 

It has been truly said that no State of our 
Republic, has, from the earliest period of its 
existence, shown a more determined spirit of in- 
dependence, and a more constant and firm resist- 
ance ' ' to every form of oppression of the rights 
of man" than North Carolina. This is evinced 
on every page of her history, and exhibited on 
the battle field, and in the exploits of individual 
prowess. This patriotic spirit has been accom- 
panied by noble traits of individual character ; 
as integrity of purpose, a straightforwardness of 
intention, and by simplicity and modesty in 

It was on the shores of North Carolina that the 
English first landed on this continent. It has 
been the refuge of the down-trodden, the op- 
pressed and persecuted of every nation, and here 
they found that freedom denied to them in the 
old world — with gentle manners and resolute 
hearts, their whole history exhibits a firm devo- 
tion to liberty, a keen perception of right and a 
ready and determined resistance to wrong. For 
this and this only, was life desirable to them, and 
for this they were willing to die. 

The gallant patron, who first sent a colony to 



our shores was the victim of tyranny and op- 
pression. Her first Governor was sacrificed in 
defence of popular rights. Such seed could but 
produce goodly fruits. The character of this 
people was graphically described by one of the 
early Colonial Governors, as "being insolent 
and rebellious * * * impatient of all tyr- 
anny and ready to resist oppression in every 

An early historian has recorded our people, 
as being "gentle in their manners, advocates of 
freedom ; jealous of their rulers, impatient, rest- 
less, and turbulent when ruled by any other 
Sfovernment than their own ; and under that and 
that only were they satisfied. " 

It was in the natural course of events and "the 
inexorable logic of circumstances'^ that the sturdy 
men of the age were ever ready to defend the 
cause of right ; and in defense of liberty to pour 
out their life blood, as at Alamance ; on the Cape 
Fear, to beard the minions of power, and cause their 
oppressor to leave the State and seek refuge 
elsewhere, and that the men of Mecklenburgh 
in advance of every other State, should thunder to 
the world the eternal principles of Independence 
and Liberty. 

The acts and characteristics of these illustrious 
men, and of their descendants, we wish to 

We enter upon this "labor of love " with 
earnestness and pleasure. ' "Let it not be thought" 
says a learned writer, on a similar subject, " that 
we are working for ourselves alone, nor for those 
now living. Let us remember that thousands 
yet unborn will respect and bless the patient and 
pious hands, that have rescued from oblivion 
these precious memorials." 

The Memories of the last fifty years or more, 
cover an interesting period of our history. 

We shall leave the history of the earlier events 
to some faithful historian, and be it our task to 
take up the biographies of the leading men who 
have done " the State some service" with remi- 
niscences of their times and give the biography 

and genealogy of each, as far as attainable. Bi- 
ography presents a more minute and accurate 
view of the lights and shadows of character, 
than general history. One is general, and the 
individual is a mere accessory ; the other is mi- 
nute, and directed to a single object. We often 
have a clearer idea of any event, when the mo- 
tives and the character of the chief actors are 
minutely described. We have in the "Life of 
Washington," by Marshal, the best history of 
the American Revolution. As to our genealogy, 
this is the first attempt to present the record of 
families in our State. 

This untried path involved much research and 
labor. It is hoped it will be acceptable, and 
prove useful. We are far behind the age, on 
this subject. In England, Burke's great work 
(The Genealogical and Heraldric Dictionary of 
the British Empire) is a hand-book in every well 
appointed library. 

In New England, " Whitmore's American 
Genealogy" is valuable; the Genealogical So- 
ciety of Massachusetts is in full vigor, sustaining 
a Quarterly Magazine. Every locality and fam- 
ily in that section have preserved and published 
such materials ; these are commemorated by 
annual domestic gatherings ; thus strengthening 
the ties of affection and refreshing the memories 
of the past. In many cases genealogy is valu- 
able in preserving property to the true owners of 
estates, and the ties of kindred that otherwise 
would be forever buried, and broken. 

Some, with phlegmatic indifference may ridicule 
this attempt ; exhibiting a supreme contempt for 
such vanity, as they call it ; but surely no one 
with a discreet mind and a sound heart can be in- 
sensible to the laudable feeling of having de- 
scended from an honest and virtuous ancestry, 
and having industrious and intelligent connec- 
tions of unsullied reputation. Such a thought 
instils a hatred of laziness and vice, and stimu- 
lates activity and virtue. 

Such is a grateful oblation to departed worth. 
Not only is this a duty discharged to the dead. 



but a moral benefit may result to the living. It 
acts as an incentive to others, while they admire 
his services and brilliant career, to emulate his 
patriotic example. 

"Oh, who shall lightly say that Fame 
Is nothing but an empty name, 
While in that name there is a charm 
The nerves to brace, the heart to warm. 
When, thinking on the mighty dead, 
The youth shall rouse from slothful bed. 
And vow with uplifted hand and heart 
Like him to act a noble part." 

Let US all cherish th» recollection of talents, 
services, and virtues, of departed worth, and 
such faults as are inseparable from our nature, be 
buried in the grave with the relics of fallen 

Some pains have been taken with the table of 
contents and the preparation of the Index. 

Mr. Stevens, in his "Catalogue of his English 
Library," says, correctly: "If you are troubled 
with a pride of accuracy, and would have it 
completely taken out of you, attempt to make 
an Index or Catalogue." 

Dr. Allibone prints in his valuable Dictionary 
of Authors (I., 85), extracts from a number of 
the AToiithly Review, which is well worthy of quota- 
tion here : ' 'The compilation of an index is one of 
those labors for which the public are rarely so 
forward to express their gratitude, as they ought 
to be. The value of a thing is best known by 
the want of it. We have often experienced 
great inconvenience for want of a good index to 

many books. There is far more scope for the 
exercise of judgment and ability in compiling an 
index than commonly supposed. Mr. Oldys 
expresses a similar sentiment in his Notes and 
Queries (XL, 309): "The labour and patience; 
the judgment and penetration, required to make 
a good index, is only known to those who have 
gone through the most painful and least praised 
part of a publication. 

Lord Campbell proposed in the English Par- 
liament (Wheatley on " What is an Index?" p. 27) 
that any author who published a book without 
an Index, should be deprived of the benefits of 
the copyright act. " Mr. Binney of Philadelphia 
held the same views and Carlyle denounces the 
putting forth of books without a good Index, 
with great severity. 

The History of Tennessee, by Dr. Ramsay, 
full of research and philosophy, fails in this re- 
spect. A book with no index is like a ship on 
the ocean without compass, or rudder. 

In the following pages doubtless many worthy 
characters may have escaped notice — for the field 
is " so large and full of goodly prospects. " Nor 
would we if we could, exhaust this fair field ; but 
like Boaz, leave some rich sheaves for other and 
more skillful reapers in this bountiful harvest. 

To you, my dear sir, who have so kindly and 
repeatedly encouraged these labors, I respect- 
fully commend them and subscribe myself 
Very sincerely yours, 

Jno. H. Wheeler. 


Dedication. — Preface. — North Carolina in the Colonial Period. — Memoir of the Author. 


Regulation Troubles. Oppressions and frauds of the officers of the Crown ; causes and consequences. 
Sketch of Judge Ruffin, compared to Thomas Jefferson. Colonel Thomas M. Holt. 


Sympathy with the Regulators, as to unlawful taxation— 1768 ; copy of the oath taken ; resolutions 
that the Sheriffs and Magistrates should be elected by the people, Letter to Governor Martin. Character 
of James Cotten, a tory. Sketch of Judge Spencer; his singular death. Sketch of Judge Thomas S. Ashe, 
now one of the Judges of the Supreme Court. 


Character of the nobleman for whom it is named ; commissioned the Grand Master of the Grand 
Lodge of North Carolina. Freemasonry in North Carolina ; it saves the life of an officer in battle. Jeffer- 
son's opinion of Washington. Sketch of the Blounts of Beaufort. Hon. C. C.Cambreling, long a Member 
of Congress from New York, a native of Beaufort. Sketch of J. J. Guthrie, drowned off Cape Hatteras. 
Hatteras described by Joseph W. Holden, and in the National Gazette of Philadelphia, in 1792, Sketch 
of Edward Stanley; a letter of Judge Badger, his relative, as to his course. Sketch of Richard S. Donnell; 
of Judge Rodman, who agrees with Hooker in his opinion of the law. James Cook, C. S N. Adventurous 
life of Charles F. Taylor, a native of this section ; participates in the war in Nicaragua ; its stirring events, 
facts never before published ; the policy of Marcey an error ; sad fate of Walker ; tragic death of Herndon, 
with whom another North Carolinian (John V. Dobbin) was drowned. Central America described- The 
Minister of the United States is recieved. Revolution. Walker captures Virgin Bay, Grenada, and puts the 
Government to flight. Sketch of Walker and his adventurous life. Scenes at the Capital ; the U. S. Min- 
ister in jeopardy. The General Commander-in-Chief and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs executed by the 
invading forces. Letters between the General-in-Chief and the American Minister; the last letter of Walker. 



Sketch of VVhitmil Hill, a Member of the Provincial and Continental Congresses ; of David Stone, 
\/ Judge of Superior Courts, Governor of the State and U. S, Senator.! Genealogy of the family. Sketches 
of George Outlaw ; of Willie Blount, Governor of Tennessee ; of David Outlaw ; of P. H. Winston ; of 
James W. Clark. Genealogy of the Clark family. 


Battleof Elizabethtown, 1791; Cross Creek. Character and services of James and Denny Porterfield. 
Sketch of John Owen, Governor of the State; of James J. McKay ; of Thomas D. McDonald. 


Early history and character of its people, opposed to oppression, drove the Royal Governor, [Mar- 
tin] from the Country, July to, 1775, seized the Stamp Master and destroyed the stamps sent to him from 
England: copy of the pledge given by the Stamp Master [William Houston]. Indignation of the people, 
and letter of Ashe, Lloyd and Lillinglon, offering to protect the Governor's person Sketch of General 
Robert Howe, his character as described by Governor Martin, who denounced him in a royal proclamation ; 
appointed Colonel of the 2d Regiment of North Carolina troops in the Continental establishment ; marches 
to Virginia and drives the Royal Governor, Lord Dunmore, from that Province. Sketch of Cornelius Har- 
nett, his life and services ; his character described by Governor Burrington, the Royal Governor ; denounced 
by Governor Martin for the destruction of Fort Johnston. General John A. Lillington's Revolutionary 
services. The Moore family of Brunswick, Maurice Moore, Roger Moore and Nathaniel Moore, the early 
settlers of the Cape Fear region. Sketch of Judge Maurice Moore ; of General James Moore ; of Judge 
Alfred Moore, his legal character described. Life and services of Benjamin Smith. 


Character and services of Colonel Edward Buncombe, after whom this County is named. Sketch of 
David L. Swain, his life, services and death ; Sketches of Professors Mitchell and Phillips of the LTniversity 
of North Carolina; of Samuel F. Phillips. Sketch of Zebulon B. Vance ; extracts from a work on the Vance 
family, printed at Cork, Ireland, showing the relationship of General Andrew Jackson to the Vances ; letter 
\j to General Kilpatrick from Governor Z. B. Vance. Sketch of Robert B. Vance ; of James L. Henry, late 
one of the Judges of the Superior Court; of Augustus S. Merrimon, late Judge and U. S. Senator; of 
Thomas L. Clingman, late U. S. Senator, his life and services ; duel with William L. Yancey ; of John L. 
Bailey, late Judge of the Superior Court ; of Robert M. Furman ; of Thomas D. Johnston. 

Life, character and services of Waightstill Avery. Genealogy of the Averys. The McDowell 
, family ; its genealogy and services in the Revolution. The Carson family. Life and services of John Car- 
son, the founder of the family. Sketches of Samuel P. Carson ; of Israel Pickens ; of David Newland ; of 
Todd R. Caldwell ; of James William Wilson. 


Life, character and services of Reverend John Robinson, D. D., and of Reverend Hezekiah J. 
Balch D,D.; copy of the tomb-stone of the latter. The Phifer family, and their genealogy. The Barringer 


family, and their genealogy. Sketch of Nathaniel Alexander, a member of Congress and Governor of the 
State. Sketches of Ur. Charles Harris ; Robert S. Young ; of Daniel Coleman, of Cabarrus County ; of 
Samuel F. Patterson; of James C. Harper; of Clinton A. Cilley and of George Nathaniel Folk of Cald- 
well County. 


First land sighted by the English, 1584 ; the lost Colony of Governor White. Indian wars with the 
Cores and Tuscaroras ; John Lawson, the first historian, murdered by them. Fort Hyde. Battle at Beau- 
fort. Sketch of the life and services of Captian Otway Burns. 


Life, character and services of Richard Caswell, the first Governor of the State under the Constitu- 
tion. Genealogy of the family. Sketches of Bartlett Yancey ; of Romulus M. Saunders ; of Robert and 
Marmaduke Williams; of Calvin Graves; of Bedford Brown; of Jacob Thompson, Secretary of Interior in 
W 1857, and Member of Congress from Mississippi; all natives of Caswell County. John Kerr, his sufferings 
at the hands of political opponents, and his release. The mysterious murder of John W. Stevens ; his char- 


The life and bloody career, in the Revolution, of David Fanning. Sketch of Charles Manly, Gover- 
V nor in 1848 ; of Abram Rencher ; of John Manning. 


Governor Eden, (for whom the County-town is named); sketch of him and his alleged intimacy with 
the noted pirate, Edward Teach commonly called " Black Beard" ; the bloody deeds of this marauder ; his 
wicked life and bloody end. The principles and character of the early inhabitants of Chowan. The pro- 
ceedings of the Committee of Safety in 1775; the names of the members. The Vestry of St. Paul's 
Church, and the patriotic resolves of the ladies of Edenton. Life, services and character of Samuel John- 
ston ; the opinion of the Royal Governor (Martin) of him, who removed him from the office of Deputy Nav- 
al Officer, and Mr. Johnston's reply to the Governor ; member of the Provincial Congress in 1775, and of 
the Continental Congress in 1780 ; elected Governor in 1787 ; U. S. Senator in 1789 ; in 1800 Judge of the 
Superior Court. A devoted advocate of freemasonry. Genealogy of the Johnston family. The title of the 
Marquis of Annandale supposed to belong to them. Sketch of Joseph Hewes, signer of the Declaration of 
Independence ; of Hugh Williamson, a member of the Colonial and Continental Congresses ; and of the U. 
S. ; author of a history of North Carolina ; of Stephen Cabarrus, long Speaker of the House of Commons ; 
/ of Charles Johnson ; of Thomas Benbury. Of James Iredell, appointed Judge of Supreme Court of the 
U. S. by General Washington ; of his son, James Iredell Jr., Speaker of the House in 1817 ; Judge of the 
Superior Court 1819; Governor of the State 1821; U. S. Senator in 1827, succeeding Mr. Macon. In the 
war of 181 2, was Captain, with Gavin Hogg as one of his Lieutenants. Sketch of Gavin Hogg- Life and 
services of Agustus Moore, one of the Judges of the Superior Court ; sketch of his son, William A. Moore; 
of Governor William Allen, of Ohio, member of Congress in 1833 ; Senator in 1837-49, and Governor of 
Ohio in 1874, a native of Edenton. An amusing incident connected with the names of General Scott, Dr. 
Warren, Major Gilliam and others. 



Its early history ; the Palatines; De Graaffenreidt ; Governor Dobbs ; Tryon's palace ; his clock, 
John Hawks, architect. "The cause of Boston, the cause of all! " Committee of Safety in 1775 of Chow- 
an County. Names of its members. Sketch of Francois Xavier Martin, a historian of the State ; of the 
Blount family; of Abner Nash, his character as given by Governor Martin; a member of Congress, 1776; 
first Speaker of the Assembly; Governor in 1779; member of Congress 1781. Life, service and death of 
Richard Dobbs Spaight. Duels that have been fought in North Carolina. Sketch of John Stanley ; of 
WiUiam Gaston; of John R. Donnel ; of John Sitgreaves ; of John N. Bryan; of Edward Graham; of 
Francis L. Hawks ; of George E Badger ; of Matthias E. Manley ; of Charles R. Thomas ; of Judge Sey 
mour ; of William J. Clarke, and his talented wife, Mary Bayard Clarke, and his' son William E. Clarke. 


The Scotch heroine, Flora MacDonald, once lived in this County. Sketch of her life and character ; 
of Farquard Campbell, Governor Martin's opinion of him; of William Barry Grove; of John Louis Taylor, 
late Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina. Judicial System of the State as it existed from 
1798 to 1804. Sketch of Henry Potter, Judge U. S. District Court; of John D. Toomer; of Louis 
D.Henery:of Robert Strange ; of James C. Dobbin; of Warren Winslow ; of Duncan K. MacRae ; of Mrs. 
Miller; of Henry W. Hilliard of Georgia, a native of Cumberland ; of W. C. Troy. 


Sketch of Henry M. Shaw ; of Emerson Etheridge, of Tenn,, native of Currituck ; of Thomas J. Jarvis, 
Governor of North Carolina, 1882. 


Sketch of James M. Leach of Davidson ; of James Gillaspie ; of Thomas and O. Kenan ; of Charles 
Hooks of Duplin Co. Sketch of Henry Irwin, a Revolutionary hero ; of Jonas Johnston ; of John Hay- 
wood; genealogy of the Haywood family. Sketch of Henry T. Clark, Governor of North Carolina. 
The Battle Family, and their genealogy, including Judge Wm. H. Battle, and his son, Kemp P. Battle. 
Sketch of Duncan L. Clark, of U. S. Army; of Wm. D.Pender; of R. R. Bridgers; of Charles Price 
of Davie; of John B. Hussey of Davie. 


Sketch of Col, Benj. Forsythe; of Joseph Winston ; of Israel G. Lash. The History of the Moravians. 


Lynch Law, origin of the term. Services and Sufferings of General Thomas Person ; Sketch of Hon. 
J. J. Davis. 


Sketch of Rev. Humphrey Hunter; Major Wm. Chronicle ; of Rev R H. Morrison of Gaston County; 
of William Paul Roberts, of Gates ; of John Penn of Granville, one of the Signers of the Declaration of 


Independence ; of James and John Williams ; of Robert Burton. The Henderson Family — their genealogy. 
Sketch of Robert B. Gilliam ; of A. W, Venable ; of M. Hunt , of Robert Potter. 


Sketch of Gen. Jesse Speight; of Joseph Dixon. Battle of Guilford Court House, March 15, 1781, be- 
tween General Greene and Lord Cornwallis. Sketch of Cornwallis; of Col. Tarleton; of Col. Wilson 
Webster. Cornwallis's letter to his father as to the fall of Webster. 

Sketch of Dr. David Caldwell; of Alexander Martin; of Newton Cannon, Governor of Tennessee, a 
native of Guilford ; of Governor Moorehead ; of George C. Mendenhall ; of Judge John M. Dick, and 
his son, Judge Robt. P. Dick; of John A. Gilmer; of John H. Dilliard ; of Rev. Calvin H. Wiley; of 
James J. Scales ; of John H. Staples. 


The Jones Family - its genealogy ; John Paul Jones adopts this name. Sketch of Wm. R. Davie, a 
General of the Revolution; of Hutchins G. Burton; of Andrew Joyner; of John W. Eppes; of William 
Polk of the Cromwell Family ; of John B. Ashe ; of Willis Alston ; of John Haywood ; of John H. Eaton ; 
of J. J. Daniel; of John R. J. Daniel ; of Junius Daniel; of John Branch ; of Lawrence O'B. Branch ; of 
James Grant; of B. F. Moore. 


The Murfree Family. Sketch of General Thos. Wynns ; of the Wheeler Family ; of Rev. Matthias Brickie; 
of Kenneth Rayner ; of Godwin C. Moore; of Solon Borland; of Wm. H. H. Smith; of Jesse J. Yeates ; 
of Richard J. Gadin. The Chowan Female Institute. Sketch of David Miller Carter ; of Hugh Lawton 
White of Tenn.; of the Osborne Family — Adlai Osborne, Spruce McCoy Osborne, Edward Jay Osborne, 
and Judge James W. Osborne; of David F. Caldwell; of Joseph P. Caldwell; of Professor Caldwell; of 
D. M. Furches; of Robert F. Armfield. 


Revolutionary proceedings in Johnston County, 1768. Sketch of Wm. A. Smith ; of Nathan Bryan of 
Jones County ; of Hardy B. Croom ; of Wm. D. Mosely. 


Sketch of Gen. Joseph Graham ; Family Genealogy of the Brevards. Huguenots ; of General William 
Davidson ; of the Forneys ; of Michael, Robert F. and John T. Hoke ; of James Graham ; of Dr. Wm. 
McLean ; of Dr. C. L. Hunter ; of Gen. Stephen D. Ramseur ; or Gen. Jas. P. Henderson ; of Judge Da- 
vid W. Schenck ; of Robert H. Burton. 


Sketch of James Lowrie Robinson (Speaker) ; of Silas McDonald of Macon ; of Asa Biggs; of Jos. J. 



The Polk Family, — its genealogy ; The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence ; it is denounced by 
the Royal Governor, Josiah Martin. Sketches of the Members of the Convention; of Abram Alexander; 
of Hezekiah James Balch ; of John Davidson — with genealogy ; of Wm Graham ; of Robert Irwin ; of Wm. 
Kennon ; of David Reese ; of Adam Craighead ; of Gen. Thomas Polk, — letter of Gen Greene to Gen- 
eral Polk. " Devil Charley." Sketch of Bishop Polk of Andrew Jackson. Bishops furnished by North 
Carolina to other States. Susan Spratt nee Barnett, a Revolutionary relic. Sketch of Mrs. Susan Hancock ; 
of Judge Sam. Lowrie ; of Joseph Wilson; of Wm. J. Alexander; of Greene W. Caldwell; of D. H. Hill; 
The Osborne family, and a graphic sketch of Judge James W. Osborne, from the pen of D. H. Hill ; Judge 
R. P. Warring. 


Sketch of A. McNeil; of Archibald McBryde ; of Governor Benjamin Williams; of Dr. George Glass- 
cock, of Moore County. The Ashe Family, — its genealogy. John Baptista Ashe's controversy with the 
Eoyal Governor, and is imprisoned by him. Letter of Burrington, showing his own character and purely. 
Battle of Briar Creek. Sketch of the Hill family; of Wm. Hooper; of Timothy Bloodworth ; of Edward 
Jones; of Johnson Blakely ; of James Ennes ; of the Davis family; of the Waddell family; of Owen 
Holmes ; of John Cowan ; of Gov. Dudley ; of Bishop Atkinson ; of Rev. Adam Empie ; of Bishop Green ; 
of Wm. B. Meares; of Wm. H. Marsteller ; of General Abbot. 


Sketch of General Allan Jones ; of General Matt. W. Ransom ; of Edmund Fanning ; of Governor 
Burke, seized by Tories and carried to Wilmington. The Mebanes. Sketch of General Francis Nash ; of 
Judge Frederick Nash; of Judge Murphy; of Judge Norwood; of Dr. Wm. Montgomery; of Willie P. 
Mangum ; of Thomas H. Benton; of Gen. Geo. B. Anderson; Memoirs of Chapel Hill; Sketch of Dr. 
Charles F. Deems; Hon. Paul C. Cameron; Prof. Hubbard; ofWm. Bingham; of John W. Graham. 


Sketch of John L. Bailey ; of Wm B. Shepard ; of George W. Brooks ; of Gen. James G. Martin ; of 
John Pool; of Pasquotank; of John Harvey; of J. W. Albertson ; of William H. Bagley, of Perquimans; 
of Hustavus A. Williamson; of General Henry Atkinson, U. S. Army ; of Richard Atkinson ; of Judge E. 
G. Reade ; of John W. Cunningham, of Person County. 

Sketch of Dr. Robert Williams; of General Bryan Grimes, of Pitt; of Jonathen Worth, of Pitt; Colonel 
Andrew Balfour, his gallant services and tragic end ; Herman Husbands, a leader of the Regulators; Hon. 
John Long, Member of U. S. Congress. 


Sketch of A. Dockery ; of A. H. Dockery; of Governor ; Joseph R. Hawley ; of Walter Leake Steele, of 
Richmond ; of Thomas Settle Sen. — genealogy of the Settles, — of his son Thomas, now Judge in Florida ; 
of David Settle Reid ; of John H. Dilliard ; of Hamilton Henderson Chalmers, a Judge of the Supreme 
Supreme Court of Mississippi. 



Documents never before published as to early times in Rowan. Population in 1754; first settlers — their 
names; Committee of Safety, 1774-76. Sketch of Hugh Montgomery — his decendants. Heroic conduct of 
Mrs Steele. Sketch of General John Steele; of John V. Steele, Governor of New Hampshire; of Wm. 
Kennon ; of Griffith Rutherford— his gallant services in the Indian and Revolutionary Wars. Sketch of the 
Locke family ; of Spruce McCoy ; of James Martin ; of George Mumford ; of the Pearsons ; of Judge John 
Stokes; of Charles Fisher, and his son, Colonel Charles F. Fisher, killed at Manasses, Va., and his daughter, 
Miss C. Fisher, distinguished as an authoress; of Governor John W. Ellis; of Nath. Boyden; of Burton 
Craige; of Hamilton C. Jones; of of Francis E. Shober; of John L. Henderson. 


Sketch of Judge John Paxton; of Felix Walker, author of the world-wide expression ' 'talking for buncombe;' ' 
of Colonel Wm. Graham; of Gen. John G. Bynum, and his brother. Judge Wm. P. Bynum; of Judge John 
Baxter, of Rutherford ; of Gov. Holmes ; of Gen. Theo. H. Holmes ; of Wm. R. King, Vice President of 
U.S.; of Col. Benj. Forsythe of Stokes County ; of James Martin, his Military services in the Revolution, as de- 
posed to, by himself; of John Martin, of Stokes ; of Benjamin Cleaveland, of Surry ; Names of the Committee 
of Safety, of Surry County; Sketch of William Lenoir; of the Williams family; of Jesse Frankhn; ofMeshach 
Franklin ; of Judge Jesse Franklin Graves. 


Edward Buncombe, his Military services and heroic death. The Pettigrews, James and his son Ebenezer, 
and his gallant grandson J. Johnston Pettigrew ; Sketch of Dr. Edward Ransom ; of Joseph Gales, first Editor 
of the Raleigh Register; The Press of North Carolina. Sketch of Joseph Gales of Washington, D. C; of 
Weston R. Gales, of Raleigh ; of Seaton Gales; of Judge Sewall ; of Judge Duncan Cameron; of Edmund 
B. Freeman; of Dr. Richard H. Lewis. Sketch of WilHam Hill, Sec. of State; of Dr. William G. Hill; of 
Theophilus Hill ; of Mrs. Zimmerman, Poetess : of Andrew Johnson, President of United States; of General 
Joseph Lane, and of the Lane family; of Governor W. W. Holden ; of Bishop Ravenscroft ; of Bishop Ives; 
of Rev. Dr. Richard S. Macon; of Bishop Beckwith; of Octavius Coke; of Randolph A. Shotwell; of Don- 
ald W. Bain. 


Military services of General Jethro Sumner in the Revolution. The Hawkins family, with its genealogy; 
Sketch of Dr. James G. Brehon ; of Nathaniel Macon ; of Gov. James Turner ; of Daniel Turner ; of Whar- 
ton J. Green; of Kemp Plummer ; of Judge Hall; of Judge Edward Hall; of Judge Blake Baker; of Gov. 
William Miller; of Weldon N, Edwards; of the Bragg family ; State Capitol burned, June, 1831. 


Sketch of Daniel Boone; of John Sevier. The State of Frankland, and its rise, progress, and fall. Sketch 
of Ezekiel Slocumb ; of Col. Thomas Ruffin ; of Gov. C. H. Brogden ; of Gov. Montford Stokes, and his de- 
scendants ; of Henry G. Williams, of Wilson ; Isaac F. Dortch ; of Richard W. Singletary. 



Of Hertford County, North Carolina. 

BORN AUGUST 2, 1806, DIED DECEMBER 7, 1882, 
"i ..■>' By HOX. JOSEPH S. FOWLER, Ex-Senator From Tennessee. 

" Excrji monumcntum cere percnnius, 
Rcgalique situ pijrainidum a/tii/s ; 
Quod non inibcr edax. noii Aquilo impotens 
Possit dirucre^ aut ianumcrabilis 
Annorum scries, et fuga tempo rum. ^'' 

—Hon. Oak., XXX. 


f^^iiiOM Moore's "Historical Sketches of 
i|^'|;- Hertford Count}-," we learn the fol- 

H'^rii-' lowing: 

li t Anions; the early citizens of the 

e/l villageof Murfreesboro, in this county, 


f wa^■ -Tohn Wheeler. He was of an ancient 

1 family, long seated around New York. In 

the Litter end of tlie 17th century, under a 

grant of land from Charles II., Joseph Wheeler 

emigi';tted from England, and settled in New- 

:i]-k, ¥i.x Jersey. Like William Fenn, he was 

f a gallant na\'al oflficer. Sir Francis 

an English admiral, was his father, 

;;rant of land from the Crown was in 

or faithful services. He and his young 

i followed soon after the conquest of 

jKetherlands Ijy the Duke of York, son 

is I., afterwards James II. 

n was born, in 1718, their son Ephraira 

, to whom, and his wife Mary, the first 

" John Wheeler was born in the year 

.)hn had bestowed upon him the best 

,, es of education — he was educated as a 

physician. When the Revolutionary war came 
on, he entered the army under General Mont- 
gomery, and accompanied him in the perilous 
and ill-fated campaign to Quebec, and was in 
the battle (December 31, 1775,) in which tha^ 
gallant officer fell. In Toner's "Renuniscence^ 
of the Medical Men of the Revolution" be is 
prominently' mentioned. Aai'on Burr served 
also in this cam[iaign. Dr. Wheeler accom- 
panied General Gi'eene in his southern cam- 
paign, and was with him in the hard fought 
and glorious victory at Eutaw Springs, Sep- 
tember 8, 1781, and until the close of the war. 
Pleased with the genial climate of the Sonth, 
he settled near Murfreesboro and brought his 
family with him. His wife Elizabeth Long- 
worth, was the neice of Aaron Ogden, after- 
wards the Governor of New Jei'sey, and Sen- ' 
atorin Congress. Ho lived near Mu freeslioro 
for years, in the practice of his prol -^sicn, iu 
which he had great skill and much success. 

His death occurred on October 14, 1814, and 
he lies buried in Northampton County, near 



Murfreesboro. He left several works in man- Professor Wheeler was born in 1S30; eclu- 
ucript on medical science, which evinced the cated in part at the University of Nort'n Car- 
depth of his acquaintance and his devotion olina, and when only a boy volunteered ^as a 
to his profession. His son John was born in private in Captain William J. Clarke' ''lorn- 
1771. In his early youth he was engaged with pany in the Mexican war. He wao hr tvelSy 
liis cousin, David Longworth, in business as battle from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexicol^ 
publishers and booksellers in New York, Here At the fiercely contested affair at the N<u-iunal 
he attracted, by his attention to business, the Piierde, one of the lieutenants was killed, and- 
notice of Zedekiah Stone, who was then in young as he was, he was appointed by the 
New York, and by v/hom he was induced to President as the successor, on the report of his 
remove to Bertie County, North Carolina, commanding officer, now on file, that "he had 
He was there married to Elizabeth Jordan, seen young Wheeler under heavy fire, anl he 
January 6th, 1796, and after the death of his had proved to the command that lit was '.ade"' 
iriend, Mr. Stone, Murfreesboro became his of the stuff of which lieroes are m,i\- On 
home. At this place he was engaged in mer- his return from Mexico he couhV 
cantile and shipping affairs until the day of as an officer in the army, but iie cleLOiied on 
his death. From his enterpii'ise, industry, the ground of want of qualification, Le there- 
sagacity, and integrity he attained great sue- fore resigned his commission. The President 
cess, and his memory, to this day, is cherished determined to retain him in the service, and 
in that section as "the honest merchant." He he appointed him a cadet at West Point, 
was a man of unspotted integrity, so strong where he graduated among the first of his 
that venality and 'indirection cowered before class. After serving for several years in the 
him. After a long life of industry, usefulness Corps of Engineers in Louisiana, Wisconsin 
and piety (for he was a consistent member of and elsewhere, he was appointed to succeed 
the Baptist Church for more than forty years) the late Professor Mahan in the position he 
l.e died, lamented and beloved, August 7th, now occupies. 

1832. His family surviving him, consistecl Dr. Samuel Jordan Wheeler, brother of the 

of two sons by his first marriage, John H. above, was born in 1810; was educated at the 

Wheeler, late Public Treasurer of the State, Hertford Academy, and graduated from 

and Dr. S. Jordan Wheeler, late of Bertie Union College, Schenectady; he studied medi- 

County. By a second wife (Miss Woods) he cine with Dr. Nathan Ch:ipman in '"-''--i"' 

left one daughter, Julia, the peerless wife of phia, and practiced for 3'ear8 wi 

Dr. Godwin C. Moore; and by a third wife, He has been an earnest co-laborer ii 

among others, Colonel Junius B. Wheeler, now of education and religion, as the C 

Professor of Civil and Military Engineering stitute and the Church at Murfree 

and the Art of War in the United States Mil- witness; he was professor in a 

itary Academy at West Point. He is the Mississippi. He recently died in Ber 

author of several military works on civil and loved and respected for his purity o 

siiilitary engineering, and on the art of war, He married Lucinda, daughter of L 
which have been adopted as text books by the 
War Department. He has thus written his 

name in the useful literature of the nation and The conspicuous services rendere 

discharged "that debt," which Lord Coke of North Carolina, and her emine 

says, "every man owes to his profession." by this accomplished man, will f 

John Hill Wheeler. 



serve his niemoiy from oblivion. Born in the 
dawn of the present centnrj, he has been the 
witness of the most remarkable events in the 
historj' of the republic. In the county of 
Hertford he tirst saw the light, August 6, 

He was prepared for college at Hertford 
Acadenij by Dr. John Otis Freeman, an emi- 
nent divine. He was then placed at the 
Columbia;) University, "Washington, J). C, 
and graduated in the class of 1826. In the 
year 1328 he took his degree of Master of 
Arts in the University of North Carolina. 
He studied his profession, the law, under the 
directi-n of Chief Justice, Taylor, of North 
Caroiir.u. He was elected to the Legislature 
befoi'c hv. was admitted to the bar, in the year 
1827. -Then State Legislatures were honored 
bodies, and secured some of the best talent in 
the States. 

Th's Legislature contained many eminent 
and able men, among them were Judges 
Gaston, Nash and Bailey, George E. Spri- 
uell, John M. Morehead, James Iredell, and 
many more. To win position in such a body 
was the promise of a fruitful manhood, in a 
youth just twenty -one years of age. For an 
earnest and aspiring mind, it proved a valua- 
ble school. Success was not to be hoped for 
without severe study and thorough preparation. 
To su'.sido into reverential indifference was 
not the characteristic of his mind. Independ- 
ent in his feelings, whilst respecting the ability 
of his colleagues, he claimed equal rights in 
the Ijody. Conscientious in the execution of 
the great trust committed to him by a gen- 
erous and proud constitnenc}', he could not 
see their dignity overshadowed. He sum- 
monpil Lill his powers to the work, and won for 
himself a conspicuous and honorable position. 
So well did he perform the task assigned him, 
that his approving constituents returned him 
to the biitly. In his twenty-iiftli year, they 
nomitiated him for Congress, but after a 

severely contested and gallant canvass, he vras 
defeated by the Hon. William B. Shepard. 

In the year 1831, he was appointed Secre- 
tary to the Board of Commissioners, under t!ie 
treaty with France, to adjudicate the claims of 
American citizens for spoliations under the 
Berlin and Milan decrees. 

In 1836, he was placed by General Jackson 
in the position of Superintendent of the 
Branch Mint at Charlotte, but in 1841 shared 
the political fortune of his friends and party. 

In 1842, he was elected b}' the Legislature to 
be Treasui'er of the State, in opposition to 
Major Charles L. Ilinton. After his term had 
expired, he retired to his rural home on the 
banks of the Catawba, and, aided by the sug- 
gestion of his friend. Governor Swain, he be- 
gan the patriotic labor of writing "Wheeler's 
History of North Carolina," on which he was 
employed for about ten years. How well this 
duty was performed, will appear from an ex- 
tract of a letter of General Swain, written not 
long before his death, now in our possession, in 
which he says: 

"I have been much urged to write a comple- 
tion of Hawks' History of North Carolina. 
The only response I have ever made is that I am 
too old, and too poor to venture on such an un- 
dertaking. Were it otherwise, in m}' opinion 
another edition of Wheeler's History would be 
more useful and acceptable than anj work I 
could write." *•■ 

In this work. Colonel Wheeler sought to col- 
lect the interesting facts that illustrated the 
history of the State and give them an endui'ing 
place. He proposed to preserve, for all time, a 
faithful record of the illustrious deeds of a 
noble and patriotic people, who have character- 
ized their presence in the new world bj^ an 
intense love of liberty and the most striking 
individuality. They were, from their presence 
in the wilderness, a self governing community. 

No autiiority was sacred that did not eiiii- 
nate from themselves. Loyal to the will of 
the people, they resented indignantly the im- 


position of any external authority. The^' re- terniined men, to join the liberals, and the posi- 

jeeted the magnificent plan of government pro- tion held by (lolonel AVheeler became one of 

vided by the Earl of Shaftesbury', though he much peril and responsibility. It soon became 

summoned the brilliant talents of the illustri- manifest that neither part}' could be relied on 

ouspliilosopher, John Locke, foritspreparatron. for any permanent and salutary government. 

They adopted a plan drawn from their own The following of Walker, though small, was 
experience and their wants, under the cireum- brave, determined and intelligent; their leader 
stances, which surrounded them. They were ver^' soon resolved, if he had not from the be- 
the first to repel the aggressions of the British ginning, to give the country an Anglo-Amer- 
parliament and crown. They well knew the ican go\-ernment. He thus expected to make 
rights of freeborn Englishmen and the princi- Central America the seat of a new and pro- 
pies of their constitution, and were determined gressive civilization, which would convert its 
that no invasion of them should be tolerated, fertile soil and generous climate into the uses 

Colonel Wheeler gave his work to the public of the commercial world. For the interesting 
in the year 1851. It was a complete success, and incidents of this daring and romantic advent- 
is highly esteemed as a faithful record of a ure, the reader is referred to the sketches of the 
most interesting and remarkable people. incidents and characters connected with the 

In the year 1844, he was warmly urged upon revolution. A thrilling episode of his sojourn in 

by his party as a candidate for governor, but that distracted country, so characteristic of the 

did not receive the nomination. man himself, is given at pages 22 to 30 of the 

In the year 1852, he was elected to the State following Reminiscences. 

Legislature, which was fiercely agitated by the As soon as General Walker had established 

contest for a United States Senator. his authority, and his was the de facto govern- 

The Democratic caucusput forth their favor- ment,theAmerican minister promptly acknowl- 
ite man. the Honorable -lames C. Dobbin, than edged it. This act was not approved by the 
whom a purer, or nobler man never lived. Not- Secretary of State, the Honorable William L. 
withstanding his great popularity with his Alarcy, and he requested his recall. As Colonel 
party, and his admitted ability, the friends Wheeler had a warm friend in the President, 
of the Honorable Romulus M.Saunders re- andashisearnest and lougti-ied fi'iend,theIIon. 
fused to support the caucus nominee, and James C. Dobbin, was Secretary of the Navj', 
voted for Honorable Burton Craige. The ob- he was in no danger of being recalled without 
stiuate contest thus ujade deprived the state a hearing. His i^ejily to Mr. Marcy's stric- 
of its representation in the Senate for two tures was triumphant, and the President re- 
years. In this contest Colonel Wheeler stood fused to recall him. 

by his party and his warm personal friend, Mr. C(.)lonel Wheeler not only sympathized with 

Dobbin, and did all in liis power to secui-e his the oliject of this movement, but admired the 

election. character of General Walker. He was a quiet, 

In the year 185-3, Colonel Wheeler was ap- unassuming gentleman, educated under the 

pointed, by President Pierce, Minister to Nica- best instruct(n's of the United States and 

ragua. Central America. During his residence Europe. In person, he was below the average 

there the countr}'- was torn by opposing political American, b^- no means imposing in his pres- 

factions, that sought their ends by the sword, ence. A ready, eloquent, ami graceful writer, 

During the revolution General William Walker he would have been one of the first journalists 

made his appearance with a company of de- of his age. The blood of the Norsemen coursed 


throngli liis veins, and lie was alive with an sound judgment, a cautious foresight, a st eady 

enthusiasm of the old Vikings for adventure, jairpose, and a captivating nmnner. He knew 

He neither estimated the dangers of the how to husband his resmi-ces for the Imnr of 

enemy, or the climate; his courage was of tlie trial. General Walker moved often under the 

purest steel. An ardent Anglo-American, he influence of a whimsical impulse, careless of 

had on\y contempt for the Spaniards and those the demands of an insatiable to-morrow. He 

mongrel races, who occupied with indolence sought the enemy at too great a sacrifice of 

and semi-barbarism one of the finest and most men who could not be restored; he took but 

productive i-egions on the continent. He con- little account of the profound causes which 

ceived the purpose of planting there another preserve and destroy armies. His liigli cpiali- 

race of men who would open the land to a re- ties and noble ambition will cause feelings of 

finement and civilization that would make it regret for his unhappy end, arid the failure of 

the pathway of nations to the easterii world, his ambitious and magnificent purpose. Xot 

Colonel Wheeler readily saw in the advent of the love of gain, nor the vulgar display, led 

this cultivated and revolutionary mind, and this refined student to the unequal contest. 

his brave and daring followers, the promise of It was the pride of his noble race and its ca- 

hope for the country so long cursed with de- pacity to rejoice a country blessed by nature 

generac}' and mindless inaction. He became with every bounty, and cursed only by an in- 

the invited guest and welcome friend of the dolent, vicious, and monotonous race. Too 

United States minister, who knew the men soon for the demands of mankind, a more op- 

and the situation far better than Genei-al portune period will, in time, complete the 

Walker. Had he listened more earnestly to work in which he bravely fell, and vindicate 

the wise counsel and cautious prudence of his generous design. 

(Colonel Wheeler, he would, in all probability, To the honor of Colonel Whoeler be it re- 
have realized the bright dreams of his ardent corded that he used liis influence to promote a 
fancy. Ilehadmanyof the cpialities of asuc- revolution so fraught with unnumbered bless- 
cessful leader — sinceritj', courage, self-denial ings to civilized man. Xor did he compromise 
and intellectual superiority. He was not a the great republic, that had contided her good 
statesman, and failed in making provisions es- faith to his care, though he cou'd not look with 
sential to the maintainance of arrnies. Taking composure ujion the contest, of an enlightened 
no account of the strength of the foe, or the civilization with a stupid indifterence to the 
i'atality of the climate, he wasted his forces demands of an intelligent and progressive age. 
without the possibility of a supply. That one entire continent, and a large portion 
The United States minister, with far keener of another, should l)e consigned to stolid repose 
apprehension, saw the dangers that threatened without an heroic eft'ort to unfohl tb.eir al- 
and advised the means to insure the success of most boundless possibilities, was to him 
the promising enterprise. To him it was the neither statesmanship nor humanity. He 
introduction of a new civilization by a race knew it was the destiny of his race to eradi- 
whose destiny was to found new nations. His cate l)arliarism, and teach the inhabitants of 
whole heart was with the movement, and his the wilderness the arts of production, corn- 
conduct was only limited by his duty to pre- merce, moral responsibility, social refinement, 
serve the faith and honor of the republic and intelligent freedom. Before its all-con- 
which he represented. To a courage not less quering enterprise nature had put ott' its sav- 
prompt than General Walker's, he added a age habits for new creations of beauty and 




utility. Profoundly versed in its history, he 
was iiKM'ed witli admiration for its all-crea- 
tive energj'. He did not douht that its pi'es- 
ence would endow, with a new life, that entire 
isthmus, which could not fail, in a few years, 
to meet the advance of the UnitLd States into 
Mexico. With prophetic vision he heheld its 
gloomj' forests giving phice to the peaceful 
ahodes of cultivated men. Deprecating the 
erratic impulses of the j'oung leader of tliis 
promising mission, lie nevertheless hailed it as 
the harl)inger of a glorious future for Central 
America and the commercial world. Not even 
the demands of a coldly selfisli diplomacy 
could repress his generous approval, and he 
gave the benign presence of a creative enter- 
prise his counsel, his sympath}^ and his suh- 
stantial support. 

In the year 1857, Colonel Wheeler resigned 
]us mission, and returned to his abode in 
Washington City. So long as he lived he 
claimed his legal residence to be in North 
Carolina,. On his door plate was that name 
coupled with his own, and over the breast of 
his encoflined form was engraved that name 
so dear to him. In all his thoughts,and in all 
his journeyings, his heart yearned towards 
North Carolina, and within her borders he 
would have preferred interment. The amia- 
l)le and charming English poet, Waller, in his 
old age, purchased a small property at his 
birthplace, saying he would like to die, like the 
stag, wliere he was roused. This poetic idea 
has immortality in the lines of Goldsmitii: 

■' As the poor stag, whom hound and horns pursue, 
Pants for the place where at first lie Hew, 
I still luwl hoped my vexations past, 
Here to return and die at home at last." 

By this time the long agony over tlie slav- 
ery question was culminating. Our republic 
was rapidly drifting towards a fierce and de- 
structive war. Colonel Wheeler had ever 
Ijeen identified with the Democratic party, and 
had followed its faith and practices with earn- 

estrjess through all its meanderings. Tlie 
change from Pierce to Buchanan brought no 
change in the purposes or disposition of the 
party. Under the former, the repeal of the 
Missouri compromise, and the organization of 
the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, had 
dissolved the Whig party and introduced the 
Republican party into the field of action. The 
conflict between individuals had passed away 
with the magnificent personages that charac- 
terized that period. Principles laying at the 
foundation of free institutions, and deeply 
imbedded in the conscience, came into the 
field. The Republican party planted itself 
upon the doctrine of freedom for the territor- 
ies. The Democraticparty proclaimed the in- 
violability of slavery iri the States and Terri- 
tories. The former was a new and revolu- 
tionary force, the latter stood firmly by the 
ancient constitutional rights of slavery. The 
former was organized to break up and displace 
it, the latter resisted displacement. Trained 
in the school of Jackson, Colonel Wheeler's 
judgment was against war, and adhered to 
the Union; but this school had disappeared 
and a new Democracy had arisen, and guided 
by his sympathies he followed his party, drift- 
ing rapidly upon dangerous reefs and quick- 
sands. One of his sons, C. Sully Wheeler, was 
in the Federal Navy; the other, Woodbury 
Wheeler, had joined the Confederate Army. 
Each remained faithful to the cause he had 
espoused, to the end. To those laboring un- 
der the weight of half a century that had seen 
the republic in the glory of its united power, 
it seemed now in the agon}' of inevitable death. 
The expiring hours of Democratic rule was 
spent shuddering before the fearful respon- 
sibility of the solemn oath "to support and de- 
fend the Constitution." The incoming admin- 
istration, though sustained hy an unconquer- 
able enthusiasm in its ranks, was sknv to an- 
nounce any policy. Many unionists in the 
south, believing all to lie lost, hastened into the 



ranks of the disunionists. All the companions of 
Colonel "Wheeler's life, all that was dear to him 
from childhood were enveloped in the fortunes 
of the Confederacy. His lonsf and strong po- 
litical bias and the intensity of his friendship 
drew his sympathy and his hopes with them, 
and he came back to North Carolina to be 
with her in the struggle. Too far advanced in 
life to become an actor in the contest, in 1863, 
pursuant to a resolution of the General Assem- 
bly of the State, he went to Europe to collect 
material for a new edition of his history. Anx- 
ious to gather all that related to the subject 
which could render it a more perfect chronicle 
of his beloved people, he sought the treasures 
of the British Archives and buried himself in 
that wonderful collection, far from the desolat- 
ing and sanguinary events of the war. He 
collected much valuable and intei'esting mat- 
ter, which he incorporated in the new edition 
of his history which he left ready for the press. 

Colonel Wheeler was a sincere believer in 
the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independ- 
ence, of May 20th, 1775. His studies in the 
Archives left no doubt upon this interesting 
problem in his mind. The meeting and reso- 
lution of the same body of men of May 31st, 
1775, are undisputed. They did not go to the 
point of declaring a separation from the 
British government, but they went far beyond 
the expressions of any other colony. The 
reader of Wheeler's History will mark with 
what delight he records the resistance of 
these forest-born republicans to the aggres- 
sions of the royal government. The gallant 
struggles and heroic sacrifices of his revolu- 
tionary ancestors are set forth with care and 

He was thoroughly versed in the opinions 
of democratic statesmen, and sincerely devoted 
to the Jefferson school. He maintained the 
sovereignty of the states in all local matters, 
whilst he held to the inviolability of the 
Federal authority in national affairs. Each 

was sacred in the realms assigned them by the 
Constitution. It is difficult to preserve the 
complicated adjustment of the relations of the 
states to the general government. In the 
South, he saw a strong tendency to magnify 
the powers of the states. In the North, the 
Federal authority was rapidly assuming new 
and alarming importance. The effect of the 
war was to give far greater importance to the 
nation, and to silence everywhere the princi- 
ple of state sovereignty. Colonel Wheeler 
regarded the influence of the centi'al power as 
dangerous to individual liberty', and constanti}'. 
tending to imperialisnT. He beheld with re- 
gret the citizen disappearing in the- grandeur 
and power of the nation. Reared among men- 
proud of their honor and influence, he dreaded 
the decline of personal excellence.. Its loss- 
was the grave of liberty, and birth of imperial- 

The integrity of the state and nation de- 
pended upon the sanctity of the ballot, an-d 
this upon the responsibility and intelligence 
of the individual citizen. The presence of 
powerful monied corporations, and a grand 
central government, would destroy in time 
its responsibility. The voter, being entirely 
overshadowed, would soon begin to look as 
lightly upon his personal worth,, as he did 
upon his influence in the republic. He relied 
chiefly on character to preserve the republic 
through the ballot. Neither education nor. 
wealth could betrusted with the liberties of the 
people, in the absence of inflexible purpose, 
and the habit of self government. The only 
safeguard for the encroachments of power 
was in the disposition and capacity of the- 
citizen to resist thom at the thresliold. When, 
the public ceases to be a severe censor of the 
conduct of officials, the end of our delicately 
adjusted republic will not he remote. His 
apprehensions of a gradual change, and a 
complete undermining of the nature of our 
institutions, was the result of close observa^ 


tioii for mure tlian half a cciitiiiy, of the The social qualities of Colonel AYlieeler 
most eventful period of the history of the were of the highest order. His warm heart, 
government, actuated hy an intense solicitude his classic wit, and mirth-creating humor, 
for the safetj- of the republic of the fathers. made him the favorite of all circles in which 
Colonel Wiieeler was a sincere believer in intelligence, refinement, and graceful address 
the salutary influence of labor directed by were desired. Living in tliat age of the re- 
method. Ardent labor, regubited liy reason, is public which gave the noblest development 
the price of excellence. He that would win of individual excellence, he had ample oppor- 
the batter, can not dispense with the former. tunity of mingling in its most delightful as- 
Time was a sacred trust that no one could sociations. Bountifully supplied with instruc- 
neglect without evil. Thoroughly realizing five and interesting anecdote, his conversation 
its demands, with earnest purpose and willing nevei- lost its interest and inspiration. He 
hands he consecrated all to the noblest drew from ancient and modern literature their 
ends of life. Knowing that the brightest richest gems, and with consummate taste he 
genius, and the most brilliant powers, pleased and instructed his ever attentive 
could avail but little if this trust was not ex- auditors. The fountains of Greek, Roman, 
ecuted with sj-stem, he introduced the most English and French history were open to his 
convenient order int(^ all his labors, so that he never flagging memory. It was in the richer 
could call up the gleanings of years in a developments of American life that he en- 
moment, joyed the greatest pleasure. Above all periods 
A s^'stematic and laborious scholar, he en- of human history, he esteemed the characters 
riched his understanding from the treasures of our revolutionary era. It bad furnished 
of man}- tongues. The English furnished him the grandest expression of freed(jni and in- 
the I'ichest stores, and he had drunk deeply at tegrity, as it had of civil and political institu- 
ber purest fountains. Into his tenacious and tions. With pious veneration he had collected 
fruitful memor3^ were joined the wealth of and preserved every heroic act and noble 
the })rose an<l poetry of that A\'ouderful people, utterance, unwilling to allow the corroding 
whose intelligence, i-noro than their arms, has ringers of time to erase from coming genera- 
filled the world. He was familiar with all the tions the humblest name. 

great dramatists. Tlie great poenis of Shakes- Not less fortunate in his political associa- 

peare, he ccnild repeat with a power i-arely tions, he knew personally all the presidents 

equalled \)y the first actors of his time. and cabinet officers, from Jefferson to Arthur. 

His friendships were ardent and sincere, and He had been the confidential friend of Jack- 

his devotit)!! to his friends knew no bounds; son, Fierce and Johnson, and was by them 

influence, purse, life itself, if in the right, called to counsel and advice. He did not 

wore at their service. Attachments so strong look to high otfidal station, for the richest 

and pure, insured a loving and faithful bus- manifestation of intellectual and moral worth, 

band, an indulgent and devoted father, and a He had too often seen the most commanding 

kind and generous neighbor. In all the rola- positions occupied b^' presuming inferiority, 

tions of life he rilled the measure of a noble through the labors and merits of the modest 

manhood; tender and charitable to the afflict- and deserving. By the fruits of their lives, 

ed, cheerful and courteous to the prosperous, he esteemed the actors of the age in which 

he ever sought to mitigate the asperities of life, they lived and worked. This volume of re.ui- ^ 

thoserude blasts that visit toooften every home, iniscences discloses bis estimation of characters " 



who figured in the moral and political life of 
the state and nation, far better than any sketch 
of his life. It also presents with equal force 
his moral, social and political preferences and 

He had been from his first political essay, 
trained in the Democratic party, and his ac- 
tive affinities drew from the ranks of that 
party his warmest associations. His demo- 
cracy^ was founded upon the lofty plane of 
integrity and worth. There, all who could 
come were equals, and entitled to the rights 
and honors of the .state. Xeither accident of 
birth or wealth could push from their seats 
the true, the industrious, and the brave. Hum- 
ble worth, bending beneath the weight of sur- 
rows and privations, had an open highway to 
his respect. He rejoiced to see the virtuous 
youth, bursting the barriers of pride and cast, 
and appealing to the just judgment of society 
for the recognition of its worth. For misfor- 
tune he hail all sympathy; for unostentatious 
merit, reverence; for courage, tbat presses for- 
ward in the achievement of great and useful 
measures, admiration. 

Trained from childhood to industry and 
action, he knew the value of useful labor. X(j 
speculative theorist, he sought substantial re- 
sults through methods approved of by experi- 
ence. With reluctance he marked any departure 
from the way selected by the sages, and lined 
with countless blessings. The continuity of his- 
tory described the inarch of human intelligence 
and could not be broken with any assurance 
of safety. Nor was he blindl3- bound to an 
irrational and monotinous past. He well 
knew that every day and ever}- hour makes 
demands upon the exercise of reason and in- 
vention, that can onlj' be appeased by advance- 
ment in time and space. A witness of all the 
greatest discoveries in the useful arts, he well 
understood their influence upon the refine- 
ment of the people. Society was undergoing 
perpetual change in all its varied aspects. The 

most venerable and sacred institutions, in 
time, give place to new ones, better adapted 
to represent its advancement, and perpetuate 
its usefulness. 

In all the noble actions of the great and 
good of the republic, he had an inheritance of 
imperishable glory. With pious care he has 
garnared all, and has labored to transmit 
them to posterity, as an inspiration to emulate 
the heroic and worthy lives of au illustrious 
ancestry. The conduct of the great and good 
is the most valuable legacy that a nation can 
have. The memories and the glorious deeds 
of the eminent personages whom North Caro- 
lina has contributed to humanit}', have been 
sacredly collected and eloquently' described by 
this faithful lii.storian. They have not been 
left to perish '• unhonored and unsung." The 
memory of the busy, patriotic and eloquent 
man, who has rescued from oblivion, so many 
illustrious names, \\i\\ he recalled with grate- 
ful thanks, from the shores on which break the 
waves of the Atlantic, tu tlie peaks of the 
Unaka mountains that mark the western limits 
of the state. Whenever the sons or daughters 
of the old commonwealth have escheloned 
into the west, his labors will be carried and 
read. They will be to all a reservoir of bril- 
liant names, and a chronicle of illustrious 

This worthy and learned man attained a 
ripe age, in the full enjoj'ment of his intel- 
lectual powers, tailoring cheerfuUj' to the end. 

Though during his closing years he sufl:'ered 
much, his genial and sunny disposition did 
not desert him. He continued to receive his 
friends with that generous welcome, which 
will be fondly remembered after he has past 
the "sunless river's flow." 

He was married first to Mary, only daughter 
of Rev. Mr. 0. B. Brown, of Washington City, 
one of the most accomplished and literary 
ladies of her day, by whom he had one 
daughter, married to George N. Beale, a 


ln'otlier of General E. F. Beale, late United 
States Envoy to Austria, and, second, to Ellen, 
daughter of Thomas Sulh-, one of the most 
distinguished artists of Philadelphia, l)j' whom 
he had two sons, Charles Sully and Woodbury, 
a successful lawyer in Washington City. 

On Thursday, December 7th, 1882, at 12:30 
o'clock, a. m., the kmg sutferings of Colonel 
Wheeler were ended; and at 2 p. m., on Sun- 
day the 10th, he was buried in Oak Hill Ceme- 
tery, Georgetown, D. C. 

Eminent citizens of North Carolina then in 
Washington, met in the National Capitol, and 
adopted the following resolutions: 

"Besolved, That we, North Carolinians, pre- 
sent in Washington, have assembled to pay a 
tribute of respect to the memory of our de- 
parted friend, Mr. John H. Wheeler, whose 
private worth and public services have en- 
deared him to our whole people. 

"Resolred, That by his life-work, though to 
him a labor of love, as the historian of the 
state, and the collection of vast stores of his- 
torical material, he imposed a debt of grati- 
tude upton every North Carolinian, and upon 
the republic of letters, which will be remem- 
bered for generations." 

Eulogiuras, attesting the high place the de- 
ceased had won in the hearts of bis people, 
were pronounced by the Hons. Z. B. Vance, 
Samuel F. Phillips, Jesse J. Yeates, A. M. 
Scales, M. W. Ransom, and T. L. Clingman. 

The following letter of condolence was ad- 
dressed to Major Woodbury Wheeler, son of 
the deceased: 

" Senate Chamber. 
".Major Woodbury Wheeler. 

"Dear Sir: We have this moment heard 
with deep pain, of the death of your father. 
His death attects us with great soriovv; his 
loss will be mourned hy all the people of the 
State, which he loved and served so well. 
Truly a good and great man has left us. 

"We beg leave to exp>ress to j'ou and his 
family our sincerest sympathy. In j-our sad 
bereavement you have the consolation arising 
from the memory of his illustrious life marked 
by conspicuous virtues. 

"Yours sincerely, 

"Z. B. Vance. M. W. Ransom. 

"L. C. Latham. A. M. Scales. 

"Rob't V. Vance. R. F. Armfield. 

"W.R. Cox. C. DowD." 


Page XII, 1st column, nth line, read frontier, not fronting, 
lb. lb., 13th line, read Lords, not Lord. 

lb., 2d column, 6th line, read east, 7iot west. 

lb. lb., 9th line, read feeble, 7iot public. 

Page XV, ist column, 15th line, read writer's, jzo;' writers. 
Page XVI, 1st column, 38th line, place comma after aggregate. 
Page XVII, ist column, 24th line, read antedates, not antidates. 

lb. lb., 33d line, read churchman, «(?/ church man. 

Page XVIII, ist column, last line, omit " &c." 
Page XX, 1st column, 35th line, read the, not he. 

lb. lb., 36th line, read what, not which. 

P.^ge XXI, lb., 9th line, read experts, 7iot exparts. 

lb. lb., i2th line, read Sounds, 7iot sound. 

Page XXII, lb., 36th and 37th lines, omit the interpolated sentence in brackets. 

Page XXIII, lb., 39th line, read of, not ef. 

Page XXV, lb., 21st line, read by, w^?/ viz. 

lb., 2d column, last line, omit comma after local. 
Page XXVI, lb., read Tryon, mc/ Tyron. 

Page XXVII, ist column, 4th line, read for, not to. 

lb., 2d column, 4th and 5th lines, read in favor of the church, not to. 

Page XXVIII, ist column, 2d paragraph should have quotation marks to it. 
Page XXIX, 1st column, 31st line, read imparted, not imported. 

lb. lb., 32d line, omit comma after " tone." 

Page XXXI, 2d column, last line should follow third line of next column. 

lb. lb., 2 ist line, place " Academy " in brackets. 

Page XXXII, lb., 22d line, read extract, not extracts. 

lb. lb., 29th and 37th lines, read disbarring, w/ debarring. 

lb. lb., 31st line, read it was ordered. 

Page XXXIII, 1st column, 36th line, read detinue, «(?/ detinee. 
Page XXXIV, ist column, 2?d line, read instigation, not investigation. 
Page XXXVI, 2d column, i6th line, place a period after " complaint," and next word begins with a 

capital letter. 
The chapters from XXII. , have been erroneously advanced 10 in number. 
Page 115, 2d column, 17th line from bottom, the name " Mooring " should be Moreing. 
Page 192, 2d column, 3d line, read Lizzie, «o/John iM. 

lb. lb., 4th line, read Corvina, not Louisa. 

lb. lb., between lines 8 and 9 insert John L. 

Page 196, 1st column, 32d line, read researches, not results. 
Page 201, ist column, 17th line, read Humphrey, not Hampton. 
Page 202, ist column, ist line, read 1781, not 1871. 
Page 204, ist column, 38th line, read " Colonel Lillington." 
Page 216, 1st column, 17th line, read Amis, not Ams. 

lb. lb., 22d line, read to, wti/ at. 

lb. 2d column, 32d line, " but had no." 
Page 217, ist column, i6th line, omit much of. 

lb., 2d column, 14th line, omit early in and. 
Page 220, ist column, 17th line, read the, not he. 
Page 221, 2d column, 22d line, read Catling, 7iot Gatlin. 
Page 226, ist column, 3d line, read member. 

lb. lb., 4th line, read "States" 

Page 229, 1st column, 14th line from bottom, " McPelah " should be Machpelah. 
Page 230, 2d column, 6th line, read " Carolina." 
Page 232, 2d column, 24th line, read incessant, not incessent. 
Page 238, 1st column, 7th line, read Pierre, «(?/ Pierce. 
Page 240, 1st column, 4th line, insert on before one. 
Page 252, 2d column, 23d line, read Cjesar, not Casar. 
Page 253, ist column, 12th line, read 1776, not 1767. 
Page 255, 1st column, loth line, read Lieut. George, not Colonel Lock. 
Page 228, 1st column, 32d line, same error. 

Page 255-, ist column, nth line, read Joseph, wt;/ George Graham. 
Page 287, 2d column, 30th line, read those that, not these that. 
Page 288, 1st column, 23d line, read correct, not court. 
Page 289, 1st column, 9th line, read have, not here. 

Page 297 — 301, inclusive — the running head " Mecklenburg county" should be Moore and New Han- 
over counties. 
Page 300, 2d column, to the end of 18th line add servient conrt. 
Page 301, ist column, 2d line, read Gen. not Gov. 

In thk Colonial Pkriod. 


An article by John Fisk, which appeared in 
the February (1883) number of Harper s Illaga- 
zhtc, entitled "Maryland and the far South in 
the Colonial period," contains statements in 
regard to North Carolina which have given 
grave offense to every citizen and native of the 
State. The writer assumes to portray the con- 
dition of the people and the character of their 
institutions, civilization and government, during 
the whole period of their colonial existence, 
while he has presented only an exaggerated and 
distorted picture of disorders which prevailed 
among the first handful of settlers on the North- 
eastern border, before there was a defined 
boundary, and when that portion of the terri- 
tory, or a considerable part of it was claimed 
by Virginia. 

The writer may, also, have had in view the 
resistance made by the people called Regula- 
tors, in the middle and upper counties, at a later 
period, to the robbery and extortion of the 
county officers. But the more charitable sup- 
position is, that he has never read a history of 
the Province. 

The original grant made by Charles II. to the 
Lords Proprietors, bears date March 20, 1663. 

This instrument conveyed to the noblemen and 
gentlemen, named all the territory lying between 
the parallels of thirty-one and thirty-six degrees 
of North latitude, and extending from the At- 
lantic Ocean westward to the South Sea. Wm. 
Byrd, Esq., the intelligent Virginia gentleman, 
who was one of the commissioners employed to 
run theboundary line between the two provinces, 
states, in his " Westover papers, " that " Sir 
William Berkeley, who was one of the grantees, 
and at that time Governor of Virginia, finding 
a territory of thirty-one miles in breadth be- 
tween the inhabited part of Virginia and the 
above mentioned boundary of Carolina, (thirty- 
six degrees) advised Lord Clarendon of it, and 
his Lordship had influence enough with the 
King to obtain a second patent to include this 
territory, dated June 30, 1665." 

It appears from this statement of Mr. Byrd, 
that North Carolina owes this addition of half 
a degree to the width of her territory, to the 
treachery of the Governor of Virginia, to his 
trust. It was the duty of the Governor to se- 
cure, if practicable, the unclaimed territory for 
Virginia, but it was in the interest of Sir Wil- 
liam Berkeley to have it added to the Carolina 



Colony. However, the people of North Caro- 
lina have no reason to complain of Sir William 
on this account. 

In reference to this acquisition Dr. Hawks, 
the historian of North Carolina, remarks : ' 'But 
though this second charter defined the line that 
was to divide Virginia and Carolina, and stated 
on what part of the globe it was to be drawn, 
viz : 36° 30' North latitude ; yet astronomical 
observations had not fixed its precise locality, 
and consequently the people on the fronting of 
both provinces entered land and took out patents 
by guess, either from the King, or the Lord- Pro- 
prietors. The grants of the latter, however, 
were more desirable, because, both as to terms of 
entry, and yearly taxes, they were less burden- 
some than the price and levies imposed by 
the laws of Virginia, This statement will ex- 
plain the fact that some of the earliest grants of 
land, now confessedly in Carolina, but lying 
near the border are signed by Sir William 

This new boundary line of 36° 30' remained 
undefined for two-thirds of a century — that is to 
say, until the year 1728; and in all that period 
there was a margin of territory several miles in 
width, in which no one knew, definitely, whether 
the inhabitants owed allegiance to Carolina or 
Virginia. The disputed territory lay within and 
on the southern border of the Dismal Swamp. 
Practically, for nearly fifty years, the territory 
west of the Swamp was not in dispute, as the 
settlements on the Carolina side lay to the east 
of the Chowan River. To the west of that 
great stream the Indians still held sway. It was 
not until after the Massacre' in 171 1, when one 
hundred and thirty persons were murdered in 
their homes in one day, that these savages were 
made to give place to the advancing tide of civ- 
ilization. The largest of the tribes, and the 
most war-like, the Tuscaroras, after that event, 
were required to vacate their territory, when 
they emigrated North and rejoined the Iroquois 
or Five Nations, from whom they were de- 

scended. The smaller and less criminal tribes 
were permitted to remain on reservations. 

During the first sixty years of the colonial 
history, the population was chiefly confined to 
the territory north of Albemarle Sound, 
west of the Chowan River. The settle- 
ments between the two sounds, Albemarle and 
Pamlico, and that about New Berne, were still 
public, but were represented in the Albemarle 
Assembly. This body was composed of twenty- 
seven members, of whom the four counties 
north of the sound sent five, each. The three 
counties south of Albemarle had two members 
each, and New Berne town one. There was 
little intercourse with the Cape Fear Colony, 
which had a separate Assembly of its own, as 
well as a Governor. It was a short-lived enter- 
prise. The colonists came from Barbadoes, in 
1665, under the leadership of a gentleman 
named Yeaman. He was succeeded by a Mr. 
West, as Governor, who was also made Gover- 
nor of the Charleston settlement, a few years 
later, and persuaded the Cape Fear people to 
follow him. During the year 1690, the last of 
these Cape Fear settlers abandoned their homes 
and went to Charleston. The writer, whose 
statements are complained of, assumes that 
these Barbadian colonists became a permanent 
part of the population of North Carolina. 

In 1729 seven of the eight Lords Proprietors 
surrendered their rights in and authority over 
the colony, to the crown, for a valuable consid- 
eration, of course ; Earl Granville retained his 
claim of right to the soil, and a large strip of 
country (about half the State) on the northern 
border was set off to him as his private property, 
while he surrendered his right to share in the 
Government of the people. 

Francis Xavier Martin, one of the most judi- 
cious historians of the Province, estimated the 
white population at the date of this transfer of 
authority from the Lords Proprietors to the 
Crown (1729) at about 13,000. He gives no 
opinion as to the number of the blacks; but 



there is reason to believe that they were fewer 
in proportion to the whites than were to be 
found in either Virginia or South Carohna. 

A reference to the map will show the reader 
that the original boundary of 36° passes up the 
Albemarle Sound; and the acquisition made by 
the new patent of 1665 embraces, therefore, the 
whole territory north of the Sound. In other 
words, it embraced three-fourths of the popula- 
tion of North Carolina in 1729. This date of 
the purchase by the Crown from the Proprietors 
is, also, coeval with the separation of North 
from South Carolina, and the incorporation of 
the whole territory of the former under one Gov- 
ernor and Assembly. 

Besides the small scattered settlements south 
of Albemarle Sound, the relative importance of 
which is indicated by their proportion of repre- 
sentation in the Assembly, as above stated, the 
population had begun to spread out beyond, 
that is to say, west of the Chowan River ; and 
in the year 1722, the County or Precinct of Ber- 
tie was organized ; but up to that date, if not 
later, the people on that side of the river voted 
as of Chowan Precinct. 

The immigration of Swiss and Palatines under 
Baron De Graffenreidt and Mr. Mitchell came to 
North Carolina in the years 1709-10. No defi- 
nite statements as to their numbers, have come 
down to us, but it is believed that the two classes 
of immigrants combined, did not exceed two 
thousand. Some loose guesses make them 
larger. They settled in the vicinity of New 
Berne, which town received its name from the 
Swiss. Some of these foreigners were murdered 
by the Indians the next year, after their arrival, 
when the great Massacre of the whites occurred. 
De Graffenreidt narrowly escaped being burned 
at the stake by the Indians, in company with 
Lawson, the Surveyor General, who had invaded 
their territory with his compass and chain. It 
is probable that the massacre was the main hin- 
drance to further immigration from Switzerland 
and the Palatinate ; but De Graffenreidt failed 

to give them titles to the lands he sold them, 
which must have greatly added to their dis- 

The foregoing preliminary statement as to the 
nature and extent of the ground occupied by 
the early settlers of the Province has been 
thought necessary to a thorough understanding 
of the character of the aspersions of the writer 
referred to, and of the answers that will be 
made to them. But in the first place it will be 
proper to present them in the language of their 
author. They form a compact mass of misrep- 
resentation. I understand the writer to be a 
Massachusetts man. "Prof John Fisk" of 
Harvard. He says : 

"At the time of the Revolution the popula- 
tion of North Carolina numbered about 200,000, 
of which somewhat more than one-fourth were 
negro slaves. The white population was mainly 
English, but the foreign element was larger than 
in the case of any other of the colonies which 
we have thus far considered. There were Hu- 
guenots from France, German Protestant from 
the Palatinate, Moravians, Swiss, and Scotch, 
and what we have to note especially is that this 
foreign population was, in the main, far more 
respectable and orderly than the English major- 
ity. The English settlers came mostly from 
Virginia, though in the south-eastern corner of 
the colony there was a considerrble settlement 
of Englishmen from Barbadoes. 

"Now, the English settlers who thus came 
southward from Virginia were very different in 
character from the sober Puritans, who went 
northward into Maryland. North Carolina was 
to Virginia something like Rhode Island was to 
Massachusetts — a receptacle for all the factious 
and turbulent elements of Society ; but in this 
case the general character of the emigration was 
iiwneasiireably lower. The shiftless people who 
could not make a place for themselves in Vir- 
ginia society, including many of the "poor 
whites, " flocked in large numbers into North 
Carolina, They were, in the main, very lawless 


in temper, holding it to be the chief end of man 
to resist all constituted authority, and above all 
things to pay no taxes. The history of North 
Carolina was accordingly much more riotous 
and disorderly than the history of any of the 
other colonies. "There were neither laws nor 
lawyers," says Bancroft, with slight exaggera- 
tion. The courts, such as they were, sat often 
in taverns, where the Judge might sharpen his 
wits with bad whiskey, ivhilc their decisions iverc 
not recorded, but were simply shouted by the 
crier from the inn door, or at the nearest market 

' 'There were a few amateur surgeons and apoth- 
ecaries to be found in the villages, but no regu- 
lar physicians. Nor does the soul appear to be 
better cared for than the body, for it was not 
until 1703 that the first clergyman was settled 
in the colony. The Church of England was es- 
tablished by Government, without the approval 
of the people, who were opposed on principle 
to church rates, as to all kinds of taxes whatso- 
ever. Owing to this dislike of taxation, most 
of the people were Dissenters, but no Dissent- 
ing Churches flourished in the colony. There 
was complete toleration even for Quakers, be- 
cause nobody cared a groat for theology, or for 
religion. The few ministers who contrived to 
support life in North Carolina, were listened to 
in a mood like that in which Mrs. Pardigle's 
discourses were received by the brickmakers, 
while the audience freely smoked their pipes 
within the walls of the sanctuary during divine 

"Agriculture was conducted more wastefuUy 
and with less intelligence than in any of the 
other colonies. In the northern counties to- 
bacco was almost exclusively cultivated, but it 
was of very inferior quality, compared with the 
tobacco of Virginia. 

" All business or traffic about the coast was 
carried on under perilous conditions: for pirates 
were always hovering about, secure in the sym- 
pathy of the people, like the brigands of southern 

Italy in recent times. It was partly due to this, 
no doubt, as well as partly to the want of good 
harborage, that a very large part of the com- 
merce of North Carolina was diverted north- 
ward to Norfolk, or southward to Charleston. 

' 'The treatment of the slaves is said to have been 
usually mild, as in Virginia, but their lives were 
practically, at the mercy of their masters. The 
white servants fared better, and the general state 
of society was so low that when their time of ser- 
vice was ended, they had here a good chance of 
rising to a position of equality with their 

"The country swarmed with ruffians of all 
sorts, who fled thither from South Carolina and 
Virginia. Life and property were very insecure, 
and lynch law was not infrequently administered. 
The small planters led, for the most part, a lazy 
life, drinking hard, and amusing themselves 
with scrimmages, in which noses were broken 
with blows of the fist, and eyes gouged out by 
a dexterous use of the long thumb nails. The 
only other social amusement seems to have been 
gambling. But, except at elections and other 
meetings for political purposes, people saw 
very little of each other. 

"There were no roads worthy of the name, 
and every family was almost entirely isolated 
from its neighbors. Until fist before the war for 
Independence, there zvas not a single school, good or 
bad, in the whole colony. It need not be added that 
the people were densely ignorant. 

"The colony was a century old before it could 
boast of a printing press; and if no newspapers 
were published, it was doubtless for the suffi- 
cient reason that there were very few who would 
have been able to read them. A mail from 
Virginia came some eight or ten t'mes in a year, 
but it only reached a few towns on the coast, 
and down to the time of the Revolution the in- 
terior of the country had no mails at all. Under 
such circumstances it is not strange that North 
Carolina was in a great measure cut off from the 
currents of thought and feeling by which the 



other colonies were swayed in the middle of the 
eighteenth century. 

"In the Warfor Independence, North Carolina 
produced no great leaders. She was not repre- 
sented at the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, and 
she was the last of the States, except Rhode Is- 
land, to adopt the Federal Constitution." 

The reader cannot have failed to note in these 
statements, supposing the writer to be well in- 
formed, a spirit in sympathy with the arbitrary 
rule of the Lords Proprietors and the Crown of 
England, and with their persistent efforts to 
compel an unwilling people to pay taxes for the 
support of the Church of which they were not 
members. The whole tenor of the writers criti- 
cism would justify this inference ; and that his 
sympathies are also with the corrupt county 
officials whose illegal exactions provoked and 
justified the efforts of the Regulators to resist 
them. But it is charitable to assume that he 
has only a vague idea of these events, derived 
from second-hand sources. For he could not 
read the history of the Province, without being 
convinced that the causes and grounds of resist- 
ance to the constituted authorities were, in the 
first instance, the efforts of the Lords Proprietors 
to impose the absurd "Fundamental Constitu- 
tions" of Locke, upon the people, followed by 
the persistent, and never quite successful at- 
tempt to establish the Church, with a system of 
Church rates. Mr. Bancroft has brought out 
these facts with more distinctness than the his- 
torians of the State ; and even Dr. Hawks has 
only paraphrased the lucid statement of the great 

The second great source of disturbance, the 
robbery of the people in the name of law, by 
the county officers, at a later period, is equally 
well attested, and no one acquainted with the 
history of those times, will venture to vindicate 
or palliate their conduct. These events will re- 
ceive further notice in their order, as well as 
other arbitrary and unjust measures of the 
British rulers of the Province. 

Another thing observable in this pretentious 
criticism is a proneness to jump to general con- 
clusions from single instances. The writer has 
seen th-^ statement that at an out-of-doors relig- 
ious meeting, in the Albemarle region, in one 
of the first years of the last century, some rough 
fellow smoked his pipe while the services were 
going on; and this fact is sufficient to warrant 
the statement that such was the universal cus- 
tom throughout the colonial period, in all parts 
of the Province. He has read that a noted pi- 
rate infested the Sounds before there was so 
much as a village upon their borders, and that 
the pirate obtained supplies of provisions from 
the first squatters on the coast whom he would 
have exterminated if they had refused compli- 
ance with his demands ; and, without mention- 
ing that the pirate was at length captured and 
put to death, the swift conclusion is drawn, that 
piracy was the order of the day, all along the 
coast, with the connivance of the people, for 
the century and more of colonial vassalage; and 
that the effect was to render legitimate com- 
merce a hazardous and dangerous occupation, 
lo this cause the writer would have the world 
believe is due the alleged fact that the people of 
the colony carried their produce to Norfolk 
through the Dismal Swamp ; although there 
was neither road nor canal. Or else to Charles- 
ton through a wilderness two to three hundred 
miles in width, without roads or navigable wa- 
ters ; whereas, at the period when the pirates 
infested the coast, the commerce of the colony 
was chiefly in the hands of New Englanders, 
who came with their vessels through the 

A traveler has at some time witnessed a fight, 
somewhere in the Province, accompanied by the 
brutal practice of "gouging," in which the 
lower class of whites sometimes engage, and 
this is sufficient to justify the critic in the sweep- 
ing statement that " scrimmages " of this sort 
constituted the favorite amusement of the small 
planters — "their only other entertainments be- 



ing drinking and gambling." It would be as 
fair to charge the whole body of respectable 
people in a Northern city, at the present day, 
with participation in all the vice and crime which 
are daily and nightly enacted in the dens of in- 
famy that are to be found in every street. 

These are only specimens of the illogical in- 
ferences of this writer, with whom the rule 
seems to be, that every isolated fact warrants a 

In view of reiterated charges against the peo- 
ple of lawlessness, idleness, "shiftlessness, " 
and general inability to make their way in the 
world, it is worth while to notice the first state- 
ment quoted from the writer, to the effect that at 
the period of the Revolution, North Carolina 
contained about 200,000 inhabitants ; and if this 
statement were true, it would afford evidence of 
an extraordinarily rapid increase of population 
during the next fourteen years, and especially 
so, as seven of those years were spent in civil 
and foreign wars, accompanied by the expatria- 
tion of thousands of the conquered, and the 
escape of not a few of the servile class. The 
census of 1790, which was taken just fourteen 
years after the Declaration of Independence, or 
fifteen years after the commencement of hostili- 
ties, showed the population of the State to be 
393,000, or nearly lOO per cent, more than the 
supposed number of 200,000. In consideration 
of the destructive war through which the people 
had passed during those eventful years, we are 
bound to conclude that the population at the 
beginning of the war was nearer three hundred 
than two hundred thousand. In 1729, it will 
be remembered, the total white population was 
estimated to be only 13,000; and if we add 7,000 
for the black, the aggregate forty-six years be- 
fore the beginning of the Revolutionary War, 
would be but 20,000. Here, then, is evidence 
of an extraordinary increase of these "idle," 
"shiftless," "outlaws" and " renegades " from 

We are told that "the foreign population was 

in the main far more respectable and orderly 
than the English majority." By the foreign 
population, the writer means those of non- 
English origin. There can be no question about 
the moral worth and respectability of the Mora- 
vians and German Lutherans, of the Swiss and 
Palatine. They all made orderly, good citizens, 
but they were not more conspicuous for these 
virtues than were the Quakers, who,' in early 
times, exercised a controlling influence in the 
Albemarle settlement. Nor were the "for- 
eigners" more distinguished for sobriety and 
love of learning than the Presbyterians who 
came to the Colony from Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia, or directly from Scotland and England. 
Neither is it true that any of these classes were 
more respectable than the native Virginians and 
other Americans, mostly of English ancestry, 
who came in from time to time, during the 
whole colonial period, and constituted a large 
majority of the population of the Province ; and 
it is a baseless calumny to say otherwise. They 
constituted a majority, and a controlling major- 
ity of the people. They were part and parcel 
of the best element in Virginia society — em- 
bracing not many of the oldest, or more aristo- 
cratic families, but the solid, respectable, and 
well-to-do classes of planters and farmers — the 
classes that produced such men as Jefferson, 
Patrick Henry, Henry Clay, and others who 
became eminent for talents and virtue ; and they 
imparted these characteristics to their children. 
Many of the poorer classes came with these 
planters and farmers. Some were, no doubt, 
vicious characters, who added nothing to the 
strength and respectability of the Province. 
But what country under the sun is free from 
such a class ? 

"North Carohna" we are again told, "was 
to Virginia something like Rhode Island was to 
Massachusetts — a receptacle for all the factious 
and turbulent elements of society. " There was, 
it must be owned, a resemblance in the two sit- 
uations. Massachusetts expelled Roger Wil- 


Hams and his Baptist followers, with Quakers 
and Presbyterians, as heretics ; and most good 
people of the present day are apt to believe that 
when the exiles shook the dust from their feet, 
they left not their equals in moral worth behind 
them. And it was in like manner that Virginia 
intolerance drove many of her best inhabitants 
into the wilderness of Carolina, as will now be 

Durant's Neck in Perquimans county, was 
the first permanent settlement made in the Prov- 
ince, and it was made by Quakers who fled from 
Virginia and Massachusetts persecution. "The 
oldest land title that we know of in North Caro- 
lina, " says Dr. Hawks, "and that which we 
think was actually the first, is still on record. 
It is the grant made by Cistacanoe, king of the 
Yeopim Indians, in 1662, to Durant, for a 
neck of land at the mouth of Little and Per- 
quimans rivers, which still bears the name of the 
grantee. In 1633, Berkeley confirmed this 
grant by a patent under his own signature." 

This patent by the Indian Chief to the Qua- 
ker, antidates the first patent given by the king 
to the Lords Proprietors. It became the nu- 
cleus of a large Quaker settlement, which re- 
mains to the present day. It is said that a com- 
pany was formed some years previous to this 
purchase by Durant, for the purpose of taking 
up lands and making settlements in the un- 
claimed territory ; and it is probable that the 
plan may, to some extent, have been carried 
into effect — or this purchase by the Quakers 
may have been a part of it. The cautious terms 
in which the Quakers gave in their adhesion to 
the "Fundamental Constitutions, " show that 
they were neither illiterate nor reckless vaga- 
bonds. Their signature and assent are qualified 
as follows : 

" Francis Tomes, Christopher Nicholson, and 
William Wyatt did before me, this 31st July," 
&c. , &c. , ' ' and so far as any authority by the 
Lords constituted, is consonant to God's glory, 
and to the advancement of his blessed truth. 

with heart and hands we subscribe, to the best 
of our capacities and understandings." 

In regard to these earliest settlers of North 
Carolina, Mr. Bancroft states that the adjoining 
county in Virginia, Nansemond, had long 
abounded in non-conformists ; and it is certain, 
he says, that the first settlements in Albemarle 
were the result of the spontaneous overflowing 
from this source. A few vagrant families, he 
thinks, may have been planted in Carolina be- 
fore the Restoration. Such settlements would 
have been made voluntarily, as under Cromwell 
the Church would not have been permitted to 
persecute Dissenters. But on the restoration 
of Charles, m.en who were impatient of inter- 
ference with their religion, "who dreaded the 
enforcement of religious conformity, and who 
distrusted the spirit of the new Government in 
Virginia, plunged more deeply into the forests. 
It is known that in 1662, the Chief of the Yeo- 
pim Indians granted to George Durant the neck 
of land which still bears his'name]; and, in the 
following year, George Cathmaid could claim 
from Sir Wm. Berkeley^a large grant of land 
upon the Sound, as a reward for having estab- 
lished sixty-seven persons in Carolina. This 
may have been the oldest considerable settle- 
ment; there is reason to believe that volunteer 
emigrants preceded them." 

It has already been stated that Sir William 
Berkeley was Governor of Virginia and one of 
the Lords Proprietors of Carolina at this time. 
He was also a Church man, intolerant of dissent 
— in Virginia ; but his pecuniary interests im- 
pelled him to be very liberal and tolerant of 
Quakers, Presbyterian, and other sectarians who 
would agree to remove to their territory. His 
proprietary colleagues cordially concurred with 
him in this left-handed spirit of toleration, by 
which they hoped to be enriched ; and in con- 
formity with it, the Carolina colonists were 
allowed to indulge in whatever eccentricities of 
faith and worship their tastes or their con- 
sciences might suggest. 



Indeed, it was very plain to the common 
sense of the Proprietaries, that zeal for the 
Church north of 36° 30', if enforced by rigorous 
persecution, was as conducive to the peopling 
their Carolina territory, as the liberty of con- 
science which was granted south of that line. 
These seemingly hostile principles, or moral 
forces were thus made to work harmoniously for 
the advantage of their Lordships, while narrow- 
minded bigots, by enforcing conformity on both 
sides of the line, would have spoiled every- 

Howison, the historian of Virginia, describes 
Sir William, who was appointed Governor of 
Virginiain 1642, by Charles I, as an accomplish- 
ed gentleman whose winning manners captivated 
all hearts, but, "His loyalty was so excessive 
that it blinded his eyes to the faults of a crowned 
head, and steeled his heart against the prayers 
of oppressed subjects. * * He loved the 
monarchical constitution of England with sim- 
ple fervor ; he venerated her customs, her 
Church, her Bishops, her Liturgy ; everything 
peculiar to her as a kingdom ; and believing 
them to be worthy of all acceptation, he en- 
forced conformity with uncompromising stern- 
ness. * * Had Sir William Berkeley descend- 
ed to his grave at the time when Charles H gained 
the English throne, we might with safety have 
trusted to those historians who have drawn him 
as adorned with all that could grace and elevate 
his species. But he lived long enough to prove 
that loyalty when misguided, will make a tyrant; 
that religious zeal, when devoted to an estab- 
lished Church, will beget the most revolting 
bigotry : and that an ardent disposition, when 
driven on by desire for revenge, will give birth 
to the worst forms of cruelty and malice." 

Yet this excessive zeal for religion and "re- 
volting bigotry, " had a practical side to them 
which the historian overlooked. For they tend- 
ed rapidly to people Sir William's Carolina plan- 
tation with sober and industrious Quakers and 
Presbyterians &c. , who bought land or paid rent 

at prices fixed by the Proprietaries. The Vir- 
ginia Assembly, under such a champion of or- 
thodoxy, passed laws of the most stringent 
character for the enforcement of uniformity. 
Tithes were imposed and exacted inexorably: 
the persons of the Clergy were invested with 
a sanctity savoring strongly of superstition : 
papists were excluded from the privilege of hold- 
ing office, and their priests were banished the 
Province ; the oath of supremacy to the king as 
head of the Church, was imposed, dissenting 
ministers were forbidden to preach ; and the 
Governor and Council were empowered to com- 
pel "non-conformists to depart the colony with 
all convenience." It is not surprising that the 
Carolina Colony, where toleration was establish- 
ed by the Proprietaries, flourished, when the 
Governor and Assembly of Virginia were so ac- 
tive in stimulating emigration. But it is obvious 
that these intolerant laws of Virginia, on the 
subject of religion, were not calculated nor in- 
tended to drive out the lawless and vicious 
classes. On the contrary, wherever Religion is 
established by law, whether the creed be Protes- 
tant or Catholic, the vicious and criminal classes 
are rarely arraigned for denying the authority 
of the Church, however much they may disre- 
gard its injunctions, and stand in need of its 
discipline. It is the sober, earnest men who 
suffer the pains and penalties of heresy, whether 
those penalties be the rack, the fagot or banish- 

But the persecuted Dissenters were not the 
only classes that preferred the free air of North 
Carolina to the intolerance of Berkeley. Thous- 
ands of Churchmen, real and nominal, joined 
them ; and without being eminently religious, 
they soon became sufficiently numerous to form 
a strong party in favor of a Church establish- 

Mr. Bancroft thinks that the first Governor 
of the Albemarle Colony, Drummond, appoint- 
ed by 'S>e:r'ke\eY,aftd haiigedby himwithout aifial, 
for alleged participation in Bacon's Rebellion, 


was a Presbyterian. If this opinion be correct, 
it serves to illustrate more fully how tolerant of 
heresy the bigoted Govenor of Virginia could 
be, when it tended to advance his pecuniary in- 

Two or three of the Lords Proprietors were 
cabinet ministers of Charles II, and they could 
not only procure a grant of territor}' half as 
large as Europe, but they could stipulate the 
terms of the grant, and the sort of government 
its future inhabitants were to live under. For 
the reasons already explained, the Second Chart- 
er, dictated by themselves, authorized the es- 
tablishment of the utmost toleration, without 
so much as naming the Church, and this liberty 
was confirmed to the people. They were grant- 
ed "an Assembly, " says Mr. Bancroft, "and 
an easy tenure of lands, and he (Berkeley) left 
the infant people to take care of themselves ; to 
enjoy liberty of conscience and conduct, in the 
entire freedom of innocent retirement ; to for- 
get the world till rent day drew near, and quit- 
rents might be demanded. Such was the origin 
of fixed settlements in North Carolina. The 
child of ecclesiastical oppression was swathed in 

It is appropriate in this place to notice the ci- 
tation of Mr. Bancroft by the critic, as an au- 
thority for one of his aspersions, He says : 
"There were neither laws nor lawyers, says 
Bancroft, with but slight exaggeration," and he 
represents the historian as applying this remark 
to North Carolina throughout its whole Colonial 
existence. The truth is, that Mr. Bancroft has 
nowhere made such a remark, for the two-fold 
reason that he is too well informed, and has too 
much regard for truth to make it. On the con- 
trary, he has done more to vindicate the charac- 
ter of North Carolina than any of its special his- 
torians. And since he is a deservedly high au- 
thority throughout the nation and the world, 
it is worth while to show what he has said on the 
subject. The statement from which the above 
garbled quotations are made are but the conclu- 

sion of an elaborate account of the settlement 
of the Colony which every citizen and native 
of the State reads with pride and pleasure. 
After mentioning the arrival of emigrants from 
New England and from Bermuda, he says that 
the Colony lived contentedly with Stevens as 
Chief Magistrate, " under a very wise and sim- 
ple form of government. A few words express 
its outlines: a Co'jncil of twelve, six named 
by the Proprietaries and six chosen by the As- 
sembly ; an Assembly, composed of the Gover- 
nor, the Council and delegates from the free- 
holders of the incipient settlements, formed a 
government worthy of popular confidence. No 
interference from abroad was anticipated ; for 
freedom of religion and security against taxation, 
except by the Colonial Legislature, were solemn- 
ly conceded. The Colonists were satisfied ; the 
more so, as their lands were confirmed to them 
by a solemn grant on the terms which they them- 
selves had proposed." 

Mr.. Bancroft proceeds to state that the first " 
Legislature, in 1669, enacted laws adapted to 
the wants of the people, "and which therefore 
endured," he says, " long after the designs of 
Locke were abandoned." Again he states that 
" the attempt to enforce the Fundamental Con- 
stitution of Locke, a year or two later, was im- 
possible and did but favor anarchy by invalidat- 
ing the existing system, which it could not re- 
place. The Proprietaries, contrary to stipula- 
tions with the Colonists, superseded the existing 
government ; and the Colonists resolutely re- 
jected the substitute." 

The historian then gives a brief account of 
the visits of the celebrated Quaker preachers^ 
William Edmundson and George Fox, to the 
settlements at Durant'sNeck ; of the favor with 
which they were received by the people, and by 
the Governor, and adds : "If the introduction 
of the Constitution of Locke had before been 
difficult, it was now become impossible, " 

The death of Stevens, says Mr. Bancroft, left 
the Colony without a Governor ; and by per- 



mission of the Proprietaries, the Assembly- 
elected Cartwright, their Speaker, to act as Gov- 
ernor. "But the difficulty of introducing the 
model (Locke's Constitution) did not diminish ; 
and having failed to preserve order, Cartwright 
resolved to lay the state of the country before 
the Proprietaries, and embarked for England." 
At the same timethe AssemblysentEastchurch, 
their new Speaker, to explain their grievances. 
Mr. Bancroft resumes: 

" The suppression of a fierce insurrection of 
the people of Virginia had been followed by the 
vindictive fury of ruthless punishments and run- 
aways, rogues and rebels, that is to say, fiic^ith'es 
from arbitral]' tribunals, non-conforuiists, and 
fiiends of popular liberty, fled daily to Carolina 
as their common subterfuge and lurking place. 
Did letters from the government of Virginia de- 
mand the surrender of leaders in the rebellion, 
Carolina refused to betray the fugitives who 
sought shelter in her forests." 

Such is the account given by Mr. Bancroft of 
the refugees from Virginia oppression ; and he 
rejects the idea of our historian Martin, that 
these fugitives were runaway negroes. Equally 
does he reject the Tory estimate placed upon 
them by the Virginia Governor, Smallwood, 
and other writers of that school, that they were 
lawless vagabonds and "runagates " — a phrase 
which our own Hawks applies to these non-con- 
formist refugees from priestly tyranny. These 
and similar passages in Bancroft occur in his 
first and second volumes, which were published 
long before Hawks' history of the State. The 
latter author, in some places rallies to he de- 
fence of the State and the South, against which 
he deems to be northern injustice ; but in deal- 
ing with this subject of our early history, he 
would have done well to follow the lead of the 
great northern historian, instead of that of the 
English and Virginia Tories. But no careful 
reader of Dr. Hawks can fail to see that his pat- 
riotic feelings, as a North Carolinian were in 
this regard overborne by his reverence for the 

Church of England, and its then feeble offshoots 
in the Colonies. This feeling blinded him to 
the virtues of Quakers and other dissenters, who 
resisted the attempts to form an establishment, 
and compel the payment of tithes or Church 
rates. It is true that he has presented a mass 
of facts which should convince every wise and 
dispassionate son of the Church, that the at- 
tempt to establish it in the Colony, and by such 
agencies, in spite of the determined opposition 
of a majority of the people, did it lasting injury, 
as well as equal injury to the cause of religion. 
He has shown, as he could not fail to do, with- 
out grossly perverting history, that the Church 
suffered, as well from the unjust attitude which 
its friends assumed, of attempting to force it up- 
on the people, as from the character of the 
clergymen who were sent over from England. 
Of the seven who came on this mission during 
the Proprietary government, three turned out to 
be disreputable in character — drunken, dissolute 
and knavish. The others were intelligent and 
good men, whose teaching and example, sup- 
ported by the voluntary offerings of the Church 
at home, would have been eminently salutary. 
But as the representatives of an arbitrary plan 
of enforcing uniformity of worship, and with 
their good example offset by the bad conduct 
of their associates, their labor was almost in 
vain. It was unfortunate for the Church, also, 
that the jealousy of the British Government 
would not allow America to have a Bishop dur- 
ing the whole Colonial period, but turned a deaf 
ear to the appeals in this behalf, which were 
sent up by the Colonists. The consequence 
was, that there were few native Church clergy- 
men in America, since it was necessary to send 
them to England, at great expense, to be or- 
dained and properly educated. The clerical 
"carpet-baggers" sent to the Colonies, were, 
with honorable exceptions, of course, exact 
prototypes of the lay species which have visited 
the South in more recent years. 

Mr. Bancroft has answered so many of the 


misrepresentations of North Carolina, that the 
reader will excuse a few more brief references 
and citations. He denounces the meanness of 
the British Government in applying their navi- 
gation act, passed in 1672, to the Colonies, ac- 
companied by a tax on their products. Its ap- 
plication to North Carolina was cruel. The 
population was barely four thousand. Its ex- 
parts consisted of a few fat cattle, a little corn 
and eight hundred hogsheads of tobacco. This 
trade was in the hands of New Englanders, 
whose small vessels came into the sound laden 
with such foreign articles as supplied the simple 
wants of the people, and exchanged them for 
the raw products. But the act referred to re- 
quired that these products should first be sent 
to England, where a duty was imposed on them, 
before their re-exportation to the West Indies, 
or elsewhere. The tobacco was taxed a penny 
on the pound, which was equivalent to three 
cents at the present day. From this source 
these poor people were made to pay twelve 
thousand dollars per annum, and to receive only 
British goods, or foreign articles through Brit- 
ish ports, in return . A revolt was the conse- 
quence of these oppressive measures, incited, 
Mr. Bancroft says, by the Virginia refugees, 
who came over after Bacon's rebellion, and by 
New Englanders who were trading in the Albe- 
marle country. The Deputy Governor and 
Council were arrested and imprisoned ; and Cul- 
pepper, an Englishman who had come over some 
years before, was made Governor. This rebel- 
lion, therefore, was on grounds identical with 
those which moved the American colonies to 
resistance a century later, and which resulted in 
their independence. The people of New Eng- 
land, also, resisted the enforcement of this Nav- 
igation Act. The motive assigned for this re- 
bellion was, "that thereby the country may 
have a free Parliament, and may send home their 
grievances." In connection with these facts 
Mr. Bancroft remarks : 

" Are there any who doubt man's capacity 

for self-government, let them study the history 
of North Carolina; its inhabitants were restless 
and turbulent in their imperfect submission to a 
government imposed on them from abroad ; the 
administration of the colony was firm, humane 
and tranquil, when they were left to take care 
of themselves. Any government but one of 
their own institution was oppressive. * * 
The uneducated population of that day formed 
conclusions as just as those which a century later 
pervaded the country." 

The people rebelled again, a few years later 
against the misrule of Seth Sothel, one of the 
Proprietors who was sent over as Governor. 
This man, says Mr. Bancroft, found the country 
tranquil, on his arrival, under laws enacted by 
the people, and under a Governor of their 
own choice. "The counties were quiet and 
well regulated, because not subjected to foreign 
sway. The planters in peaceful independence, 
enjoyed the good will of the wilderness. Sothel 
arrived, and the scene was changed. * * 
Many colonial Governors displayed rapacity and 
extortion toward the people ; Sothel cheated his 
Proprietary associates, as well as plundered the 
colonists." He was deposed by the people, 
who appealed again to the Proprietaries ; and 
the planters, says Bancroft, immediately became 
tranquil, when they escaped foreign misrule. 

And here follows a remark of the historian 
made with reference to the four or five thousand 
people who constituted the whole population in 
1668, but which the maligner of the Province 
misquotes, and makes applicable to them 
throughout the one hundred and thirteen years 
of colonial dependence. Under the marginal 
date, 1688, which the garbler could not fail to 
see, and just at the close of the account of the 
rebellion against Sothel, Mr. Bancroft says : 

"Careless of religious sects, or colleges, or 
lawyers, or absolute laws, the early settlers en- 
joyed liberty of conscience, and personal inde- 
pendence ; freedom of the forest and of the 



By "absolute laws," he clearly refers to the 
" Fundamental Constitutions " prepared by Mr. 
Locke for the Lords Proprietors. He could 
mean nothing else; for he had just completed 
an elaborate eulogy of the people for their prac- 
tical wisdom in enacting laws adapted to their 
own circumstances. This remark about "abso- 
lute laws " follows what has been quoted above 
from his pages. He had also praised the virtue 
and devotion of the Quakers and non- conformists, 
who sought refuge in the wilderness from the 
persecutions of the English church in Virginia. 
These men who had suffered together under the 
same tyrannical laws and government, and whose 
safety in their new common home depended on 
a cordial union with each other, would naturally 
subordinate their differences, and become less 
tenacious of mere names. The Quakers were 
an organized body of religionists, who, until 
they were able to build meeting-houses, wor- 
shipped in the beautiful groves, or in their pri- 
vate dwellings. The other unorganized non- 
conformists would naturally attend these Qua- 
ker meetings ; and we are assured, even by 
their enemies, that the Quakers made many 
converts to their Society from the others, 
not excepting the established Church. 

But if it were literally true that in 1688, the 
refugees in the Albemarle settlement, from Vir- 
ginia oppression, had neither laws nor lawyers, 
what must be thought of the candor or the intelli- 
gence of a writer who attempts to impose upon 
the world the statement that Mr. Bancroft ap- 
plies the remark to North Carolina during her 
whole colonial history from 1663 to 1776. (I 
suggest to April, 1775). 

The facts here brought out on the authority of 
Mr. Bancroft, refute at the same time another 
statement of the writer, which he couples with 
his comparison of the several sorts of people 
who made up the emigrations respectively to 
Rhode Island, and to North Carolina, from 
Massachusetts and Virginia. 

In regard to the Virginia emigrants to Carolina, 

he says, " their general character was immeas- 
urably lower," than that of the Massachusetts 
emigrants to Rhode Island. There is no re- 
spectable authority for this statement. The 
victims of Massachusetts persecutions were ex- 
cellent people, no doubt ; but there is no reason 
to suppose that the Puritans of that colony 
were more select in regard to the characters of 
those whom they expelled from their borders, 
than were the Churchmen of Virginia. There 
has been nothing in the subsequent careers of 
the two classes of emigrants, or in their posteri- 
ties, to warrant the invidious comparison ; and 
there remains but one judgment to pronounce 
upon it, viz : that whether proceeding from 
ignorance or malevolence, it is no less, a whole- 
sale calumny, and this calumny is repeated in 
other connections and forms, but the above 
answer must suffice for them all. 

' 'They were, in the main, very lawless in 
temper," we are told, "holding it to be the 
chief end of man to resist all constituted au- 
thority, and above all things, to pay no taxes." 
Here again this ready writer shows his ignorance 
of the history of the Province. The absurdity 
of the statement becomes apparent if we com- 
pare it with other statements made by him. 
He tells us in one breath, and tells truly, that 
these Virginia and American-born emigrants 
constitute a large majority of the people ; and 
in the next that they are lawless, riotous, indo- 
lent, "shiftless, " and utterly opposed to paying 
taxes. Who, then, made the colonial laws of 
which there are large volumes extant? Who 
imposed the taxes? Was it the handful of 
Swiss and Palatines, not above two thousand in 
number, and not one of whom, when they ar- 
rived, understood the language ? Was it by the 
Gaelic-speaking Scotch Highlanders, who came 
to the Province after the middle of the eight- 
eenth century — two or three thousands in num- 
ber ? Was it by the German Lutherans and 
Moravians who came still later — all of whom 
spoke a foreign language ? These emigrants 


were most valuable acquisitions ; and many of 
their descendants have become distinguished 
citizens ; but during the twenty or thirty years 
of their residence here prior to the Revolution, 
they knew too little of the English language to 
take a leading part in making the laws. The 
conclusion is a necessary one, then, that the 
colonial statutes, constituting a complete body 
of laws, adapted to the wants of the people, 
correctly and concisely written, in parliamentary 
style, were the product of the class which this 
writer would have the world believe, was com- 
posed, "in the main," of worthless renagades 
and law-breakers from Virginia. The character 
of these laws will be shown in another place. 

"The Colony was a century old," says our 
censor, "before it had a printing press: and if 
no newspapers were published, it was doubtless 
for the sufficient reason that there were very 
few who would have been able to read them." 

The first of these statements contains full 
eighty per cent, of truth, which is so much 
above the average that it may be allowed to go 
uncontradicted. But at the same time it admits 
of extenuation. The Colony was planted in 
1663, and the first printing press was brought 
into it in 1749, and was employed in printing 
the laws, and a few years afterward, a news- 

The further statement of the writer, that "A 
mail from Virginia came some eight or ten times 
a year, but it only reached a few towns on the 
coast, and down to the time of the Revolution 
the interior of the country had no mails at all, " 
is quite true; and it fully explains to any fair 
mind how newspapers could not flourish under 
such circumstances, and without assuming that 
the people could not read. Another obstacle 
to the success ef newspapers is presented in the 
fact that North Carolina was, and still is, more 
exclusively agricultural than any other part of 
America; and contained and still contains, in 
proportion to aggregate population, fewer peo- 
ple resident in towns. 

In New England there was a far greater popu- 
lation, and at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, Boston, according to Rev. Cotton Ma- 
ther, and other authorities quoted in the "Me- 
morial History " of that city, contained not far 
from ten thousand inhabitants. But there was 
the same deficiency of mail facilities, though 
not in equal degree, which existed in North 
Carolina. I find in a little work published by a 
Postoffice official, that so early as 1672, a 
monthly mail was established between Boston 
and New York; and that in 171 1, Massachu- 
setts established a weekly mail between Boston 
and her out-lying territory of Maine. And yet, 
with these relatively great advantages and facili- 
ties — a town of ten thousand inhabitants, and at 
least one weekly mail — no newspaper was es- 
tablished in Boston, nor in Massachusetts, until 
the year 1704. This was eighty- four years after 
the founding of the Colony. It is true that 
there was a printing press introduced at an ear- 
ier date, which was employed in the publica- 
tion of pamphlets and books of theology, and 
the laws of the colony; but no newspaper until 
the settlement was eighty-four years old. Isa- 
iah Thomas a Massachusetts man, in his valu- 
able history of printing, gives an interesting 
account of this first American journalistic enter- 
prise. It was called the Boston Nnvs-Letter. 
The first number appeared in April, 1704. John 
Campbell, a Scotchman, and Postmaster of the 
town, was the proprietor, or "Undertaker," as 
he styled himself. It was printed on a half- 
sheet of what was called "Pot" paper, once a 
week ; but after the second number it appeared 
on a half-sheet of fools-cap. Whether this was 
an enlargement on Pot paper, or a reduction in 
size, is not stated ; but the change in dimensions, 
whether in one way or the other, was no doubt 
inconsiderable. At any rate the News Letter 
continued to be printed for four years on a half- 
sheet of fools-cap, once a week. It rarely con- 
tained more than two advertisements, one of 
them by the proprietor, in which he enumerated 



the articles he was ready to advertise, at reason- 
able rates, among them "runaway servants." 
The ill-omened style of undertaker, assumed by 
the proprietor, may in some sort, account for the 
unhealthy childhood and youth of Boston's first- 
born journal. At any rate, the undertaker, 
after fifteen years of sad experience, informed 
the public that he could not dispose of three 
hundred copies weekly; and that he was thirteen 
months behind time in the publication of the 
foreign news. 

This was the case in 1719, when Boston must 
have had apopulationof nearly or quite 25,000, 
for in 1 7 10, according to the high authority 
of the "Memorial History," it was already 

Mr. Thomas states that the first press intro- 
duced into North Carolina (at New Berne) was 
in the year 1754 and Mr. Bancroft makes the 
same statement ; but Martin, the intelligent 
historian of the Province, who resided about 
thirty years at New Berne, during all of which 
time he was engaged in printing — and most of 
the time, as a newspaper publisher, as well as 
public printer for the Colony, says that James 
Davis came, by invitation of the Assembly, 
with a printing press, in the year 1749. Davis 
began the publication of a newspaper in 1765. 
New Berne contained at that time, perhaps, five 
hundred white inhabitants ; and the fact that 
his paper was sustained was wonderful, in view 
of Campbell's discouragements at Boston. 

It would not be fair to assume that this ina- 
bility to support, or indifference to the worth 
of a newspaper, on the part of the people of 
Massachusetts, was due to their ignorance or 
inability to read, for we know that such was not 
the case. It is more just to say that new in- 
ventions and new methods of doing particular 
things are slow in finding their way into com- 
mon use. Fifty years hence people may won- 
der that their ancestors of this our day, did not, 
one and all, use the telegraph or telephone, in- 
stead of the slow process of sending letters by 

mail, by which days are consumed in doing the 
work of a few minutes. 

"In the war for independence North Carolina 
produced no great leaders," says the essayist. 
It would be easy to retaliate that other colonies 
or States, more favorably situated, failed to pro- 
duce great leaders. New England furnished a 
majority of the rank and file, and probably, 
most of the material aid; and yet she failed to 
produce the great leader; nor did she produce 
but one great soldier, and he came from the 
despised little colony of Rhode Island, and 
from the persecuted class of Quakers, who were 
driven into exile by Massachusetts orthodoxy. 
There were many good officers produced by the 
war of the Revolution — men who were brave, 
sagacious, and enterprising — but history fails to 
point to more than two who were equal to the 
greatest emergencies, in which the disciplined 
and well armed soldiers of Britain were to be 
met and foiled by the comparatively raw and 
ill appointed recruits of the provinces. Those 
two men were Washington and Greene. Per- 
haps there was one other thus endowed ; but he 
turned traitor to the cause. 

North Carolina produced in the Revolutionary 
era anumberof good officers — Howe, Davidson, 
Davie, Caswell, Lillington, Moore, Nash, and 
many others — the equals in merit with those of 
the same rank, in other States. And during 
those eventful days, a North Carolina boy was 
trained by the discipline of adversity, to take the 
foremost place in the Nation's regard,as a great 
captain, hero, and statesman. A New England 
author of celebrity, Parton, has demonstrated 
that Andrew Jackson was born on North Caro- 
lina soil. His childhood was spent in South 
Carolina, though within two miles of his birth- 
place; which circumstance gave rise to the im- 
pression that he was a native of that State. 
While still a boy, he returned to North Caro- 
lina, where he spent his youth and early man- 
hood. At length he emigrated to Tennessee, 
which was then only a western county of his 


native State, and there he lived and died. For 
greatness of soul — for the possession of those 
qualities of intelligence, of courage, and firm- 
ness, which inspire respect and confidence, and 
constitute a nature "born to command," An- 
drew Jackson has had, certainly, not more than 
one superior in this country. 

" She was not represented at the Stamp Act 
Congress of 1765," says Fisk, and the purpose 
of the statement is to convey the impression 
that the absence of North Carolina from that 
Congress was due to a want of sympathy in the 
common cause. If this was not his purpose, he 
could have had none. He failed to add that 
New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Georgia 
were also unrepresented in that Convention. 
If he had had any acquaintance with the history 
of North Carolina, he could not have been ig- 
norant of the fact that her failure to be repre- 
sented on the occasion was caused, in the lan- 
guage of Martin, viz : "the lower House not 
having had the opportunity of choosing mem- 
bers, " Martin suggests that a similar obstacle 
may have prevented the other three colonies 
from being represented. He states that, "In 
the Province of North Carolina, the people, at 
all their public meetings, manifested their high 
approbation of the proceedings ot the inhabi- 
tants of the other Provinces ; and Lieutenant 
Governor Tyron, judging from the temper of 
the people that it would be unsafe and danger- 
ous to allow them the opportunity of express- 
ing their feelings, by allowing a session of the 
Legislative body, in these days of ferment, on 
the 25th of October, issued his proclamation to 
prorogue the General Assembly, which was to 
have met on the 30th of November, till the 12th 
of March, assigning as a reason for the step, 
that there appeared to be no immediate necessity 
for their meeting at that time." 

In January, 1766, the British Sloop of War 
Diligence arrived in the Cape Fear, having on 
board the stamp paper. The Governor issued 
his proclamation calling on the stamp distribu- 

tors to apply for it to the Commander of the 
Sloop. But Colonel John Ashe of New Han - 
over, and Colonel Waddell of Brunswick em- 
bodied the militia of the two counties, and 
marched at their head to Brunswick, where the 
Diligence was anchored, and notified the com- 
mander that they would resist the landing of the 
stamp paper. A party was left to watch the 
movements of the ship, while their comrades 
seized a boat belonging to the ship, and ascend- 
ed the river to Wilmington, where the Governor 
resided, for the time. They placed the boat on 
a cart and marched with it through the streets, 
amid the plaudits of the people. The next day, 
Colonel Ashe, with a crowd of the people, called 
on the Governor, and demanded to see the 
Stamp Master, James Houston, who it seems, 
had taken refuge with His Excellency. The 
Governor at first declared his purpose to resist 
the demand, but was induced to yield by a threat 
that his house would be burned over his head. 
Houston then came out, and accompanied Col- 
onel Ashe and the citizens to the market, where 
he took a solemn oath not to attempt the execu- 
tion of his office. Whereupon the people gave 
him three cheers, and conducted him back to 
the Governor's quarters. This statement is con- 
densed from Martin, who has given a fuller ac- 
count of the resistance of the Colonies to the 
Stamp Act, than even Mr. Bancroft, and other 
historians of the United States. 

The Whigs of North Carolina, owing to pe- 
culiar circumstances, had to confront formidable 
bodies of tories at home, where there was less 
glory, or at least, less reputation to be achieved, 
than in the struggle with the foreign foe. These 
internecine conflicts, though fierce and bloody, 
and calling forth physical courage and military 
conduct of a high order, were not of a character 
to place their leaders in the line of promotion 
in the Continental service. 

The existence of Toryism in North Carolina 
called forth all the more courage and firmness 
on the part of her lovers of liberty. This local. 


defection was the result of a combination of 
circumstances which have never been fully ap- 
preciated beyond the limits of the State. 

The Scotch Highlanders who came to North 
Carolina about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, would, under other circumstances, have 
been an excellent class of immigrants. They 
were good people. But they had rebelled against 
George II, in favor of Charles Edward, a de- 
scendant of their ancient kings of the House 
of Stuart. These adherents of the Stuarts con- 
stituted or formed a part of the Tory party of 
Great Britain; and the Highlanders were, there- 
fore, Tories by inheritance ; that is to say, they 
belonged to the party which believed in the di- 
vine right of kings. They had been defeated 
at the battle of Culloden, and their last hope of 
a restoration of the Stuarts was gone. The 
leaders were hanged, and their followers were 
allowed t.:i emigrate to America, after taking the 
oath of allegiance While these North Carolina 
Highlanders, therefore cannot be supposed to 
have felt an ardent love for the British Govern- 
ment, they were still further removed in senti- 
, ment from that form of Whigism in America, 
which had armed itself for the establishment of 
a Republic. They were at the same time suffer- 
ing the terrible consequences of an unsuccessful 
rebellion against an established government ; 
and having renewed their allegiance to it, nothing 
was more natural than that they should shun, 
and even resist, a second rebellion. Under 
these circumstances the Royal Governor Mar- 
tin, authorized Donald McDonald, their recog- 
nized head, to raise a brigade. He did so; but 
was soon defeated and made a prisoner, together 
with Allan McDonald, the husband of the cele- 
brated Flora Mclvor. The leaders were ex- 
changed, and returned to Scotland. 

The yeomanry of the upper counties had for 
years chafed under the illegal exactions of the 
county officers. The Clerks of Courts demand- 
ed two to six times the amount of the lawful 
fees for registering deeds and wills ; for issuing 

marriage licences and all legal processes. The 
Sheriffs exacted double and treble the amount of 
the taxes. The people protested, but to no pur- 
pose. At length an indictment was found 
against the Clerk of the Orange County Circuit 
Court. He was convicted, and was fined by the 
Judges — a sixpence. This conduct of the 
Court in conniving at the fraudulent extortion 
of the Clerks, rendered the people desperate, 
and provoked them to take up arms in defence 
of their violated rights. No fair-minded man 
who reads the history of these events will hesi- 
tate to say that these people were subjected to 
greater injustice than was imposed by the Crown 
and Parliament on the American Colonies. 
They took the name of Regulators, and organ- 
ized rude military companies, which were very 
poorly armed and equipped. They were poor, 
and for the most part ignorant ; and without 
arms or military training, they were in no plight 
to cope with the forces under Governor Tyron. 
They were ingloriously defeated at Alamance, 
in May, 1771 ; andlike the defeated Highlanders 
at Culloden, they were required — such as were 
not hanged — to take an oath of allegiance. 
Governor Tyron was a man of the world, un- 
scrupulous, but polished in manners. His wife, 
and her sister Miss Esther Wake, were ladies 
of rare beauty and accomplishments. The gen- 
try in all the eastern counties were completely 
led captive by the fascinations of the Provincial 
Court. In those days, the lawyers and wealthier 
classes exercised far more control over the peo- 
ple than they have done in later years. As il- 
lustrative of this statement it may be mentioned 
that Tryon, by these social influences, was able 
to carry through the Assembly a measure which 
was regarded at the time as one of startling ex- 
travagance. This was an appropriation of fif- 
teen thousand pounds for the erection of a Gov- 
ernor's palace. The house was built at New 
Berne, and was, no doubt, one of the finest man- 
sions in America, in its day. It added consider- 
ably to the burden of taxes, and to the irritation 
of the people. 



It was in like manner, by social blandishments 
that Tryon was able to rally around him the gen- 
try of the lowlands, when he marched into the 
up-country to the suppression of the revolt of 
the Regulators. These gentlemen, three and 
four years later, became the staunchest of Whigs, 
and were not a whit behind the Adamses and 
Hancock, of Massachusetts, or, of Henry and 
Jefferson of Virginia, in their early and firm 
support of the rights of the Colonies. But the 
active part taken by these men in the suppres- 
sion of the revolt of the Regulators, tended 
strongly to alienate the latter from the cause of 
the country in 177S, and the years following. 

This antipathy of the Regulators to the lead- 
ing Whigs ; the suffering they had undergone, 
as a result of unsuccessful revolt, together with 
the oath they had so recently taken to be faith- 
ful to the Crown, made it an easy matter for 
Tryon's successor, Josiah Martin, to fix them 
in their allegiance. He visited their region of 
country, redressed their grievances, pardoned 
such as were still amenable to trial or punishment, 
and gave them his confidence by appointing 
their leading men to office. Martin, in all these 
respects showed great good sense and sagacity. 
But he led a forlorn hope ; and was compelled in 
April, 1775, to abandon the seat of govern- 
ment at New Berne, and fly for safety to Fort 
Johnston, on the banks of the Cape Fear. In 
July, feeling insecure in the Fort, he took ref- 
uge on board the British Sloop of War, Cniiser, 
and from this safe retreat he fulminated his 
Proclamation, and issued his orders to his Tory 
adherents; but never again could he set foot on 
North Carolina soil, as Governor of the State. 

The knavish conduct of the county officers in 
extorting illegal fees and taxes, which the Regu- 
lators resisted to the best of their ability, be- 
longs to the class of occurrences in the history 
of the Province which half-informed scribblers 
have, for a century and more, harped upon as 
affording evidence of the lawless character of 
the people. 

In Virginia, the old aristocratic families, who 
gave tone to public sentiment, were strongly 
biased, by the force of habit, education, and 
attachment to the Mother Country, to the 
Church of England. They were not a particu- 
larly religious class of people; nor were they 
deeply learned or interested in theological con- 
troversy. But the religion of the Church was 
that of the Monarch, and of the aristocracy, 
and therefore, they argued, it must be the true 
church. They had sufficient influence with the 
people to establish it, and maintain it at the 
public expense. But there was a large and 
growing element of dissent, which was destined 
under the lead of Jefferson, to overthrow the 
establishment, and to place all denominations on 
an equality before the law. A large proportion 
of the wealthy and well-to-do classes who emi- 
grated to North Carolina from Virginia, were 
attached to the Church ; and, backed, at first, by 
the Lords Proprietors, and afterwards by the 
King's Government, they succeeded in estab- 
lishing the Church as the Religion of the Prov- 
ince, accompanied by the imposition of a tax 
for its support. The Province was divided into 
Parishes, and glebe lands were set apart, out of 
the public domains, with the same end in view. 
At the same time all other forms of religion 
were tolerated without the slightest restraint. 
The provision of law for the support of the 
clergy, and for other church purposes, was 
wholly Inadequate, and the payment of taxes 
for that purpose was evaded as much as possible. 
The odium which attached to the establishment 
from a sense of the injustice of compelling Dis- 
senters to pay taxes for its support, was a fatal 
obstacle to its usefulness. The Proprietors 
might without offense to the people, have en- 
dowed the Church out of their more than princely 
domains, with lands, which, in the course of 
time, would have made it wealthy ; but the im- 
position of taxes for the support of the clergy 
was a fatal mistake which deprived it of the love 
and veneration of the pesple, which its unri- 



valed liturgy is so well calculated to inspire. 
At the outbreak of the Revolution there were 
not many clergymen in the Colony, and scarcely 
one of these remained with their flocks, to share 
in their fortunes, when the shock of revolution 
and war came. 

The failure of the Church to take root in the 
Colony, owing to the persistent efforts that were 
made to force it upon the people, was sufficient 
reason, with British Tory writers of those times 
(and is sufficient reason still, with an American 
writer who wishes to calumniate the State) for 
the declaration, "Nor does the soul appear to 
be better cared for than the body, for it was not 
until 1703 that the first clergyman was settled 
in the Colony. 

The Church of England was established by 
the Government, without the approval of the 
people, who were opposed on principle to 
Church rates, as to all kinds of taxes whatsoever. 
Owing to this dislike of taxation, most of the 
people were Dissenters. But no Dissenting 
Churches flourished in the Colony. There was 
complete toleration, even for Quakers, because 
nobody cared a groat for theology, or for relig- 
ion." This remark, like the others quoted from 
the writer, is made with reference to North Caro- 
lina, "in the Colonial Period" — that is to say, 
throughout that period. It has been shown on 
preceding pages, that the earliest settlements in 
the colony were made by people who fled from 
religious persecutions in Virginia. It is never 
the indifferent and careless, the vile and the vi- 
cious, who become the victims of religious_per- 
secution — they would rather bend the knee; than 
brave the storm. On the contrary it is only the 
sincere and earnest believers — those who are 
inspired by an unconquerable love of truth and 
duty — that prefer exile and martyrdom to a re- 
cantation or abandonment of their faith. And 
such, we have seen, was the character of the 
Quaker and Presbyterian emigrants from Vir- 
ginia to the Albemarle settlements. They were, 
after a few years, followed by large numbers 

who were members or adherents of the Church. 
The proportion of sincere believers of this class 
was quite as large as the average in communi- 
ties; while the Quakers and Presbyterians were 
eminently religious — else they would not have 
been exiled by persecution. The first necessity 
of all was to build cabins to shelter them from 
the elements, to clear the forests for cultivation, 
and to enclose them with fences. For they 
brought horses, cattle and other live stock, 
which roamed at large, and helped themselves 
to the bounties supplied by nature, and needed 
little attention from their owners. The colonists 
were not in a condition to build stately churches, 
nor to pay salaries to ministers ; and it was, and 
is, a principle with Quakers, to pay no salaries 
to their preachers. This fact has been familiar 
to every man of ordinary intelligence for two 
centuries. They met at private houses for pur- 
poses of worship, or when the weather was fa- 
vorable, in the stately groves. The Presbyte- 
rians whose circumstances were similar, imitated 
the Quakers in the simplicity of their religious 
exercises. They were often under the necessity 
of putting up, for the time, with the ministra- 
tions of laymen, or of a minister who had some 
secular occupation for his support. 

The Baptists formed a congregation in Per- 
quimans, as early as 1727. Paul Palmer was 
the minister. He began with thirty-two mem- 
bers, whose names are given. Joseph Parker 
succeeded him. A Baptist congregation was 
founded in Halifax, in 1742. "This, says Mr. 
Benedict, the historian, "is the Mother Church 
in all that part of the State, which still abounds 
with Baptists." In 1752, the Baptists had six- 
teen congregations in the Province. In 1765, 
they had become numerous, and formed the 
Kehukee Association. ' 'About this time, " says 
Mr. Benedict, "the separate Baptists had be- 
come very numerous, and were rapidly increas- 
ing in the upper regions of North Carolina." 
This schism, however, was soon afterwards 
healed, and the two branches of the denomina- 
tion were cordially united. 



Mr. Moore an able historian of the State, 
mentions a Baptist congregation known as Shi- 
loh, which was organized in Pasquotank County, 
as early as 1729, and refers to John Comer's 
Journal of that year, as his authority. Mr. 
Moore states, also, that "six years later, Joseph 
Parker, ordained by this church, had established, 
where Murfreesboro now stands, the church 
still known as Meherin; that in 1750 a congre- 
gation was formed at Sandy Run in Bertie; 
and about the sam.e time, chapels were in exist- 
ence at St. John's, and St. Luke's or Buckhorn, 
in Hertford. 

•^ In the year 1736 there was an immigration of 
Presbyterians into Virginia and North Carolina, 
from the North of Ireland. Henry E. McCul- 
lough, the agent of Lord Granville — himself a 
large land owner — induced a colony of these 
people to settle on his estate in Duplin county, 
in the southeastern part of the Province. From 
this time forward colonies of Presbyterians came 
and settled in the Province, from year to year, 
and became a powerful influence, from their su- 
perior education and strong characteristics. 
From the Virginia border to that of South Caro- 
lina, in all the Piedmont region, and as low 
down as the county of Granville, their settle- 
ments were numerous ; and in conjunction with 
the Moravians in Surry, the Quakers in Guilford, 
and Lutherans, and German Reformed Churches 
in Rowan, they imported a high moral and re- 
ligious tone, to society, in all that portion of 
the Province, accompanied by a love of learning 
and of liberty. The Presbyterians were strongly 
planted in Granville and Orange ; and where- 
ever they formed a settlement they built a 
church. These settlements date back to the 
year 1740. 

To the Rev. Mr. Foote, who composed his 
valuable Sketches of North Carolina from the 
records of the Presbyteries and congregations, 
I am indebted for many valuable facts. The 
Rev. Mr. Caruthers, also, in his Life of the 
Rev, David Caldwell, and his sketches of the 

history of the Province and State, has contrib- 
uted many valuable facts and incidents. Mr. 
Foote, in this connection, says : 

"While the tide of emigration was setting 
fast and strong into the fertile regions between 
the Yadkin and Catawba, from the North of Ire- 
land, through Pennsylvania and Virginia, anoth- 
er tide was flowing from the Highlands of Scot- 
land, and landing colonies of Presbyterian peo- 
ple along the Cape Fear river. Authentic re- 
cords declare that the Scotch had found the 
sandy plains of Carolina many years previous to 
the exile and emigration that succeeded the 
crushing of the hopes of the House of Stuart in 
the fatal battle of Cullodon in 1746. But in 
the year following that event, large companies 
of Highlanders seated themselves in Cumber- 
land County ; and in a few years the Gaelic lan- 
guage was heard familiarly in Moore, Anson, 
Richmond, Robeson, Bladen and Sampson. 
Among these people and their children, the 
warm-hearted preacher and patriot, James Camp- 
bell labored more than a quarter of a century; 
and with them, that romantic character, Flora 
McDonald passed a portion of her days." This 
lady worshipped at a little church among the 
sand-hills of Cumberland, called "Barbacue." 
It is still a place of public worship, but whether 
in the same building or not, is not stated. 

In the j'ear 1750 the Moravians, or United 
Brethren purchased 100,000 acres of land from 
Lord Granville, in Surry County, in sight of the 
mountains. They began their settlements the 
next year. There were several of these settle- 
ments in the purchase, and each settlement im- 
mediately built a house of worship. Their de- 
scendants still inhabit that fine district of coun- 
try, and give tone to society. Like the Quakers, 
they are an eminently religious people ; and like 
the Quakers, too, they are conscienciously op- 
posed to war and fighting. It is a fact highly 
honorable to the Province and State of North 
Carolina, that the scruples of these two classes 
of Religionists have always been respected ; and 



men whose consciences forbid the bearing of 
arms, have ever been excused by the payment of 
a moderate tax. The ill success of the Church 
of England has already been explained. But it 
was not wholly inefficient. Every Parish — and 
the Province was divided into Parishes — had its 
lay Reader, who, in the absence of a clergyman, 
read the services, and a sermon, selected gener- 
ally from the works of some eminent English- 
man, such as Tillotson, South or Barrow. And 
thus, every heart which remained loyal to the 
faith of our English ancestors, was nourished and 
instructed. But the desertion of their posts by 
the clergy, on account of inadequate salaries, 
and the open revolt of their parishioners, in 1775, 
prepared the way for the reception of Methodism, 
which, at that time, was only a new method of 
propagating the faith of the Church. Most fam- 
ilies which were not distinctively of the Presby- 
terian, Baptist, Quaker or some other denomina- 
tion, during and immediately after the Revolu- 
tion, became attached to the Methodists. There 
was no interregnum of Religious worship and ob- 
servance in the State. 

There remain two more serious misrepresenta- 
tions to be noticed, viz : the denial that there 
were schools or Courts of law in North Caroli- 
na, during the era of Provincial dependence. 
And first, as to schools, the writer says : 

"Until just before the war for Independence 
there was not a single school, good or bad, in the 
whole Colony. It need not be added that the 
people were densely ignorant." 

If the people of North Carolina were as ignor- 
ant of letters as this historical critic has shown 
himself to be of his subject, their condition was 
pitiable indeed. 

Dr. John Brickell, an intelligent naturalist, 
resided in and traveled throughout the settle- 
ments in the early part of the eighteenth centu- 
ry, and published, in Dublin, in the year 1737, 
"The Natural History of North Carolina ; with 
an account of the trade, manners and customs 
of the Christian and Indian inhabitants." This 
intelligent writer says : 

' 'The Religion by law established is the Prot- 
estant, as it is professed in England ; and though 
they seldom have orthodox clergyman, (he 
means those of the Church) among them, yet 
there are not only glebe lands laid out for that 
use, commodious to each town, but likewise for 
building churches. The want 0/ these Protestant 
Clcigy is generally supplied by some schoolmasters, 
who read the Liturgy, and then a sermon out of 
Dr. Tilotson, or some good practical divine ev- 
ery Sunday. These are the most numerous and are 
dispersed through the ivholc Pjovince." This gen- 
tleman traveled and made his observations in 
the Province between the years 1730 and 1737, 
as is shown by the imprint of the book ; and it 
appears from his statement, that at that early 
day the ' ' schoolmaster was abroad " " through 
the whole Province." Next in numerical 
strength were the Quakers, the Presbyterians, 
the Baptists and the Catholics, and the author 
says that the latter, who were scattered over the 
Province, had a clergyman at Bath-town. 

In 1704, Mr. Blair, a Church missionary, and 
a good man, came to the Colony, and reported 
that the settlers had built small churches in three 
precincts, and appointed a lay Reader in each, 
who were supplied by him with sermons. These 
lay- Readers were schoolmasters, as appears from 
the specific statement of Dr. Brickell ; and there 
is additional incidental evidence of the fact. 
The lay-Readers were to be supported, and to 
employ them as teachers of schools was the nat- 
ural resource. But there is other positive evi- 
dence of the fact. 

Dr. Hawks gives an account of some small 
subscriptions made by the wealthy clergy and 
nobility for the propogation and support of the 
Gospel in America, from which it would appear 
that thosewell-to-do Christians of the father-land 
had an idea that a very little money would dif- 
fuse a great deal of Gospel truth ; or that a very 
little of the truth would be sufficient for the 
Colonies. But the King, (William III,) we are 
told, did better. "On the report of Dr. Bray, 



a missionary, Bistiop Compton went to the King, 
as he had done before, and obtained from him a 
bounty of £20 to every minister or schoolmaster, 
that would go over to America." 

The Rev. William Gordon, an intelligent Eng- 
lish clergyman, who came as a missionary to 
North Carolina in the year 1708, and who was 
a man of character and piety, after returning 
home, wrote a long letter to the Secretary of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 
in regard to the Colony. It bears date May 13, 
1709. In this letter he incidentally alludes to 
the fact that the Quakers in Pasquotank were 
sending their children to the school of a lay 
Reader of the Church, named Griffin. The 
same clergyman established a church at the head 
of Albemarle Sound, in the settlement which 
afterward became the town of Edenton, andin- 
troduced a schoolmaster, with school books. He 
states that there were no Quakers in that pre- 
cinct, (Chowan) and that the people were ex- 
tremely ignorant and poor. Yet Edenton, long 
before the Revolution, became the centre and 
the abode of the wealthy and refined. The 
reader of the life of Judge Iredell, of the Unit- 
ed States Supreme Court, by McRee, is charmed 
by the picture presented of a polished society 
of well-bred and educated people in that seclud- 
ed little nook of the Province of North Caro- 

At the session of the Assembly which met at 
Wilmington, November 20, 1759, says Martin : 

"An aid was granted to the King for the sub- 
sistence of the troops and militia now in pay of 
the Province ; it was directed to be paid out of the 
fiind heretofore appiopriated for the purchase of 
glebes and the establishment of schools, the King 
not having signified his pleasure on that appro- 

As a rule the Kings of England had to be 
bribed into acquiescence in any measure pro- 
posed in behalf of the Colonists, however essen- 
tial to their welfare, by the grant of money to 
which was no doubt dropped out or omitted, as 

himself or his favorites. The foregoing is a spec- 
imen of this system of government. I fail to 
find in the Colonial statutes the Act referred to, 
it never became a law. But Martin published 
one or more editions of the laws, and there can 
be no question that the Assembly, about the 
middle of the last century, passed an Act for 
the support of Common schools — a measure of 
benificence, which was frustrated by the selfish 
stupidity of George II. 

The subsequent Act of the Assembly for di- 
verting the school fund from its original purpose, 
in order to defend the Colonies against the com- 
bined attacks of the French and Indians, was 
justifiable ; but the withholding the royal assent, 
before the emergency arose, was simply in keep- 
ing with the heartless policy, with reference to 
the Colonies, which governed in the British Cab- 

In 1764, " An Act was passed for the erection 
of a schoolhouse, the Academy in the town of 
New Berne, which," says Martin, " is the first 
effectual Act for the encouragement of litera- 
ture." Why this was the first, we have already 
explained. In 1767, the Academy was incor- 
porated, and about the same time a charter was 
given to the Edenton Academy. Careless writers 
have misunderstood these remarks of Martin, 
with reference to these Charters, as implying 
that they were the first schools ever established 
in the Province. The pretentious Harper's 
Magazine Critic belongs to this class of super- 
ficial readers and writers. 

The condition of these Charters was, that the 
schools were to be taught by members of the 
established Church. And it was for lack of this 
restriction that the Royal authority was withheld 
from the Charter of Queen's Museum, at Char- 
lotte, which was to be under the control of the 
Presbyterians. At the next session of the As- 
sembly, 1 77 1, the Charter was modified, in the 
hope of securing the Royal favor, but without 
success. But as there is no royal road to science, 
so also, the classics and sciences may be taught 




in institutions from which the Royal assent is 
withheld — and there were many such in North 
Carolina, long before the Revolution. 

The Rev. Mr. Foote, whose sketches of North 
Carolina have been quoted in preceding pages, 
says " Almost invariably, as soon as a neigh- 
borhood was settled (by Presbyterians, ) prepa- 
rations were made for the preaching of the 
Gospel by a regular stated pastor; and wherever 
a pastor was located, in that congregation was 
a classical school — as in Sugar Creek, Poplar 
Tent, Centre, Bethany, Buffalo, Thyatira, Grove, 
Wilmington and the churches occupied by Pa- 
tillo in Orange and Granville." The Presby- 
terian settlements commenced in 1738 ; and al- 
though each settlement did not, at first, have a 
minister, and a classical school, there can be no 
question that they had schools in which the 
children were taught to read and write. 

The history of the Moravian settlements at 
Wachovia, or Salem, shows that they founded 
churches and schools immediately on their ar- 
rival ; or as soon as they had provided humble 
dwellings for themselves and their children. On 
their hundred thousand acre purchase they 
formed several settlements, each of which had a 
place of worship. Salem is the centre ; and now 
for nearly eighty years it 1ms had one of the 
largest and finest female schools in America, in 
which, during that long period, thousands of 
young ladies have been educated, who have gone 
thither from every State of the South, and not 
a few from the North and West. 

In the eastern and middle counties the common 
schools were taught, as has been shown, by the 
lay readers of the Church, and by others ; while 
the most wealthy classes sent their sons to Wil- 
liam and Mary in Virginia, to Princeton, to 
New England, and even to Old England, for 
higher education. 

The libel which the writer attempts to attribute 
to Mr. Bancroft, has been exposed, and need 
not be repeated. He follows up that statement 
with another, however, which requires notice. 
He says : 

"The Courts, such as they were, sat often in 
taverns, where the Judge might sharpen his wits 
with bad whiskey ; while theit decisions were tiot 
recorded, but were simply shouted by the crier 
from the Inn door, or at the nearest market 

Of all the statements of the writer, the above 
shows the greatest degree of ignorance; for it is 
incredible that a sane man who has read the his- 
tory of the Colony, would deliberately make 
assertions which are contradicted on almost 
every page of our annals. A large portion of 
Martin's history of the Province is devoted to 
an exposition of the court systems. But to 
begin at the beginning, — Dr. Hawks, in his his- 
tory of the early colonization of the Province, 
which he brings down to the year 1730, has a 
lengthy chapter entitled ' ' The Law and its Ad- 
ministration. " He prefaces this chapter, as is 
his method, with his authorities ; and these con- 
sist of extracts from the Records of the Courts. 
The first extracts from the Records of the 
" General Court, " refutes two of the statements 
above. It is dated 1695, and is an order of 
the Court to the Marshal to take into custody 
Stephen Man waring, an attorney, " to answer 
for his contemptuous and insolent behavior be- 
fore the Court." 

Then follows an order debarring him ; and 
another, allowing him till the next term to an- 
swer; and finally, in 1697, was ordered "that 
the said Stephen Manwaring shall not, from 
henceforth, be permitted to plead as an Attor- 
ney i?i any Court of Record in this Government." 

The next extract bears date the same year, 
1695, and is of the same character. Two gen- 
tlemen of the bar were debarred for contempt. 
One of them, Henderson Walker, Esq., after- 
ward made a distinguished figure in the history 
of the Colony; and four years after this con- 
tempt of Court, he became its Governor. 

In 1697 we have the record of a "Summary 
proceeding for a false accusation." In 1714, 
the "Proceedings on an Information against a 



militia-man;" and in 1722, an "Abatement of 
suit by reason of the plaintiff's outlawry." 
Next follows the whole proceedings in the Gen- 
eral Court, on a writ of error. This was in the 
year 1723. The introductory lines in this pro- 
ceeding will show that the forms of law, brought 
from England, were substantially observed. It 
begins as follows: 

"John Gray of Bertie precinct, gentleman, 
comes to prosecute his appeal from certain pro- 
ceedings had against him, at the Precinct Comt 
of Bertie, on Tuesday, the 14th day of May, 
Anno Domini, 1723, at the suit of John Cot- 
ton, Esq. 

"And the said John Gray, by Edivard Mose- 
ley, his attorney, brings into court here, a copy of 
the Record and proceedings of said Court, in 
these words," &c. 

This precinct or county of Bertie, was the 
youngest of the settlements, and it had just been 
given corporate authority. This may have been 
the first court — and it was certainly among the 
earliest. Yet we see that it was a Court of 
Record, and thus brands as a calumny the state- 
ment referred to in Harpers Magazine. It is a 
part of the Record that the Court was held at 
the house of James Howard at Akotsky. The 
date was Tuesday, May 14, 1723. Bertie 
is just across the Chowan river from Edenton, 
the principal town of the Province; and the 
writ of Error seems to have been sued out on 
the day the judgment was rendered. 

Dr. Hawks gives the writ of arrest of John 
Gray, and his declaration, signed by John Hen- 
neman, his Attorney, "pro pl'ff." The suit 
was an action of detimce for a patent, for "six 
hundred and forty acres of ground. " The Dec- 
laration is endorsed, "I do not detain the pat- 
ent. — John Gray." Next follows a formal sum- 
mons for George Wynn as a witness ; then the 
statement of the issues joined, the plea of non- 
■ detinet, the impannelling of the jury, and their 
verdict for the plaintiff. All this in the lowest 
court of the Province, held by three or more 

Justices of the Peace, in the youngest county 
in the Province, in the year 1723. Mr. Mosely, 
afterwards distinguished in the history of the 
Province, was the attorney for the plaintiff in 
error. He recites the foregoing facts, and 
excepts to them in the usual form and assigns 
four reasons why the court below manitestly 

The General Court reversed and annulled the 
verdict, and ordered that Cotton pay the costs. 
Dr. Hawks, who was a lawyer before he became 
a clergyman, remarks on these proceedings as 
follows : 

"We have presented the whole Record of the 
General Court in this case, that the reader 
might see the forms of writ and subpoena in use 
as set forth in the Record from the Precinct 
Court. It furnishes, also, incidentally, evidence 
that the practice of the day seems to have been 
in the Precinct Court, to endorse the pleas on 
the declaration. It illustrates also, the formality 
with which the minutes of proceedings were 
kept in the General Court. There arc numerous 
other cases to be found, more fully even, than this, 
and where the errors assigned involved some 
interesting and really doubtful points of law ; 
but we selected this, as being one of the short- 
est, and yet sufficient for all purposes of illus- 

Dr. Hawks fills sixteen pages with extracts 
from "tho Records of the General Court of 
Oyer and Terminer," beginning in 1697, and 
ending in 1726. Nothing could have been 
further from his purpose than to furnish proof 
that North Carolina had courts of record at that 
early day : for how could he imagine that any 
man would make such a display of his ignorance 
as to dispute the fact? How could he suppose 
that a pretentious Magazine would commit such 
a blunder, in an article of historical criticism — 
and that it would apply the stupid remark to 
the condition of the Province, during the whole 
time of colonial dependence? Yet that is the 
predicament in which Harper s Llagazine has 
placed itself. 



The first case copied by Dr. Hawks from the 
Records of the General Court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner, is erroneously placed under the date of 
1697, when William III. was on the throne. 
For the writ runs in the name of ' ' our Sovereign 
Lady, the Queen " — meaning, doubtless, Queen 

It was on an indictment against Susannah 
Evans, for witchcraft, under an old English stat- 
ute, as amended in the reign of James I. It 
was not a colonial statute ; yet the courts were 
required to enforce it. But the result of the 
trial shows that our ancestors were not abreast 
with the civilization of that age, as illustrated 
further north, and it was lucky for Susanah that 
they were not. The indictment is as follows : 

' ' The Jurors for our Sovereign Lady, the 
Queen, present upon their oaths, that Susanah 
Evans of the precinct of Currituck, in the 
County of Albemarle, in the aforesaid Province, 
not having the fear of God before her eyes, but 
being led by the investigation of the Devil, did, 
on or about the twenty-fifth day of July last past, 
the body of Deborah Bouthier, being then in 
the peace of our sovereign lady, the Queen, 
devilishly and maliciously bewitch, and by as- 
sistance of the devil, afflict, with mortal pains, 
the body of the said Deborah Bouthier, whereby 
the said Deborah departed this life. And also 
did diabolically and maliciously bewitch several 
other of her Majesty's liege subjects, against the 
peace of our sovereign lady, the Queen, and 
against the form of the statute in that case made 
and provided," &c. 

This indictment was laid before the Grand 
Jury, by the Attorney General; but that body 
failed to find a true bill, and Susanah was turned 
loose upon society to work her "devilish arts." 
This seems to have been the only case in which 
a personwasbrought before the Courts of North 
Carolina, on a charge of witchcraft, and whether 
the fact was due to the isolation of the Province, 
by which it "was in a great measure cut off 
from the currents of thought and feeling by 

which the other colonies were swayed," or 
whether to a more enlightened sense of justice 
than prevailed in colonies which sent witches to 
the gallows "by the cart-load," as Upham in- 
forms us, was the case in Massachusetts, the 
reader may determine. 

But if North Carolina suffered from its seclu- 
sion, a loss of sympathy with the great move- 
ment for the suppression of witchcraft, it was 
from no lack of zeal for religion and good morals, 
as the Magazine critic would have the world be- 
lieve. Among the numerous extracts from the 
Records of the General Court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner, made by Dr. Hawks, are the proceedings 
on the indictment of John Hassel, of Chowan 
Precinct, in the year 1720, on charge of pro- 
fanity. Hassel was one of the "advanced 
thinkers" of that age, who declared publicly on 
Sunday, March 13, 1718, "That he was never 
beholden to God Almighty for anything ; for 
that he never had anything from him, but what 
he worked for;" and much more of the same 
sort. He plead "not guilty," but the jury con- 
victed him. His counsel moved in arrest of 
judgement, that the indictment was not brought 
within six months after the words were spoken; 
nor was it prosecuted within ten days, "accord- 
ing to the form and effect of an act fm- observing 
the Lord's Day." The court overruled the mo- 
tion, and ordered that the culprit should receive 
"thirty-nine lashes on his bare back," and give 
security " in the sum of fifty pounds for his 
good behavior for a year and a day." 

Here is incidental proof that these colonists, 
who are represented as devoid of law and relig- 
ion, and of learning, had laws against profanity, 
and requiring the observance of the Lord's Day, 
as early as 171 8; and that these laws were en- 
forced against any "lawless and vile fellows" who 
might come into the Province, and offend against 
them. But our ancestors failed in the matter 
of hanging witches, and selling Quakers, and 
are voted ignorant and irreligious. 

The proceedings on an indictment for ' 'forcible 



entry and trespass," are given by Hawks, un- 
der date of 1729. And of the same date there 
is the written refusal of the Governor to sign a 
death warrant on account of informahties in the 

Numerous specimens are given of the sen- 
tences of the Court for theft, and similar offences, 
in which the lash was generally brought into 

Some pages are devoted to the Records of 
the Chancery Court, during the early period of 
colonial history, prior to 1730; but the foregoing 
must suffice. 

It is probable that the assailant of the good 
name of the State may have deduced many of 
his conclusions from the following remark of the 
elder Josiah Quincey, which he recorded in his 
Memoir. That gentleman passed through east- 
ern North Carolina in the Spring of 1773, and 
was greatly pleased with the character and spirit 
of the people, all along his route. He was es- 
pecially pleased with the gentlemen he met at 
Wilmington, where he spent some days. He 
mentions with honor several whose names have 
come down to us. Passing on further north, he 
states, under date of April 5th, that he "break- 
fasted with Colonel Buncombepn Tyrrell County] 
who waited upon me to Edenton Sound, and 
gave me letters to his friends there. Spent this 
and the next day in crossing Albemarle Sound, 
and in dining and conversing in company with 
the most celebrated lawyers of Edenton." 
[Among these lawyers were, doubtless, Samuel 
Johnston, who, a few years later was chosen to 
the office of President of the Continental Con- 
gress, which he declined ; but became Governor 
of the State, and a United states Senator. Mr. 
Quincey more than likely met, also, James Ire- 
dell, who afterwards became a Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the United States.] Mr. 
Quincey continues : "From them I learned that 
Dr. Samuel Cooper of Boston, was generally 
(they said universally) esteemed the author of 
"Leonidas," who, together with " Mucius 

Scaevola, " was burnt in effigy under the gallows, 
by the common hangman." And here follows 
the misleading remark of Mr. Quincey, -\vhich a 
person, entirely ignorant of the history, and of 
most other things, might be excused for taking 
as conclusive proof that North Carolina, prior 
to the Revolution, never had any laws or courts, 
although she possessed "celebrated lawyers." 
Mr. Quincey says: "There being no courts of 
any kind in this Province, and no laws in force 
by which any courts could be held, I found little 
inclination or incitement to stay long in Edenton, 
though a pleasant town." 

This statement was literally true at that day 
and date ; but the circumstances which brought 
about the peculiar state of things, being well 
understood throughout the colonies, Mr. Quincey 
did not stop to explain them. They constituted 
one of the most serious grievances against which 
the people of the Province had long had reason 
to complain of the Crown and Government of 
Great Britain. The explanation is as follows: 
For more than twenty years a struggle had been 
going on between the Assembly on the one side 
and the Governor and Council, appointed by 
and impelled by the Sovereign, on the other, in 
regard to the constitution of the courts, Supe- 
rior and Inferior. 

The Crown insisted on the appointment and 
removal of the Judges, at pleasure, and to im- 
port them from Great Britain, while the Assem- 
bly was required to provide them fixed and lib- 
eral salaries. 

The Assembly resisted this unjust pretension, 
and insisted that lawyers resident in the Colony 
should alone be appointed to Judgeships over 
them ; that their tenure of office should be per- 
manent, and that their salaries should depend 
upon the free offering of the Assembly from 
year to year. 

This controversy dated back to the middle of 
the century. An act of the Assembly of 1754, 
for the regulation or reorganization of the courts 
had never received the royal sanction, and at 



length, after it had been in force for several years, 
it was annulled, or vetoed. In 1760 a new 
court act was adopted, which provided, among 
other things, that no person should be appointed 
a Justice of the Superior Court, unless he had 
been regularly called to the degree of an outer 
barrister in some of the English Inns of Court; 
unless he were of five years standing, and had 
practiced law in the principle Courts of Judica- 
ture of the Province. The act also required 
that the commissions of the Judges should run 
during good behavior. 

The Governor, Dobbs, held that the clause 
defining the qualifications of the Judges, was 
an unconstitutional restraint on the King's pre- 
rogative, almost precludeing the appointment of 
any one from England; and that the clause de- 
fining the tenure of the Judges was at variance 
with the principle of keeping all great colonial 
officers under a strict subordination to, and de- 
pendence on the Crown. 

The Assembly plead earnestly with the Gov- 
ernor, alleging the necessity for courts of Justice 
and the sacredness of the right they contended 
for. They were, indeed, fighting over again the 
parliamentary battles of Hampden and Pym, 
for regulated liberty ; and they fought them with 
a courage, an intelligence, and a dignity worthy 
of the cause. They were fighting just such 
battles as Massachusetts had fought throughout 
her whole history, and which constitute her 
chiefest glory. 

As illustrative of the Crown officials in the 
Province, and as throwing further light upon the 
causes which provoked the Regulation move- 
ment, I will be excused for presenting more 
fully, the nature of this controversy between the 
people and their imported rulers. 

Of the new court system, which was intro- 
duced and passed in the Assembly which met 
at Wilmington, November 20, 1759, Martin 
says that it provided for the establishment of a 
court of king's bench and common pleas. It 
forbade the Chief Justice to receive any part of 

the fees of the clerks, which seems to have been 
an unauthorized practice of that eminent person 
— or rather, of one or more persons who had 
held the office. The Council, which was ap- 
pointed by the Crown, would not consent to the 
passage of the bill until this prohibition was ex- 
punged, which that body held to be derogatory 
of the dignity of the Chief Justice. The Assem- 
bly replied that '' tJie practice wliicli liad Jiitherto 
prevailed of the Chief fustice exacting from the 
Clerks a considerable proportion of their legal fees, 
had been one cause of their being guilty of great 
extortions, whereby the Superior Courts had be- 
come scenes of great oppression, and the con- 
duct of Ihe Chief Justice and Clerks, a subject 
of universal complaint, they admitted that the 
late Chief Justice, Peter Henly (whose death 
was lamented by all who wished to see the hand 
of Government strengthend, the laws duly exe- 
cuted and justice impartially administered) from 
a pious sense of the obligations of his oath, had 
conformed to the act of 1748, for regulating 
officers fees, but they thought themselves bound 
in duty to their constituents to provide against 
the pernicious effects of a contrary conduct." 

On this and other grounds of disagreements 
the two Houses did not come to terms, and the 
bill failed. At the next session the Assembly 
passed a court bill not materially different from 
that of 1759. It was sent up accompanied by 
an address, in which its importance to the welfare 
of the Province was urged. 

But the Governor, who was very anxious to 
have an aid bill passed, in compliance with a 
demand by the Crown, for the prosecution of 
the war against the French and Indians, temper- 
ized while urging the paramount duty of passing 
that measure . The Assembly prepared an ad- 
dress or petition to the King, in which the griev- 
ances of the Colony were strongly set forth, and 
the great importance of the "court law" was 

In the same address, serious complaints were 
made against the Governor, Dobbs, who, it was 



charged had appointed corrupt and incompetent 
men to office. 

No agreement was reached and the Superior 
Court bill was rejected. 

An act, however, was passed, for establishing 
county courts, accompanied by a provision for 
the support of the clergy ; and this was sanc- 

The Governor then prorogued the Assembly, 
from the 23d to the 26th of May; when he again 
called on that body to pass a Superior Court 
bill, and grant an aid to the King. These meas- 
ures were accordingly adopted ; and the Gover- 
nor gave his sanction to the "Court law" on the 
condition that if the King did not confirm it 
within two years from the loth of November 
following, it was to be null and void. 

In December, 1761, the Lords Comm'ssioners 
of Trade and Plantations, laid the Court laws, 
passed in May of the preceding year, before the 
King and Council, asking the royal disallowance 
and repeal ; and accordingly the act was annulled. 
The Governor was severely censured for allow- 
ing it to go into operation before it received the 
royal sanction. 

In 1762, a Superior Court law, temporary in 
its character, was agreed upon by the two Houses, 
and was permitted to go into operation. The 
Assembly still maintained its position of with- 
holding permanent salaries from the Judges. In 
1764, the Act was renewed, or extended; and 
in 1767, a new Act was passed, and limited to 
five years duration. The County Court law was 
also renewed, and continued for the same period. 
These laws would therefore expire in 1772 — 

probably at the close of that year ; and hence it 
was that Mr. Quincey, in February, 1773, was 
correct in saying, that there were "no Courts of 
any kind in the Province, and no laws in force 
by which they could be held." The people of 
all the Colonies were aware of this state of things 
and the reason for it, and hence he deemed it 
unnecessary to explain them. A man of ordi- 
nary intelligence, and especially one who assumes 
the office of historical critic — even at a distance 
of a century — should have, at least surmised as 

The remark quoted from Mr. Bancroft, on a 
preceding page, that whoever doubts the capac- 
ity of man for self-government, should study 
the early history of North Carolina, was made 
with reference to the people of the Albemarle 
settlement during the Proprietary Government ; 
but its truth receives additional, and even fuller, 
illustration, in the subsequent career of the Col- 
onists, when they had spread over a territory as 
large as the Mother Country, and laid the foun- 
dations of a great State. No true man can read 
that history without admiring the courage, and 
the unconquerable firmness, exhibited under the 
most trj'ing circumstances with which they vin- 
dicated their rights as men. The whole history 
of the Province, from 1663 to 1776, was a strug- 
gle of the people against arbitrary power and 
corrupt administrative officers ; and people of 
the present day who imagine that Colonial de- 
pendence in the 17th and iSth centuries was an 
easy yoke to bear, only show their ignorance of 
the history of that period. 





An Address of Gen. Rufus Barringer, delivered at the Lutheran Commemoration in Concord, 

N. C, November loth, 1883.* 

From a variety of causes, so far as I can 
learn, not a record exists exactly fixing the 
date of the first German settlement in this 
section of North Carolina, nor has a single pen 
told the story of the wanderings of our Ger- 
man fathers nor the part tliey bore in our 
early wars. 

Less than five generations have passed away 
since these German fathers first struck the 
banks of the Cold Water and Dutch Buffalo 
Creeks. Yet who, in this large assembly can 
tell when, whence, why, and how these hardy 
pioneers came ? If direct from Europe, what 
part ? If from or through Pennsylvania, what 
County? What routes did they travel ? When 
and where was the first settlement made ? 
And especially what Avere their peculiar char- 
acteristics ? Did they have any distinct reli- 
gious creed ? Any known political polity ? 
How did they bear themselves in the nume- 
rous Indian and other early wars ? Especially 
in the great revolutionary struggle for free- 
dom and independence, what troops did they 
furnish ? What sufferings and losses did. they 
endure, and what sacrifices did they make for 
the cause ? Who were Whigs and who Tories ? 

All interesting questions ; the very doubt 

*The reader should remember that many of these 
remarks were local and personal and understood by 
the audience only. 

and confusion in which they are shrouded 
greatly embarrasses one. I shall, therefore, 
rather seek to excite interest and enquiry into 
the subject before us than undertake to decide 
or debate disputed issues. If I should chance 
to fall into errors of any kind, I will be only 
too glad to be fully and promptly corrected. 
My great aim is historic truth. 

Before proceeding to the main enquiries, it 
is proper to disabuse the popular mind of cer- 
tain prejudices in regard to the so-called 
Dutch or Germans, generally, of this country 
and more particularly as regards the religious 
faith and fighting, or rather non-resisting 
tenets, of certain Teutonic sects amongst us. 

It is true that many of the earlier Dutch and 
German colonists were non-armbearing secta- 
rians, such as the Mennonites in Pennsylva- 
nia, the Moravians here in North Carolina, and 
the Saltzbergers in Georgia. But there were 
none amongst our Germans. From the days 
of Braddock's defeat and the advent of Maj. 
George Washington, down to the last battle 
under Gen. Robert E. Lee, our Dutch have 
proved a most pugnacious set. 

Then, again, the first German settlers are 
constantly confounded with Hessians, who 
fought against us, and numbers of whom, after 
the revolution, found, an asylum in this coun- 
try, and were not unwelcome. 



The facts are these : The Hessian contin- 
gents of George III came from a region, 
and were raised at a time, when the bulk of 
the common people, the world over, were lit- 
tle better than beasts of burden for their 
rulers. The Swiss Guards were not the only 
mercenaries. They, too, came from the only 
Republic of Europe. But these Hessians hap- 
pened to be mostly Protestants. The mar- 
velous light of Luther's teachings had struck 
deep into even their dark minds. General 
Washington, with that tact and wisdom pecu- 
liarly his own, readily saw this, and ventured 
to turn it to account. He accordingly man- 
aged, when any of these Hessian soldiers were 
captured, to send them off into the interior of 
the country, and quarter them upon the 
soundest German settlements. In this way 
many of them were very naturally left in 
America. Or if exchanged, they had but to 
take the chances of war, to release them from 
their military oaths and obligations. This 
happened, notabl}', at the siege and surrender 
of Savannah, and under the articles of Peace 
1782, when hundreds of these Protestant Hes- 
sians chose to remain in this land of liberty, 
and enjoy the untold blessings they were sur- 
prised to lind here. They very sensibly sought 
their German countrymen, who knew the facts 
of their case, and who pitied their forlorn con- 
dition. As a well-known circumstance, they 
almost universally make good citizens — strik- 
ingly faithful to every trust and obligation. 
Hence they soon intermarried with other clas- 
ses, and thus it happens that hundreds of those 
now before me, are the descendants of the once 
"Hated Hessians." 

But I have lately obtained information quite 
curious in regard to these Hessian contingents: 
At the very time that George III. was gath- 
ering up his foreign levies, to help to conquer 
us, Silas Deane, the American Commissioner 
in Germany, was offered large numbers of the 

same people to fight for us; and only an acci- 
dent and a scarcity of money defeated the 

Another class of German immigrants who 
entered largely into our population of foreign 
descent, and who ai'e commonly thought to 
have cast a stain on the name of freedom, 
were the so-called Redemptioners — a term now 
well nigh obsolete in popular speech — but once 
indicating a body of immigrants, who took an 
eventful part in the development of this New 
World. The term was first used in connection 
with white indentured apprentices. It was af- 
terwards applied to a lai-ge class of very poor 
emigrants, who could not pay their passage- 
money to America in cash down ; but who 
were willing to enter into contracts of limited 
service, on their arrival here, in order tore-im- 
burse the funds advanced for that purpose. 

Still again, it was an artful scheme often re- 
sorted to, by the down -trodden of Europe, to 
escape the thraldom of feudal bondage. 

Some of our first German settlers no doubt 
belonged to all of these three different classes 
of redemptioners. A few of the most promi- 
nent pioneers certainly came in the way last 

The story of the wrongs, the suflFerings, the 
trials and troubles of these humble heroes, is 
so full of interest and instruction, nay of sub- 
lime courage and christian fortitude, that I 
pause to explain it. The facts, too, shed a re- 
flected light on the mooted and somewhat mys- 
terious question of where these first adventu- 
rous Germans came from, and of their national 

In one of the quiet out-tying districts of 
Wiirtemburg, the traveller now sees standing 
a plain stone pyramid, erected by the peasants 
of German}' in 1789, as a monument to Prince 
Charles Frederick of that Duchy, for his vol- 

*[See Americau Archives— series 5,— (1779), vol. Ill, 
page 887.] 



uutary abolition of serfdom in that year. And 
its simple history is this: 

The thunder of Luther's fire struck deep and 
fast into the hearts of the peasantry class, as 
you have heard here to-day. This resulted in 
all sorts of insurrectionary outbreaks, which had 
to be put down by force. This stayed some- 
what the progress of the reformation and 
grieved Luther, But the mighty work went 
on and soon the minds and consciences of men 
became comparatively free. And yet it was 
a long time before the light of political truth 
reached the jjrerogatives of power and property. 
At that time very few, if any, of the peasant 
class, as such, could hold real estate in Central 
Europe. On the contrary, they themselves 
were often bought and sold with the land they 
worked, and had to serve their landlords a 
certain number of days each week, the year 
round, and all through life. The Protestant 
peasants, naturally enough, became restive un- 
der such hard and cruel restraints and restric- 
tions. And they ere long sought in every pos- 
silile way to avoid and escape them. This was 
next to impossible to do, and still remain in the 
country. But to flee their homes was also ex- 
tremely hazardous. The law of expatriation 
was not then fully recognized, and all sorts of 
treaty stipulations and alliances provided for 
their recapture, return to slavery, and, usually, 
a bai-barous beating besides. But go they 
would, and their safest course was stealth, un- 
der this scheme of indentured apprenticeships. 
In this way, the young men could gradually re- 
move themselves from one State or province to 
another, and little noticed, reach a seaport; and 
so escape to America or some other foreign 
country where life, liberty, limb and land were 
somewhat free. To us of this enlightened age 
and free republican government, it is simply 
incredible that such a state of things should 
have existed in any Christian country, espec- 
ially in the English colonies, less than one hun- 

dred and fifty yeai's ago. But so it was. White 
men not only indentured themselves as ap- 
prentices, but gladly sold their persons into 
long but limited slavery, for the blessed privi- 
lege, or chance of escaping feudal serfdom. 
But listen while I read this advertisement 
from an old Philadelphia newspaper. The Ariur 
icon Mercury, of date Xovemlier 28, ]728: 

"Just arrived from London, in the ship Bor- 
den, William Harbert, commander, a parcel of 
young likely Men Servants, consisting of Hus- 
bandmen, Joyners, Shoemakers, Weavers, 
Smiths, Brickmakers, Bricklayers, Sawyers, 
Tailors, Staymakers, Butchers, Chairmakers, 
and several other trades, and are to be sold 
very reasonable, either for ready money ,wheat, 
bread or flour, by Edward Home, Philadel- 

AmonsT the classes thus named were, no 
doubt, the ancestors of many now high in the 
Free Citizenship of this great country, and 
possibly the ancestors of some of those present 
here to-day.* 

After the American revolution, the exodus 
from Europe under this i^rocess was enormous; 
so much so as almost to depopulate certain 
German States and countries, notably Wiir- 
temberg, where serfdom was so absolute and 
grinding. Then it was, in 1789, that the 
reigning Grand Duke, Prince Charles Frede- 
rick, rose to the supreme height of voluntarily 
abolishing all serfdom in his dominions. And 

*It was tlie honest boast of tlio clistiiiKuislied Joliii 
Co\ode, of Peunsylviinia, "that his father had been 
lield as a Redemptioner." 

John Reed, the discoverer and tirst owner of the fa 
raous "Reed gold mine" in Cabarrus Conuty, was one 
of the Hessians of tlic Revolutionary war. He died a 
wealthy man, but did not know, when lie found the 
first lump of gold, what it was or what it was worth. 
Nor did he know until he was more than eighty years 
old that he had a right to citizenship in this country. 
He was naturalized at Concord about 1843. For the 
discovery of the Reed gold mine, see Wheeler's Histoiy 
of North Carolina, Vol. II, page 64. 



in return, a grateful Protestant peasantry 
cheerfully erected this simple monument to 
his memory. Wiirtemburg again prospered; 
population grew and she soon became a king- 

In all this may be noticed the marked char- 
acteristics of the German mind and temper. 
According to their light, the German Princes 
generally had a fatherly love for their people, 
and the latter, ever reverential and grateful, ac- 
cepted the great boon conferred by Providence 
not in a spirit of fanatical pride and resent- 
ment, but as a gracious concession and bless- 

And what may seem strange to us, as touch- 
ing this custom of voluntary slavery, no sense 
of degradation seems to have attached to it. 
It simply shows that parties resorting to it, 
were in dead earnest to reach the goal of free- 
dom, and meant real work and business. As 
just and proper labor contracts, such inden- 
tures were almost invariably carried out in 
good faith by all parties concerned. 

For one, therefore, I rather commend the 
patient fortitude, the unfaltering faith and 
coui-age, and the Christian fidelity, with which 
certain of the redemptioners worked their 
way to the fertile fields of the Cold Water 
and Buffalo Creeks. As the darkest shades 
often reflect the most beautiful tints; and as 
the purest gold is usually found in the rough- 
est rock, so the finest characters are always 
evolved through the severest trials and tribula- 
tions. We are the more perfect through 
suflFering. Our Redemptioner fore-fathers 
had realized in their own persons the inestim- 
able privileges and blessings they had come so 
far, and at such fearful risks and sacrifices, to se- 
cure. The sequel will show that when the day 
of trial came, and they were called upon to 
fight for their dear-bought benefits, they were 
equal to every emergency. 

The first Germans known to have reached 

this immediate section, now called the Dutch 
Side, consisted of three young farmers — all 
foreigners and probably all three Redemption- 
era. One certainly was, and he the best 
known, a man in fact, of rare strength of will, 
and singular force of character. He was a 
native of Wiirtemburg; left there, with the 
consent of his father, in his 21st year; tarried 
a while in Hanover; finally sailed from Rotter- 
dam in the ship Phcenix, and landed at Phila- 
delphia Sept. 30th, 1743. He had some edu- 
cation but no money or friends. He left home 
and country, because he was not allowed to 
buy or hold real property. His term of ser- 
vice was three years; but he worked so well, 
and faithfully, that he managed, some way, to 
make favor with his master, and wiped the 
whole debt out in one short year. Whether 
he married his master's daughter, or some 
other good Pennsylvania girl, it is not certain; 
but she, too, was poor; and he often told, with 
much glee that he got with her "just one sil- 
ver dollar." 

With this wife and two small children, and 
accompanied by his two countrymen and 
their little families, the youthful Redemption- 
er, now free, set out from Pennsylvania, for 
the rich region of the Yadkin and Catawba 
— then the aim and end of the adventurous 

When this trio of enterprising Germans* 
started on their perilous march, the buffalo, 
bear and the wolf still roamed our forests. 
The savage Indian and the frontier French 
often marked the camping grounds of the 
lonely immigrant with the blood of slaughtered 
innocents. They crossed the mountain ridges 
and the flooded streams by following the old 
buffalo trail, then known as the " Indian Trad- 
ing Path." At last they reached the end of 
their wanderings, and they safely forded the 

* The names of these three pioneer Germans were 
Barringer, the grand-father of the speaker, Dry, 
(Derr/ and Smith. 



broad and beautiful Yadkin at the "Trading 
Ford," the sole memorial amongst us, of this 
once famous "Indian Trading Path." But 
here a new difficulty beset these peaceful fugi- 
tives from -the land of the "Broad-brimmed 
Quaker." The free and tolerant principles of 
Penn had gathered into his Province, all the 
odds and ends of civil and religious persecution, 
the world over. Jarrings and conflicts na- 
turally ensued ; notably, among the Scotch- 
Irish and some of the quaint Mennonites of 
that State. When our German friends crossed 
the Yadkin, and began to cast their wistful 
eyes over the wide plains and spreading prai- 
ries of this lovely region, they were surprised 
to find the Scotch-Irish just ahead of them. 
The latter had occasional squatters, here 
and there, on the choicest spots, especially on 
its western borders, up and down the Catawba. 
Our German Pilgrims had seen enough of strife 
and resolved to "avoid all such." They ac- 
cordingl}' abandoned the "Trading Path," just 
east of the present site of Salisbury and 
turned square to the left and followed the 
right bank of the Yadkin, down towards the 
lighter slate soils of that broken region. They 
were however, not afraid of their Scotch-Irish 
allies, in the mighty struggle to subdue the 
wilderness and enter its broad acres. So they 
gradually turned their steps to the better lands 
above them, and finally located on the high 
ground between the present Cold Water and 
Buifalo creeks. The exact spot was the old 
Ovenshine place, near the Henry Propst home- 

How long these people had resided in Penn- 
sylvania does not appear — long enough, how- 
ever, to have lost somewhat their native Ger- 
man, and picked up,*in its stead, that strange 
but popular gibberish of all tongues, univer- 
sally known as " Pennsylvania Dutch." Our 
immigrants themselves were called Dutch. 
They recognized the term and proceeded to 

designate their surroundings accordingly. 
Their nomenclature, however, was quite limi- 
ted, and they usuall}' followed nature. Hence 
we have Big and Little Dutch Buffalo, Big 
and Little Bear Creek, Big and Little Cold 
Water, and Jenny Wolf Branch. Above and 
west of them, was the English or Irish BulFalo, 
and south was Johnson, now Rocky River. '• 

This would seem to have been a long time 
ago. Ours was then Bladen, or probably Pee 
Dee County — a County never legally recog- 
nized. But after all, it was only about one 
hundred and forty years back — as near as I can 
fix it — 1745-6. One hundred and fortyyears ! 
Only the life-span of two or three of the stout 
old German fathers. And yet what marked 
and momentous changes have taken place 
amongst us, in that eventful period ! How 
the panorama of history has crowded upon us, 
in one short century and a half ! How slowly 
time has passed ; and how utterly the foot- 
prints of these wandering fathers have fled 
from sight and memoiy ! They numbered 
only three families, and their nearest neigh- 
bors, on one side, were sparse settlers, in the 
present limits of Popular Tent and Coddle 
Creek, and on the other, the Highland Scotch 
of the Pee Dee hills. But our wanderers were 
not long alone. 

Soon the news of a goodly land flew back, 
first to Pennsj'lvania, and then on to the far 
otf, struggling, toiling, teeming, millions of the 
war-racked and priest-ridden Fatherland. 
And now they poured in from all directions, 
mainly still from and -through Pennsylvania, 
but often through Charleston and occasionally 
through Wilmington, following the routes 
along the high ridges dividing the principal 
rivers. And it was thus, that this particular 
section, embracing parts of the present Coun- 
ties of Cabarrus, Rowan and Stanly, came to 
be so rapidly settled, and almost exclusively by 
Germans. By the time of the revolution, the 



" Dutch side" of old Mecklenburg was its most 
densely peopled portion. 

I here propose to correct a partial error, into 
which many have fallen (at one time myself,) 
in regard to the distinctive nationality of 
these first German settlers. They are often 
supposed to have come from the central and 
northern parts of Germany, and sometimes 
from the low countries of Europe. But I now 
have ample proof that they came from the 
upper or Castle Rhine regions — "Wiirtemburg, 
Baden, Bavaria, and the ancient Palatinate — 
so mercilessly wasted by that grand ogre of 
France — miscalled Louis the Great. It was 
the fiercest and bloodiest of persecutions that 
then desolated all this part of Southern Ger- 
many, and scattered its honest, liberty loving, 
intelligent, industrious Protestants to every 
quarter of the globe. And I am able to state 
from positive knowledge, that the common 
German names of this section, so numerous 
amongst us to-day, are all now found in the 
upper Rhine region, referred to, notably in 
and around the skirts of the Black Forest and 
its borders. 

Our familiar name of Blackwelder (German, 
Schwartzwalder) means not black ivood, but a 
Black Forester. So the names of Barnhart, 
Barrier, Bost, Dry, Misenheimer,Propst, Sides, 
Bosheimer, Barringer, and hundreds of others 
are there to-day. No doubt the emigrants, 
and especially those escaping under the guise 
of apprenticeships or as indentured servants, 
often stopped over in the countries through 
which they passed, working their way along. 
And it may have served their purpose occas- 
ionally, to hail from the Continental domin- 
ions of the Georges of England. But this 
much is certain, very few of them were Dutch 
proper, or natives of the low countries, or even 
the level parts of Germany. Our first German 
settlers, nearly all built their houses on reach- 
ing here, on the high grounds, and often on 

the tops of the hills, after the castle times of 
their own rugged country. Their removal to 
the level lands and bottoms was afterwards. 
But be that as it may, they came ; they came 
to stay ; and that they did so, is fully proved 
by the immense numbers of their descendants 
here to-day, and the vast regions the "Dutch 
Side" has peopled elsewhere. They were a 
hardy, healthful, handy race, self-reliant, self- 
helpful, and the}' have made their mark 
wherever they have struck. 

The intellectual and religious qualities of 
such a people were almost sure to be marked 
and enduring. Many of them had fought in 
the battles of Europe ; others had left home 
and country for conscience sake ; all had en- 
dured toil, suftering and sorrow for the free- 
dom they came so far to find. They learned 
to live almost entirely within themselves. 
Their wants were few and simple. Only two 
things seemed absolute essentials: (1.) In all 
their wanderings — in shipwreck at sea, and in 
storm on land ; in serfdom and in voluntary 
slavery ; under the iron heel of Power in 
Europe, and in the boundless freedom of Amer- 
ica — they clung to their Luther Bibles. With- 
out an}' distinctive notions of formal creeds, 
and profoundly indifferent to the mere forms 
of religion, they grasped the fundamentals of 
the Bible as taught by Luther, and so they 
lived and died. (2.) The}' tolerated no idlers 
— no drones in either the Church, the State, or 
the family. In fact, however, the family was 
everything. With a proper start in the family, 
all government was simple and easy. There 
was an intense regard for all lawful authoritj'. 
The husband and father felt his responsibility 
both to God and the powers that be. The 
wife and mother was, indeed a help-meet, and 
shared alike the joys and sorrows of the hus- 
band. The young all worked, and grew up 
trained and skilled in every ordinary labor and 
handicraft. Both sexes were strong and act- 



ive — morally, mentally, and physically. The 
men were manly, and the women matronly. 
When trials and troubles came, such people 
knew how to meet them. They had, at last 
found delightful homes, and tasted the sweet 
freedom they had so much longed for. And 
when, therefore, they were su.mmoned to de- 
fend those homes and to vindicate the rights 
and privileges they had secured, no people 
ever responded more heroically. 

I am able to show that these German settlers 
participated in almost every expedition against 
the Indians, and that they took a very active 
part in the forced march of General Ruther- 
ford against the Cherokees in 1776. A young 
German was one of the verj^ few killed in ac- 
tion on that expedition.* 

It is not generally known that the settlers 
of this section were ever disturbed by the 
French enemy on our distant frontiers. But I 
have here (holding it up,) a petition in 1756 
to Governor Dobbs, from the Rowan and An- 
son settlers, complaining (among other things) 
of the dangers that threaten them from the 
" savage Indians in the interest of their French 
allies." Also a curiously carved powder-horn 
that was worn by Archibald Woodsides of 
Coddle Creek, in one of the long and hazardous 
marches against Fort Duquesne. It has on it 
a good description of ''Fort Pitt " and its pic- 
turesque surroundings. The history of this 
singular memorial of our early wars is, that the 
owner chanced to meet in one of his marches 
with German soldiers from this settlement, 
and they persuaded him to return with them. 

But I come now and chiefly to speak of the 
revolutionary services of the German fathers. 
Here the evidence is full and complete. But, 
unfortunately, it is only in old musty army 
rolls, not accessible to the general public; and 
no one has been found to tell the story of their 

'Matthias Barringer of the Catawba family. 

deeds. But this was then the most populous 
part of old Mecklenburg; and it was, from first 
to last, true, indeed, entirely unanimous in its 
fidelity to the great cause of freedom and in- 

That the Germans do not figure prominently 
in the famous meetings at Charlotte, May 20, 
1775, is not strange. Their settlement lay- 
mainly in the extreme limits of the old County, 
with numerous intervening streams, and scarce- 
ly any roads. They spoke a different language, 
and nearly all their trade and travel was in 
other directions— with Salisbury on the north, 
with Cross-creek (now Fayetteville) on the 
east, and Cheraw Hills and Camden, South 
Carolina, to the south — the three last thriving 
points at the head of navigation, on their re- 
spective rivers, then a matter of vast import- 
ance. But as a mere truth, the hopes of the 
German settlement, then centered in one 
leader, Lt.-Col. John Phifer. He was a Swiss 
by descent.. But all his ties and associations 
w^ere German. His mother was a Blackwelder 
and his wife a Barringer. He was an un- 
usually bright and promising man and soldier. 
The meetings were held at the Phifer Red 
Hill, three miles west of Concord. He was 
their delegate to the immortal convention that 
declared Independence, and his name so ap- 
pears. But he died early in the struggle, and 
in his youthful grave at the Red Hill seemed 
to perish the hopes of his people. But not so. 
Old and young continued to go forth to swell 
the ranks of both the regular and irregular 
forces. I have examined the Muster Rolls and 
have extracts from them, and they clearly 
show that in proportion to population the 
Germans were very largely represented. On 
the Pension Rolls for Cabarrus County in 1835, 
of 21 revolutionarj' soldiers still drawing pen- 
sions, 12 were Germans. And old men now 
present will remember that when the "heroes 
of 1776 " used to parade together at the 20th 



of May and 4th of July celebrations, the 
" Dutch Side " was always strong. At the last 
of these parades in 1839, 5 out of 8 of those 
present were of German blood. The Black- 
welder family alone furnished eight tried sol- 
diers to the cause. 

The silence, therefore, of the Charlotte meet- 
ings, and the absence of co-temporaneous his- 
tory, as to the Dutch Side, is nothing against 

There is a story, too, which shows that the 
Dutch had some other reason for not attempt- 
ing to make any display in the Queen City. 
It is, that on some military occasion, a Dutch 
captain took his company over there, and, giv- 
ing his commands in most emphatic Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch, the Scotch-Irish laughed at him. 
His company vowed to stand by their Captain, 
and refused both collectively and individually 
ever to go back to Charlotte again. In con- 
firmation of this story I have here an old Mus- 
ter KoU, and sure enough " Martin Fifer " is 
the Captain ! Certain it is, too, that at a very 
early day the Dutch demanded a new County, 
and at the first election, after Cabarrus was 
cut oiF, Caleb Phifer (the son of Martin) and 
John Paul Barringer were its highly honored 
Commoners. So, probably, the creation of 
this County is also due to the German element. 
But there is another aspect of the Revolu- 
tionary struggle, decidedly complimentary to 
the Germans of old Mecklenburg, and adds a 
new laurel to her crown. 

The Dutch Side, from their isolated and re- 
mote situation, might have easily stood aloof 
from the conflict, and so, possibly, have escaped 
the losses and sufferings I am about to describe. 
But they chose otherwise; and then, their 
very location and seclusion exposed them to 
the fiercest ravages of war. 

Remember, then, the surroundings of this 
German settlement. On its east the Scotch 
Highlanders of the Cape Fear and Pee Dee 

country, nearly all Loyalists, enabled the Brit- 
ish to extend the royal rule up to the Narrows 
of the Yadkin. On its south, at Cheraw and 
Camden, were British posts. North of it^ 
across the Yadkin, Fanning and his infernal 
crew roamed almost unmolested. While in 
the Forks of the Yadkin, just above, the able 
Tory leader. Col. Samuel Bryan, held a well 
organized regiment of 800 men. And then' 
on several occasions the British army lay at 
Charlotte (twice) and at Salisbury (once). 
Now history shows just what might be ex- 
pected in such a situation as this. While in. 
deed, no great armies traversed this region, 
it was greatly exposed because of its remote- 
ness and isolation, to the more frightful depre- 
dations of irregular and lawless bands of ma- 
rauders and other desperadoes, passing to and 
fro. It is a historical fact, that Col. Bryan 
marched his whole Tory Regiment of 800 men 
through the eastern end of this settlement, to 
Cheraw, S. C, spreading fear and desolation 
in all directions. It is equall}' true, that when 
the British occupied Salisbury, several parties 
of Tories and Royalists, from the east of Yad- 
kin, sought to join Cornwallis, but were driven 
back, mainly by Home Militia. 

But the one expedition that still lives in 
the memory of the Dutch Side, and never 
fails to fire the German blood, even to this day, 
Avas that organized by the Fanning men east 
of the Yadkin; and crossing the river, swept 
this German settlement in its whole length, 
up, and down the two Dutch Buffalos, and 
thence on to the British post at Camden. S. C. 
They robbed hundreds of Whigs,destroyed much 
property in purest wantonness, and seized and 
carried off to British prison, under most brutal 
circumstances, more than twenty leading citi- 
zens. In this number was Major James Smith, 
of the then County of Rowan, (now Davidson,) 
a regular officer at home, wounded, and Caleb 
Blackwelder and his son-in-law, Jno. Paul 



Bamnger, both old meu — far past the mihtary 
age. Smith and several others died in prison 
of small pox. Blackwelder and Barringer were 
promised their release provided some mem- 
ber of their families would come in person, 
and make certain pledges as to their conduct. 
No male of either family could risk the venture 
when old Mrs. Blackwelder mounted her horse 
and went herself to Camden, on the hopeless 
errand. She failed in her object, and m its 
stead, was the innocent means, through her 
clothing, of spreading the small pox all over 
the country she passed, and far and near among 
her friends at home. I need not tell this au- 
dience, that these terrible events drew the 
lines, once and for all, between Whig and 
Tory in the whole Dutch settlement. Up to 
that time, there had been no division what- 
ever; no man who had ever taken protection, or 
^iven the enemy any sort of aid or comfort, 
could stay on the Dutch side and live. Now 
two individuals were charged with bad faith 
or infidelity. One of them, Rufus Johnson, 
who was no German, simply disappeared. The 
other, Jacob Agner, was run out of the coun- 
try and his valuable property — the present 
House Mill — was confiscated. Of one or two 
others there were vague suspicions of disloyalty, 
or mean cringing in the hour of trial; and to 
this day, their names ai'e mentioned with bated 

Such, my friends, is the proud record of our 
German ancestry. 

I am glad of the occasion to pay this just trib- 
ute to their noble memory. Especially am I 
happy to do so, on this day commemorative of 
the immortal Luther. His fame belongs to all 
mankind. But in its simple strength and en- 
during might, it is strikingly reflected by the 
unpretending life, and elasticity of German 
character. And we here draw a most instruc- 
tive and useful lesson. It marks the myster- 
ious workings of an allwise Providence. 

These people came here as poor, persecuted, 
wandering exiles. But in all their wanderings, 
they were an honest, sober, industrious, faith- 
ful, peaceful, law-abiding. God-fearing, God- 
serving and God-loving people. Against the 
early Protestant peasantry of Southern Ger- 
many scarcely aught has ever been said. Re- 
specting just authority, and rendering proper 
obedience themselves, they have everywhere 
and under all circumstances, secured confidence 
and consideration. Here, in this distant land, 
and this secluded section, they are able to de- 
velope without contact with that effeminate 
degeneracies of the outside world, or the 
dangerous tendencies of modern civilization. 
You see the result in an enduring, expanding, 
wide-spreading, self-reliant, and ever advanc- 
ing community. They had, too, their sports 
and amusements, their holiday's and gala-days, 
their Easter fun and Kris-Kingle frolics; but 
under all, life had a serious, an intensely earn- 
est aspect. Even their sports and amusements 
partook rather of skill and labor, than dissipa- 
tion and debauchery, such as quiltings, spin- 
ning matches,corn-shucking, log-rolling, house- 
raisings and the like; all tending to manly 
vigor and modest woman-hood. In their out- 
door hunts and games we discern the same 
harmless tendencies. In an old unprinted 
diary I have before me, kept by a sort of 
trader and traveller of the revolution ar}- era, 
I find the fox and deer skins came mainly from 
the English and Irish, while the Dutch are 
death on coons ! 

In the family, especially, each and all felt the 
responsibilities resting upon them. Old and 
young had their assigned spheres and duties. 
Male and female learned some test of skill, art 
or handiwork. Life was not all one strain at 
display, nor one round of frivolity and frolic. 
There was in their family government a won- 
derful combination of duty, devotion, and dis- 
cipline, with proper rest and recreation. In a 



word, the family with them, combined the 
State, the Chm'ch, and the School. And the 
training was more in the family than in the 
school. Again, see the result. They bought 
but little, and sold much. They made no debts 
or contracts they did not expect to pay or ex- 
ecute. They scorned to live on the labor or fa- 
vor of others. And as a consequence, they 
were a gallant, brave, and publicrspirited com- 
munity. They and their descendants have ever 
stood to the front in the time of trial and 
danger. In the war of 1812, in the Mexicdn 
war, and in the great Confederate conflict, 
they rallied to the bugle-blast, in hundreds 
and thousands. They have not onl\' main- 
tained their ground at home, but the^^ almost 
peopled the regions round about them, and set- 
tled, in turn, whole sections in distant States 
and Territories. I honestly and iirmly believe 
that nmch of this success and great prosperit}^, 
is eminently due to the sound, civil, religious, 
and family training of the early fathers; and 
that, under the providence of God, it has its 
power and strength in their deep devotion to 
to the simple Protestant faith, as taught by 

But let it not be supposed, mj' friends, that 
I have lost faith in our modern civilization, 
and that I would live only in the past. On the 
contrary, I believe implicitly in the progress 
of human society. There is only one thing I 
dread: There is too much liberty — too much 
license and licentiousness. The home, the school, 
society, the State, and the Church — each and 

all — seem to me to pander too much — greatly 
too much — to the false sentimentalism of the 

Life is all sensation and pretense. Relig- 
ion, morality, and the simple virtues of truth 
and honesty are powerfully preached; but their 
practice is much more doubtful. 

Nor would I, by anj' means, imply that the 
descendants of the early settlers of the "Dutch 
Side" have in any way, declined or deteriora- 
ted. On the contrary, while Germans are, 
usually, not pretentious, or ambitious of place 
or position, these people have always and every- 
where held their ground. And as a striking 
fact, they have ever managed to get their full 
share of the best land in the country. And I 
am happy to learn from others, the evidence 
of your good faith, energy and industry. A 
distinguished judge, who has often ridden all 
over the State, pronounces the tillage and ' 
thrift of Mt. Pleasant region the best in North 
Carolina. And a prominent Gentile physician 
says the Dutch Side is still the best paying 
people we have. My prayer is, that you may 
go on m well-doing. Neither individuals or 
communities can hope to prosper without these 
virtues. And, withal, may you never cease 
to cherish the memory of the Fathers, and 
practice, as they did, the precepts of the pure 
and lowly Jesus, as preached by the mighty 
Luther, whose thunders are still shaking prin- 
cipalities, kingdoms and crowns, and subduing 
commonwealths and continents. 




The eminence in his profession attained by 
Dr. Edward Warren (Bey) and the promi- 
nence he has acquired in the two hemispheres, 
commends the following most interesting sketch 
to the readers oi' these Reminiscences of Emment 
North Carolinians, we make the following ex- 
tract from the Medical Journal of North Caro- 
lina; it has been enlarged and continued to date 
of this pulilication, and is eminently tit to be 
preserved in this form. 

Dr. Edward Warren (Bey) was born in 
Tyrrell County, North Carolina, on the 22nd 
of January, 1828, of parents who emigrated 
from Virginia, and who belonged to two of 
the oldest and most distinguished families of 
that State. His father, Dr. Wm. C. Warren, 
was also a physician of eminence and a man of 
unusual intelligence and purity of character. 

When the subject of this sketch was only 
four years of age, his father removed him with 
his famil3^ to Edenton, North Carolina, where 
the son was educated up to his sixteenth year, 
when he was sent to the Fairfax Institute, 
near Alexandria, Virginia; and two years af- 
terwards to the University of Virginia. In 
the latter institution he greatly distinguished 
himself, having secured honors and diplomas 
in many of its Academic Schools, and having 
graduated after a single course in its Medical 
Department. In 1850 he delivered the vale- 
dictory oration before the Jefferson Society, 

which was then esteemed the honor of the Col- 

In 1851 he graduated in the Jefferson Medi- 
cal College of Philadelphia, and whilst pursuing 
his studies in that city, conceived the idea of injecting 
a solution of morphia under the skin for the relief 
of pain, using for the purpose a lancet-puncture, and 
Anel's syringe. In this mode of medication, he was 
therefore, four years in advance of the inventor of 
the hypodermic syringe. 

This device was made the subject of a thesis 
prepared for presentation to the Faculty upon 
applying for his degree, but one of the Pro- 
fessors, to whom he had confided the idea, so 
forcibly expressed the opinion that it was both 
chimerical and dangerous, that the thesis was 
witheld and another substituted in its place. 

Dr. Warren, however, soon after his grad 
nation, found occasion to put his idea into prac- 
tical operation. 

During thej'ears of 1854 and 1855 he studied 
medicine in Paris, where he formed an inti- 
mate friendship with some of the leading 
medical men of France, and occupied himself 
by corresponding with The American Journal 
of Medical Sciences, and other leading American 
Medical Journals. 

Returning to America in the summer of 
1855, he settled as a practitioner in Edenton, 
N. C, where he soon acquired an extended 
reputation, both as a physician and as a sui'- 
geon. In 1856 he delivered the annual address 
before the State Medical Society, which was 
most favorably received, and also obtained 
the "Fiske Fund Prize" for an essay on the 
"Effects of Pregnancy on the Development of 
Tuberculosis," which was subsequently pub- 
lished in book form, and has ever since been 
regarded as a leading work on the subject. 

In 1857 he was elected editor of the Med- 
ical Journal of North Carolina; made a mem- 
ber of the Gynsecological Society of Boston ; 
and chosen a delegate from the American Med- 
ical Society of Paris to the American Medical 

On the 16th of November of the same year, 
he married Miss Elizabeth Cotten Johnstone, 
of Edenton, a lady of rare beauty and most 
lovely character. By referring to Wheeler^s His- 
tory of North Carolina, it will also be seen that 
the Johnstones are directly descended from 



two Royal Governors of the Colony, Gabriel 
and Saml. Johnstone, who were cousins and the 
representatives of the Cadet branch of the 
family of Annan dale in the Peerage of Scotland. 

In 1860 he was elected Professor of Materia 
Medica and Therapeutics in the University of 
Maryland; first Vice-President of the Conven- 
tion to revise the Pharmacopoea of the United 
States; and a member of the Committee on 
Literature of the American Medical Aseocia- 
tion. He at once acquired an enviable reputa- 
tion in the city of Baltimore as a graceful, 
fluent and able lecturer. 

In 1861 he joined his fortunes with those of 
the South, and was, successively. Chief Sur- 
geon of the Navy of North Carolina: a mem- 
ber of the Board to examine candidates for ad- 
mission into the Medical Stafi" of the Confed- 
erate Army; Medical Director of the Depart- 
ment of the Cape Fear; Chief Medical Inspec- 
tor of the Department of Northern Virginia 
(Gen Lee's Army;) and Surgeon-General of 
the State of North Carolina. 

Two of these positions were conferred upon 
him on the field of battle as rewards for per- 
sonal courage and professional work. At the 
battle of New Berne, although at that time on 
medical board duty at Goldsborough, Dr. 
Warren volunteered his services and remained 
under fire with the wounded, under circum- 
stances of peculiar difficulty and danger. For 
this he was made Medical Director of the De- 
partment of Cape Fear. 

Upon the battle-field of Mechanicsville, in 
1862, while again acting as volunteer surgeon, 
he was verbally appointed by Gen. Lee, Med- 
ical Director of the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia; but knowing that Surgeon Guild, who 
ranked him, was but a few rods distant. Dr. 
"Warren called the General's attention to the 
fact, and Surgeon Guild was made Medical 
Director, and upon his immediate suggestion 
Dr "Warren was retained as Medical Inspector. 

By a special act of the Legislature of North 
Carolina his rank as chief medical officer of the 
State was raisedfroni that of '"Colonel" to that 
of "Brigadier-General;" for "devoted and effi- 
cient services rendered to the sick and wound- 
ed." He was also chosen by the Legislature one 
of the Trustees of the University of North Car- 

During the war he wrote a work entitled 
"Surgery for Field and Hospital," which passed 
through two editions. Among many other 
valuable suggestions which this book contained, 
was that for the treatment of "retracting flaps 
and conical stump," by means of extension 
with "adhesive strap, with cord and weight "- 
a procedure which is now very widely adopted, 
and the origination of which, after much dis- 
cussion in the journals, both at home and 
abroad, has been finally conceded to Dr. War- 

This method was put into practical opera- 
tion in the hospital of the University of Vir- 
ginia, as early as August, 1861, whereas Dr. 
Hodges, of St. LouiB, who alone seriously dis- 
puted the priority, finally and very courteously 
acknowledged Dr. Warren's claim, stating that 
his own first use of the method was in 1863. 

Subsequently, in a controversy conducted 
in the London Lancet, the claims were again 
settled in Dr. Warren's favor, by the publica- 
tion of an extract upon the subject taken from 
the book which had been published during the 

In the summer of 1865, Dr. Warren re- 
turned to Baltimore, ruined in fortune by the 
results of the war, and expecting to resume his 
Professorship in the University of Maryland. 
A refusal to return the chair to Dr. Warren 
furnished sufficient ground for legal proceedings 
by mandamus or quo loarranto, but in view of 
the ruined fortunes of the contestants and of 
the financial and social influence of the Fac- 
ulty, the suit promised to De a protracted one, 



and as the practical benefits to be gained in 
the event of success were so small, it was con- 
cluded not to resort to the Courts but to leave 
the issue to public opinion, which it was 
thought fully sustained Dr. Warren. 

Then came one of the most brilliant efforts 
in the life of the subject of our sketch. Under 
his direction the Washington University Med- 
ical School was revived, rising like a phcenix, 
putting itself at once on a plane with the old 
University, which in the eftbrt to maintain its 
lead made fundamental changes in its man- 
agement and in the personnel of its Faculty. 

Dr. Warren filled the chair of Surgery in 
the Washington College with great brilliancy ^ 
and became the idol of the large number of stu- 
dents who resorted annually to the school. 

When a law was passed creating a board 
for the examination and registration of the 
physicians of the State, he was made a mem- 
ber of it. He was also elected Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of 
Maryland. In 1868 he established The Med- 
ical Bulletin — a journal which obtained an ex- 
tensive circulation. 

In 1872 he appeared as principal medical ex- 
pert for the defense in the celebrated Whar- 
ton trial. The circumstances of this trial were 
full of absorbing interest, it being characterized 
by great divergence of professional opinion 
among the physicians and chemists engaged in 

General Ketchum was an eccentric old bach- 
elor who died in the house of his friend, Mrs. 
Wharton, a lady of wealth and high social po- 
sition. He was attended during his short ill- 
ness by a physician whose line of treatment 
was somewhat varied, but who, although he 
did not arrive at a positive diagnosis, for some 
cause requested that an autopsy should be per- 
mitted. A thorough examination was not 
made of the rachidean and cranial cavities, and 
Bome of the abdominal viscera' was submitted 

to an antiquated chemist, who, after a very 
slovenly analysis, pronounced the presence of 
antimony, and upon this an indictment was 
found against Mrs. Wharton. Dr. Warren was 
then requested, "in the interest of truth and 
justice," to examine the medical testimony 
taken by the grand jury, and he promptlj' de- 
clared that the symptoms described by the at- 
tending physicians and nurses were more tj'p- 
ical of a certain form of cerebro-spinal menin- 
gitis than of antimonial poisoning. Resting 
upon this, and upon the evidence of the in- 
sufiiciency of the chemical analysis, the de- 
fense went to trial, with the result of a prompt 
verdict in favor of the accused. 

Dr. Warren acquitted himself with great dis- 
tinction on the witness stand, receiving con- 
gratulations and moral support from a host of 
medical men both at home and abroad; and 
although he had opposed to him a number of 
gentlemen of recognized professional ability, it 
was conceded on all sides that he came off with 
the advantage, his testimony — which was bril- 
liant in the opportunity for retorts afforded by 
the cross-examination — losing none of its force 
from the assaults of the experts for the prose- 
cution. Thi? is fully borne out by letters and 
telegrams spontaneously sent to Dr. Warren, 
aftqr the trial, by Dr. Fordyce Barker, of New 
York, Dr. Stevenson, of London, and many 
other prominent medical men, and even by the 
Hon. A. K, Syester, Attorney-General for the 
State of Maryland, who personally conducted 
the prosecution of the case. Support, so un- 
solicited, and from such unbiassed sources, 
speaks volumes for the acumen and ability of 
Dr. Warren. Those from the medical men are 
all uniform in declaring that Gen. Ketchum's 
symptoms could not have been caused by tar- 
tar emetic,but more resembled those of cerebro- 
spinal meningitis; and the letters received 
from chemists declare that the chemical evi- 
dence for the State utterly "broke down. 



While the hmits of this slietch do not permit 
the publication of these communications, it 
seems appropriate to reproduce the following 
extract from a letter from Professor Ford^^ce 
Barker, who is so favorably known for his high 
personal character and great professional learn- 
ing and ability : 

"In all my long experience I have never met witb 
anytliing' which displayed more thorough research 
and sounder logical reasoning than tlie testimony 
which you have just given in the Wliarton-Ketchum 
case; and I am sure that intelligent, thinking men, 
both in and out of the profession, will agree with me 
in this opinion. When I read the evidence given by 
the medical attendants during the sieliuess of Gen- 
eral Ketchnm, 1 said that it was absurd to ascribe his 
death to poisoniug from r«rf ; Antimonii. 1 came to 
the cunclusioD, some days before you gam your testi- 
mony, that he Aied of cerebro-spiual meningitis, and 
expressed that conviction wlienever the case was the 
subject of conversation." 

One incident in this case attracted a good 
deal of attention and brought man}' compli- 
ments from the daily press : it was a rencountre 
between the Attorney-General, Mr. Syester, 
and the witness, and is given here as extracted 
from the phonographical reports in the New 
York newspapers : 

Attorney- General. — "Where will this lead to, 
Dr. Warren?" 

Doctor Warren. — " It is impossible to tell, as 
the hypothesis itself is absurd." 

Attorney- General. — ■■' But you medical men 
ought to know all about these jjiedu-a? matters." 

Doctor Warren. — "We know, at least, as 

much about these medical matters as you law- 

Attorney- General. — (Springing from his seat, 
and with great emphasis.) "But you doctors 
have the advantage of us ; you bury your mistakes 
under the earth." 

Doctor Warren.. — " Yes, but you lawyers hang 
your mistakes in the air." 

This reply " brought down the house" to 
such an extent that the judges had to adjourn 
Court for a quarter of an hour so as to give the 
officers an opportunity to restore order. 

In attestation of the impression made upon 

the Attorney-General, the following letter 

was written by that gentleman to Dr. Warren 

upon the eve of his departure for Egypt, a 

shoi't time after the trial : 

From the Attorney-General of the State of Maryland. 

. State of Maryland, 

OiHce of Attorney -General. 

Hagerstown, March 35, 1873. 

My Dear Doctor: — I cannot describe the unfeigned 
regret I experience in your loss to ns all, especially to 
me ; for although I have not seen and been with you 
as much as I desii-ed — I always looked forward with 
pleasure to sometime when our engagements would 
permit a closer acquaintance, and become warmed into 
a firmer and more fervid friendship. I dare not in- 
dulge the hope of hearing from you in your new posi- 
tion, but not many things would prove more agree- 
able to me. Present my compliments to your wife. 
That you and she may ever be contented and happy 
iu life, that you may be as prosperous as your great 
talent and unequalled acquirements so richly de- 
serve, is the earnest hope of 

Your Immble, but undeviating friend, 


In 1872, Dr. Warren was chosen Chair- 
man of the Section of Surgery of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association, and presented to 
that body a new "Splint for Fractures of the 
Clavical," which attracted much attention, and 
really is an apparatus of great utility. Whilst 
it retains the fragments in opposition and gives 
no inconvenience to the patient, it permits all 
the normal movements of the forearm. Hav- 
ing retired from the faculty of the Washing- 
ton University, he then devoted himself to the 
organization of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, which has finally absorbed the former, 
and attracts classes as large as those of any 
schooHn Baltimore. The institution has wisely 
retained Dr. Warren's name at the head of the 
list of Professors, as Emeritus Professor of Sur- 

Having become dissatisfied in Baltimore on 
account of a severe domestic affliction, he de- 
termined to remove elsewhere. His first idea 
was to procure a professorship in the Univer- 
sity of a neighboring city, and with that end 
in view he presented to its Faculty, testimo- 
nials of recommendation from a number of the 




most promiuent physicians in the United 
States. Among the letters sent to the Doctor 
for use in this connection, there were several, 
which, from the distinguished reputation of 
their authors, and the enthusiastic manner in 
which they indorsed Dr. Warren, seem espe- 
cially to deserve a reproduction here — space 
will, however, only permit the publication of 
the following : — 

From Professor 8. I). Gross. 

Philadelphia May Stit, 1872. 

My Dear Dr. Warreu: — It is difficult for me to say 
anytliingrespect'ngone who is so well known tliroujjli- 
out the country as a gentleman, a practitioner, and a 
teacher of medicine. Any medical school ouglit, I am 
sure, to be proud to give you a place in its Faculty. 
As a teacher of surgery — ott'-hand, ready, and even 
brilliant — there is no one in theleountry that surpasses 
yon. As an operator and a general-practitioner, your 
ability has long been everywhere recognized. Your 
success as a popular lecturer has been remarkably 
great. As a journalist you have wielded a ready and 
graceful pen. Some of your operations reflect great 
credit upon your judgment and .skill. Of your moral 
character, I have never heard anything but what was 
good and honorable. 

I hope with all ray heart you may obtain a position 
in one of the New York Scho<ds. Youi great popu- 
larity in the .Southern States Could not fail to lie of 
service in drawing Southern Student.-!. My only re- 
gret is that we have no place to ofler you in Philadel- 

Wishing you eveiy possible success, I am, dear doc- 
tor, very truly your friend. 


Professor of Surgery, Jefferson Medical Collecje- 

Professor Edward Warren, 

Baltimore, Md. 

From Professor Hunter Mc&uire. 

Richmond Va., May 10th, 1872. 

Gentlemen: — I beg leave to state that Dr. Warren 
enjoys a most enviable reputation both as a physician 
and as a gentleman, and from all I know and have 
heard of him, I have no doubt he would prove a most 
valuable addition to any college. Dr. Warren held a 
prominent position in the Medical Department of the 
Confederate Army, and enjoyed the respect and con- 
fidence of all who associated with him. He has re- 
cently resigned the chair in one of the medical scliools 
of Baltimore. He fill'd this chair with great ability 
and attracted to the school a large number of students, 
especially from his native State, Norih Carolina, 
Very respectfully, etc., 


Professor of Surgery. Medical College of Virginia. 

To the Trustees of the 

University of New York. 

From Hon. E. J. Henkle. 

Baltimore May 15th, 1872. 

Dear Sir: — I have been informed that my friend, 
Prof. Edward Warren, recently Professor of Surgery 

in the Washington University in this place, is an ap- 
plicant for the same position in the Uuiver.sity of New 

I have known Dr. Warren for many years past ; first, 
previous to the war, when Professor of Mateiia Med- 
ica in the University of Maryland, which position to 
my personal knowledge, he filled in a most acceptable 
manner to both faculty and students. 
Since the war and the reorganization of the Washing- 
ton University, he has resided in Baltimore and tilled 
the Chair of .Surgery. In the capacity of President 
of the Board of Trustees of that Institution, I have 
been thrown in frequent and intimate intercourse with 
him, and I lake pleasure in testifying to his great zeal 
and ability, and to his success as a lecturer and teacher. 
Dr. Warren has always been regarded in Baltimore as 
a most popular and efficient lecturer, exceedingly 
popular with the students, and untiring in his efforts 
to promote the success of the institution with which 
he has been identified. I have no doubt that the Uni- 
versity of New York would be most fortunate in se- 
curing his valuable services. Very truly yours, 


President of the Board of Trustees of 
Washington University, M. I). 

Prof. Henry Draper, New Y'ork City. 

From Professor W. H. McGuffey, of the LTniversity oj 

U. OF Va., May 18th, 1872. 


Gentlemen : — It gives me great pleasure to recom- 
mend to your favorable consideration Dr. Edward 

I have known Dr. Warren from his boyliood, and 
can testify to his excellent cliar.acter, fine talents, in- 
doininitable perseverence in the pursuit of knowledge 
and the discharge of professional duty. 

Dr. Warren's attaiTiments are of a high order in gen- 
uine scliohirship. He made unusual proficiency in 
Moral Pliiloso])hy, and graduated also with distinc- 
tion in other schools in the University, Va. 

Of liis professioiuvl attainments I am not competent 
to judge, but I know that he has been successful when 
compntition was intense, and I learn from others, 
competent to judge, that he has every qualification to 
ensur<' success in the Cluiir of Surgery, and the place 
which I learn he seeks in your institution. 
Very respectfully, &c., 


Prof. Moral Philosophy, U. of Va. 

Unfortunately no vacancy existed at the 
time, and his efforts in this regard proved abor- 
tive In 1873 he accepted a position in the 
service of the Khedive and removed to Egypt, 
having been urgently recommended for it by 
General R. E. Lee, General Sherman, General 
G. W. Smith, General Hancock, Governor Z. B. 
Vance, Hon. M. C. Butler, General Gary, and 
other leading gentlemen in the United States. 

As soon as the President of the American 
Medical Association heard of his intended de- 



parture, he sent him a commission as a Delegate 
to all the Medical Societies of Europe ; Drs. 
Gross, Pan coast and other prominent Ameri- 
can physicians gave him kind and most flatter- 
ing letters of introduction to the leading med- 
ical men in Europe ; and on the evening before 
he left Baltimore, a number of its first citizens 
tendered him a public dinner at Barnums' 
vt^hich was one of the most successful and bril- 
liant aftairs of its kind that ever came off in 
that city. 

His career in Egypt, though rendered brief 
by an attack of opthalmia, vs^as signally brilliant^ 

Having been appointed Chief Surgeon of the 
General Staff, he soon had an opportunity of 
treating successfully the Minister of War for 
strangulated hernia, who immediately officially 
requested the Kh(5dive to honor Dr. Wan-en 
with the Decoration of the Medjdi6 and the 
title of Bey — which, when conferred, as it was 
in this instance, by royal charter, ennobles its 
possessor and his family; and in less than a 
year from his arrival in the country, he suc- 
ceeded in reaching the highest medical posi- 
tion known in the service of the Khedive, that 
of Surgeon in Chief of the Egyptian Army. 

The incident connected with his treatment 
of Kassim Pasha, who was the Minister of War, 
shows so well the moral force which enabled 
Dr. Warren to perform his duty in the face of 
discouraging circumstances, and serves to illus- 
trate in such an interesting way, certain phases 
of his life in Egypt, that it is given in full as 
related by the doctor. 

" Kassim Pasha was over 60 years old, and very fat, 
and had direct iuguinal hernia, which the surgeons 
of Cairo failed to reduce after laboring over it three 
days. After he had been abandoned to die and the 
preparations for his funeral were progressing, I was 
permitted to see the case. Finding that stercoraceous 
vomiting had just begun, and persuaded tliat the pro- 
found depression which others mistook for the eftects 
of the disease, was mainly due to the injections of an 
infusion of tobacco whicn they had employed to in- 
duce relaxation, I declared the case not a hopeless one 
and undertook to treat it. Having stimulated the 
Pasha freely with brandy and water — which the na- 
tives consider unholy treatment — I had the gratilica- 
tion of seeing some reaction established; and deter- 

mined to administer chloroform, and either to reduce 
the tumor by taxis, or to perform herniotomy, if neces- 
sary. I found however, very great difliculty in getting 
auy medical man to assist me. They all retired and 
said that they would have ' nothing to do with the 
murder of the Pasha.' The Harem, through its repre- 
sentative, the Chief Eunuch, declared that 1 should 
not proceed until the private physician of the Khedive 
— a Frenchman — had given his consent. He was ac- 
cordingly sent for and asked what he thought of the 
measure which I proposed He replied that he be- 
lieved the Pasha would die inevitably, but he was in 
favor of permitting me to proceed, as every man was 
entitled to his chance. I then requested nira to aid 
me to the extent of administering chloroform. This 
he agreed to do on condition that I would assume all 
the responsibility of the case, and give him time to 
dispatch a messenger to the Khedive, informing him 
upon what terms he had consented to aid me. In the 
presence of all the priwcipal Pashas and Beys of the 
country, and the highest officials of the Court, the 
Minister was removed from his bed and placed upon 
a mattress in the middle of the room. None of the 
female portion of the household were present ; but 
they were represented by the Chief Eunuch, who stood 
at the feet of the invalid, shouting Allah ! Allah ! ! 
Allah ! ! ! whilst from the latticed Harem in the rear 
there came continually that peculiar wail which seems 
to form the principal feature in the mourning 
of the East. With the exception of the French 
physician, above referred to, all the surgeons had 
deserted the chamber, and stood in the little gar- 
den outside of the house, some praying that the sick 
man might be saved, but the majority cursing the 
stranger who had the temerity to undertake that 
which they had pronounced impossible. 

" At this moment the Chief of the Staff took me 
aside and said : ' Dr. Warren, consider well what you 
are undertaking; success means honor and fortune in 
this countrj, whilst /«(7i/»-e means ruin to you and in- 
jury to those who are identified with you. ' I replied: 
' I thank you for your caution ; but I was taught by 
my father to disregard all personal considerations in 
the practice of medicine and to think only of tbein- 
terests of my patients. I shall therefore do what my 
professional duty requires for the sick man and let 
the consequences take care of themselves. ' Having 
made all the preperatious necessary to perform herni- 
otomy, should that operation become necessary, I 
boldiv administered chloroform, although the patient 
was still in a state of great depression. To my delight 
auiethesia was promptly developed, while the circula- 
tion improved with every inspiration — just as I have 
seen it improve in some cases of shock up<m the battle- 
tield. Contiding then the administration of the chlo- 
roform to the French physician, above referred to, I 
proceeded to examine the tumor and attempt its re- 
duction. I found an immense hydrocele and by the 
side of it a hernia of no unusual dimensions — which by 
rather a forcible manipulation I completely reduced, 
after a few moments of effort. By this time the sur- 
geons, unable to restrain their curiosity, had entered 
the room and crowded around me, anxiously awaiting 
the failure which they had so blatantly predicted. 
Turning to Mehemet-Ali-Bey — the Professor of Sur- 
gery in the Medical School of Cairo — I said to him : 
' The hernia is reduced, as you can see by pushing 
your finger into the external ring.' ' Excuse me,' said 
he, in the most supercilious manner, 'you have under- 
taken to cure Kassim Pasha and I can give you no 
help in the matter.' My French friend immediatelv 
introduced his finger into the ring and said: 'Gentle- 
men, he needs no help from anyone; the hernia is re- 
duced and the Pasha is saved.' The doctors slunk 
away utterly discomfitted ; the Eunuchs, Pashas, Beys, 



and officers uttered loud cries of 'Hamdallah ! Ham- 
dallah ! ! Kismet ! Kismet ! ! Kismet ! ! ! ' (Tliaiilc 
God ! Thank God ! ! It is fate ! It it fate ! ! ) aud the 
Harem in the rear, catching the inspiration of tlie 
scene, sent up a shout of joy which sounded like the 
war-lioop of a vrliole tribe of Indians. In a moment I 
•was seized by the Chief Eunuch, embraced in the most 
impressive manner and kissed upon either cheek — an 
example which was immediately followed by a num- 
ber of those present ; — and 1 found mj-self suddeuly 
tlie most famous man in tlie country. The Pasha at 
once had a letter addressed to the Kliedive narrating 
what I had done tor him, and asking that I might be 
decorated and made a Bey. His Highness sent for me, 
thanked me warmly for having saved the lite of his 
favorite Minister, and said lie was happy to honor one 
who had done so well for him ; the Harem of the pa- 
tient presented me with a beautiful gold watch and 
chain ; my house was thronged afterwards with the 
highest dignitaries of the country who came to thank 
and congratulate me ; and I immediately secured an 
immense practice amongtbe natives — including nearly 
every incurable case in Cairo. 

The spectacle of a stranger in a strange land 
without support, undertaking duties which had 
deeu declined by others, and boldly pushing 
forward, in spite of the jealous mutterings 
which fell upon his ears, has something of true 
sublimity in it, and should make us appreciate 
the benignant nature of that moral and ethical 
code under whose guidance the subject of our 
sketch acquired that devotion to duty which 
enabled him to dare and do. For, behold the 
alternative, which, surely, he must have recog- 
nised :-had he failed, and had the Pasha died, 
his audacity would have wrought his ruin, 
and he would have been driven from the land 
in disgrace. 

As it was, however this signal triumph re- 
sulted in Dr. Warren being made the ''Chief 
Surgeon of the Egyptian Army." Colonel 
William McE. C. Dye-formely an officer in the 
United States Army and late a Colonel of the 
Egyptian Staff- in his interesting book en- 
titled, "Moslem Egypt and Christian Abyssinia,'" 
refers in the following terms to Dr. Warren's 
career in Egypt: "Dr. Edward Warren, Chief 
Surgeon of the Staff, by performing a surgical 
operation on the Minister of War for a com- 
plaint that had bafHed the skill and courage of 
the other Cairo surgeons, and by his energy 
in the erection of hospitals aud his faithful 

discharge of other duties, established a repu- 
tation which soon lifted him into place as Sur- 
geon-in-Chief of the Army;" and the London 
Lancet chronicled his success and advancement 
in these terms: "VVe understand that M. Ed- 
ward Warren of Cairo has l^een promoted by 
his Highness the EHiedive of Egypt to the po- 
sition of Chief Surgeon of the Egyptian Army. 
Mr. Warren's promotion in the East has been 
exceptionally rapid." 

In 1875, having obtained a furlough for six 
months, he visited Paris for the purpose of se- 
curing proper treatment for his eyes, and, on 
being informed by the leading occulists that a 
longer residence in Egypt would involve the 
loss of his left eye, he obtained an honorable 
discharge from the service of the Khedive 
who, in view of the services which Dr. War- 
ren had rendered in Egypt, treated him with 
great consideration and kindness. 

Through the influence of his own well-es- 
tablished reputation, aided by the cordial en- 
dorsement of his friends, Drs. Charcot and 
Ricord, of Paris ; Sir James Paget, Alfred, 
Swain Taylor, and Dr. Stevenson, of London ; 
Drs. Fordyee Barker and J. J. Crane, of New 
York; Professors Gross and Pancoast, of Phil- 
adelphia, he was soon able to commence the 
practice of medicine in Paris as a Licentiate of 
the University of France, a very great compli- 
ment in itself, and one rarely paid to a for- 

Dr. Warren's success in Paris has been ex- 
ceptionally rapid and brilliant. Practice and 
honors have flowed in an unbroken stream 
upon him. Foreigners of all nationlaities and 
of the highest titles have been as ready to 
avail themselves of his professional skill as 
have been his fellow-countrymen. The Lon- 
don Lancet promptly secured him as its "Spe- 
cial Correspondent." The Ottoman Govern- 
ment confided to him the delicate task of se- 
lecting surgeons and raising contributions for 



the wounded in the recent war with Russia. lie 
received a special invitation to participate in 
the International Medical Congress which re- 
cently assembled in Philadelphiajlieing the only 
American residing abroad who was thus hon- 
ored. The College of Physcians and Surgeons 
of Baltimore made him a Master nf Surf/iTi/ at 
a late commencement. The Governor of North 
Carolina made him a 'Special Commissioner" 
to the Paris Exposition ; while the Commis- 
sioner-General of the United States appointed 
him the Medical Officer of his Commission , 
and the French Government awarded him a 
"medal of merit" for the services which he 
rendered in these regards. The Spanish Gov- 
crment, in 1877, created him a Knight of the 
Order of Isabella the Catholic, as a reward for 
the professional skill displayed in the success- 
ful treatment of a Spaniard of high position. 
The French Government, in 1879, created liiiu 
a Chevalier of the National Order of the Le. 
gion of Honor, as a special mark of distinction 
for his professional devotion and work in 
France. The Egyptian Government, in 1882,' 
made him a "Commander of the Imperial 
Order of the Osmanlie/' for "valuable and 
important services rendered in Egypt and for 
great Medical skill displayed in Paris." He 
has recently been made an Officer of the Order 
of the redemption of the Holy Sepulchre, an 
Officer of the Ro^-al Order of the Samaritan of 
Geneva— all as rewards for professional services 
and successes. He was also selected b}' the 
American Medical Association as one of its 
delegates to the International Medical Con- 
gress which recently assembled in London and 
has been made a member of the Historical So- 
ciety of Virginia and of the American Insti- 
tute of Christian Philosophy, respectively, and 
the University of North Carolina at the last 
Commencement, conferred upon him the title 
of Doctor of Laws (LL. D.) 

The following letter announces the accession 
of tliis lionor. 

Univkrsity of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill, N. C, June 20th 1884. 

Dr. Edward Wakren (Bev). 

Sir: — In recojjuition ot your distinguished abilitjr 
and learning, and services to humanity, the Board of 
Trustees and the Faculty of the University of North 
Carolina have unaninioiisly conferred on you tlie hon- 
orary degree of Doctor of Laws. [LL. D.] 

Tliey hope tliat you will accept this evidence of the 
regard of the University of your native State. 

I liave the honor to be, your obedient servant. 

KEMP P. BATTLE, President 

While space does not permit the publication 
in this connection of the multitudinotis essays, 
reports, lectures, letters, addresses, etc., which 
have emanated from his prolitic pen and ac- 
tive brain, enough has been said of Dr. War- 
ren to justify the statement with which a distin- 
guished American surgeon (Professor S. D. 
Gross, of Philadelphia) concludes a letter in 
regard to him — viz.: "from these facts it is 
plain that he (Dr. Warren) has performed a 
great deal of work, that he is a man of indom- 
itable energy; that he possesses great and varied 
talents ; and that he has enjoyed a large share 
of professional and public confidence." Surely, 
no North Carolinian has had a more brilliant 
and remarkable record, or one which the State 
has a greater right to regard with pride and 

Dr. Warren's general culture and his great 
literary ability are widely known. His prose 
writings are lucid and chaste, though suf- 
ficiently ornate to be very attractive. His far- 
flights into the domain of poesy attest a ricli 
imagination, and considerable knowledge of 
rhythm and versification. 

In politics the Warren family were old line 
Whigs, and the Doctor's affiliation brought 
him into intimate relations with North Caro- 
lina's great war Governor, Zebulon B. Vance, 
which time has only served to ripen into an 
afl'ectionate and endming friendship. 



Genealogy of the Blount Family. 

The late Gov. Henry T. Clark considered 

this the oldest of North Carolina families. No 
family, he believed, whose name is still extant 
as a family-name in North Carolina, came into 
the Province so early as James Blount, who 
settled in Chowan in 1669. This James 
Blount is said to have been a younger son of 
Sir Walter Blount, of Sodington, Worcester- 
shire, England, and a Captain in Charles I's 
Life Guards. His Coat of Arms engraved on 
a copper plate, which he brought with him, 
was in the possession of his descendants until 
about the year 1840, when it was destroyed 
by its possessor, the late James B. Shepard of 
Raleigh. A cut of it is given above, taken 
from an impression of the original plate. 

For convenience, the family may be divided 
into two branches; the descendants of James, 
the Chowan Blounts, and the descendants of 
his younger brother who settled about Choc- 
owinity in Beaufort County, the Taw River 

*To be read in connection with pages 130-133. 

Blounts. The latter is much the more numer- 
ous branch of the family, and has become too 
extensively spread throughout the Southern 
and South- Western States, to be fully traced 
here. This brief genealogy is complied chief- 
ly from the family Bible of the Edenton fam- 
ily of Blounts, and from a Manuscript by the 
late Thomas H. Blount of Beaufort, and is as 
accurate as such accounts can ordinarily be 


James Blount, who settled in Chowan in 
1669, on a tract of land which remained in 
the possession of his descendants until the 
death of Clement Hall Blount in 1842, was a 
man of some prominence in his day. He is 
spoken of in contemporary documents as a 
member of the Governor's Council, as one of 
the Burgesses of Chowan, and as a leading 
character in the infant and very disorderly 
Colony. He left one son, John. 

This John Blount (I) born 1669: died 1725, 



left ten children, six daughters and four sons. 
Three of the daughters married and left de- 
scendants in Hyde County and about Roanoke 
Island. They are the "Worleys, Midgets and 
Manns. The sons were — 

I. John (11) born 1706, married and left 
three sons and two daughters: 

(a) JamesBlount,who married Ann Hall and 
and left three children: Clement Hall Blount 
(died aninarried in 1842); Sarah, left no issue; 
and Frederick Blount, his eldest son who mar- 
ried Eachel Bryan, (nee Herritage) and left 
among others, Frederick S. Blount, who moved 
to Alabama and became the father of a large 
family, Alexander Clement Blount, and 
Herritage Wistar Blount of Lenoir County. 

(b) Wilson Blount. 

(c) Fredrick Blount, whose daughter Mary 
(died 1856) married Wm. Shepard of New 
Berne and bore him Wm. B., Charles B., and 
James B. Shepard, Mrs. John H. Bryan, of 
Raleigh, Mrs. Ebenezer Pettigrew, and several 

(d)Elizabeth, married J. B. Beasle3^ 
(e) Marj^ married Rev. Charles Pettigrew 
1st Bishop (elect) of N. C. and left two 
sons, one of whom, Ebenezer became a mem- 
ber of Congress; married Ann Shepard of 
New Berne, and left several children : the Rev. 
William S. Pettigrew, General James John- 
ston Pettigrew, Chai'les L. Pettigrew and two 

II. Thomas born 1709, left one daughter 
Winifred, who married Hon. Whitmel Hill 
of Martin. Among their numerous descendants 
are Thomas Blount Hill Esq. of Hillsboro' and 
the family of the late Whitmel J. Hill of Scot- 
land Neck. 

III. James, born 1710, left two daughters; 
(a) Nancy married Dempsey Connor (son of 
Dempsey Connor and Mary Pendleton, great- 
granddaughter of Governor Archdale ) and left 

one daughter Frances Clark Pollock Connor, 
married Ist, Joseph Blount (III) and 2nd, 
Wm. Hill, late Secretary of State of North 
Carolina; and (b) Betsy who was married to 
Jeremiah Vail. 

IV. Joseph (I) born 1715, died 1777, who 
married 1st, Sarah Durant, born 1718, died 
1751, (a descendant of George Durant, the first 
known English settler in N. C. ) and left only 
one child Sarah, (born 1747, died 1807,) who 
married in 1771, William Littlejohn,by whom 
she became the mother of a lai'ge family, well 
known in this and other Southern States. Atter 
the death of hisfirst wife, Joseph Blount(I)mar- 
ried, (1752) Elizabeth Suarboro, by whom he 
had(besidesone son, Lemuel Edwards, drowned 
at sea in 1778) one son: 

Joseph Blount (II) born 1755, died 1794, 
who married 1st, (1775) Lydia Bonner, and 
left two children : 

fa) John Bonner Blount, born 1777, married 
Mary Mutter: they were the parents of Thomas 
M. Blount, late of Washington citj' ( whose son, 
Maj. Thomas M. Blount was killed at Malvern 
Hill), of Mrs. Thomas H. Blount, Mrs. Henry 
Hoyt and Mrs. James Treadwell of Washing- 
ton N. C. and of Mrs. Henry M. Daniel, of 
Tenn. His sons Joseph and John died with- 
out issue. 

(b) Mary born 1779, married William T. 
Muse,and had two sons, (I) William T.Muse, late 
of the U. S. and C. S. Navy, who mar- 
ried and left issue; (2) John B. Muse,died un- 

For a second wife Joseph Blount (II) in 
1782, married Ann Gray(born 1757, died 1814,) 
daugliter of Wm. Gray of Bertie, and left issue. 

(c) Joseph Blount (III) born 1785, died 
1822, who married (1808) Frances Clark Pol- 
lock Connor, and left one son Joseph Blount 
(IV) who died unmarried. 

(d) Frances Lee married Henderson Standin. 
left one son, William II. Standin. 



( e ) Sarah Elizabeth married Thomas Mor- 
gan but left no issue. 

(f) Ehzabeth Ann, [born 1790, died 1869,) 
married in (1812) John Cheshire (born 1769, 
died 1830,) and left issue the Eev. Joseph 
Blount Cheshire, D. D., Mrs.E. D. Macnair,of 
Tawboro, and Mrs. James Webb of Hillsboro. 

(g) Eleanor Gray, man-ied John Cox, left 
one daughter, Ann B. P., married Willie J. 
Epps of Halifax. 


A younger brother of James Blount of Cho- 
wan, is thought to have settled on Taw or 
Pamplico River about 1673. He left six sons 
Thomas, John, James, Benjamin, Jacob and 
Esau, the last two being twins. The Tusca- 
rora Chief, King Blount, a valuable ally of the 
whites in the Indian war of 1711, is said to 
have assumed that name from his attachment 
to one of these brothers. Nothing is known 
definitely of the descendants of any of the six, 
except the eldest, Thomas. 

This Thomas Blount married Ann Reading 
and left four sons, Reading, James, John and 
Jacob. All of these left families, and from 
•^hem are descended, no doubt, man\' persons of 
this name in Beaufort and the adjacent Count- 
ies ; but we can trace the descendants of the 
jast named only. 

Jacob Blount (born 1726, died 1789) was 
an officer under Gov. Tryon in the battle of 
Alamance; a member of the Assembly fre- 
Cjuentty, and of the Halifax Congress of 1776; 
married 1st, (1748) Barbara Gray, of Bertie, 
sister to William Gray, mentioned in the ge- 
nealogy of the Chowan Blounts; 2nd, Mrs. 
Hannah; Baker (nee Salter); 3rd, Mrs. Mary 
Adams. By his last wife he had no children; 
by his wife, Barbara Gray, he left among 
others — 

I. William Blount, born 1749, died 1800. 

II. John Gray Blount, born 1752, died 1833. 

III. Reading Blount, born 1757, died 1807. 

IV. Thomas Blount,born 1759, died 1812; 

V. Jacob Blount, born 1760, died . 

By his wife, Hannah Salter, he left : 

VI. Willie Blount, born 1768, died 1835. 
Vn. Sharp Blount, born 1771, died 1810. 
Of these William, John Gray, Reading 

Thomas and Willie became prominent and dis- 
tinguished men; among the most eminent in 
North Carolina and Tennessee for their high 
talents, public spirit, enterprise and wealth. 
Their marriages and descendants were as fol- 

L William Blount, (born 1749, died 1800,) a 
Member of Congress in 1782 and 1786; of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1787, was de- 
feated for the TJ. S. Senate by Benjamin 
Hawkins, on the adoption of the Federal Con- 
stitution in 1789; appointed by Washington in 
1790 Governor of the Territory south of the 
Ohio; removed to Tennessee and founded 
the city of Knoxville ;wa8 chosen one of the first 
Senators from Tennessee. In 1797, he was ex- 
pelled by a vote of the Senate,and subsequenth' 
impeached by the House of Representatives, 
for alleged treasonable practices in endeavor- 
ing to incite the Indian tribes on our South- 
western frontier to hostilities against Spain. 
The articles of impeachment were after argu- 
ment quashed in the Senate. On his return 
to Knoxville the Speaker of the State Senate 
resigned, and William Blount was unani- 
mously chosen by the people to succeed him 
in the Senate, and by that body to succeed 
him in the Chair, as an expression of popular 
confidence and affection. His death early in 
the year 1800, alone prevented him from 
being elected Governor of Tennessee. He mar- 
ried (1778) Mary Grainger, daughter of Col. 
Caleb Grainger, of Wilmington, and left issue: 
I. Ann married 1st, Henry I. Toole (II) of 
Edgecombe, to whom she bore Henry I. Toole 
(HI), and Mary Eliza, married Dr. Joseph 
Lawrence: she married 2nd, Weeks Hadley,of 



Edgecombe, by whom she had several child- 

2. Mary Louisa, married (1801) Pleasant M. 
Miller and left a large family; one of her 
daughters, Barbara, married Hon.Wm. H. Ste- 
phens, late of Memphis, now of Los Angelos, 

3. William Grainger Blount, member of 
Congress from Tennessee; he died unmarried 
in 1827. 

4. Richard Blackledge Blount, married and 
left children iti Tennessee. 

5. Barbara married Gen. E. P. Gaines, left 
one son, Edmund Gaines of Washington city, 
D. C. 

6. Eliza married Dr. Edwin Wiatt and left 
two sons and one daughter. 

n. John Gray Blount (I), born 1752, died 
1833, in his youth a companion of Daniel Boone 
in the early explorations of Kentucky, but set- 
tled permanently in Washington, jST. C. He 
was frequently a member of the Assembly, and 
though not ambitious of political oiBce, prob- 
ably the most influential man in his section of 
the State. He is said to have been the largest 
land-owner in North Carolina. He married 
(1778), Mary Harvey, daughter of Col. Miles 
Harvey of Perquimans, and left issue: 

1. Thomas Harvej' Blount, (born 1781, died 
1850,) who married 1st: (1810) Ellen Brown, 
by whom he had no children, 2nd. (1827) 
Elizabeth M. daughter of Jno. Bonner Blount, 
of Edenton, and left issue, three sons and 
three daughters: Elizabeth M. (Geer), Polly 
Ann (Hatton), John Gray Blount (III), Mary 
Bonner (WilJard), Thomas Harvey Blount 
and Dr. Wm. Augustus Blount. 

2. John Gray Blount (H), born 1785, died 
1828, married Sally Haywood but left no 

3. Polly Ann, (born 1787, died 1821,) mar- 
ried Wm. Rodman and left issue: William 
Blount Rodman, late a Judge of the Supreme 

Court of North Carolina, Mary Marcia Blount, 
and Mary Olivia Blount who married J. G. B. 

4. William Augustus Blount, married 1st 
Nancy Haywood and 2nd Nancy Littlejohn: 
For him and his family see post, page 11, 
under Beaufort CountJ^ 

5. Lucy Olivia (born 1799, died 1854,) mar- 
ried Bryan Grimes, and left, issue: Mary, 
Annie, Olivia, and John Gray Blount Grimes. 

B Patsy Baker, born 1802, still living unmar- 

IIL Reading Blount, (born 1757, died 
1807,) a Major in the Revolutionary War; 
married Lucy Harvey, daughter of Col. Miles 
Harvey, and left five children:' 

1. Polly who married John Myers and left 
a large family in Washington, N. C. 

2. Louisa, married Jos. W. Worthington, of 

3. Willie Blount, married Delia Blakemore 
of Tennessee. 

4. Caroline Jones, married Benjamin Run- 

5. Reading Blount, married Polly Ann 
Clark, and left one sou, Reading Blount. 

IV. Thomas Blount (born 1759, died 
1812), an officer of distinction in the Revolu- 
tion, Major in Col. Buncombe's Regiment. Set- 
tled at Tawboi'O; was frequently a member of 
the Assembly from Edgecombe; a member of 
Congress for several sessions, and died in 
Washington City in 1812. He married 1st 
Patsy Baker; 2nd Jacky Sumner (afterwards 
known as Mrs. Mary Sumner Blount) daughter 
of Gen. Jethro Sumner of Warren. He had 
no children by either marriage. 

V. Jacob Blount, (born 1760 died ,') 

married 1st (1789) Ann Collins, daughter of 
Josiah Collins of Edenton, by whom he had 
two daughters,(a)Ann; and (b) Elizabeth, who 
married Jno. W. Littlejohn, of Edenton. He 
afterwai'ds married Mrs. Augustus Harvey; 



but had no children by the second marriage. 

VL Willie Blount (born 1768: died 1835) ; 
went to Tennessee in 1790 as private Secre . 
tary to his eldest brother Gov. William Blount; 
was elected Judge of the Supreme Court m 
1796; Governor from 1809 to 1815. He raised 
OH his private credit the money with which to 
equip the three Tennessee regiments sent 
under Andrew Jackson to the defense of New 
Orleans during the war of 1812. In recog- 
nition of his eminent public services, the 
State of Tennessee in 1877 erected a mon- 
ument to his memory in Clarksville, Ten- 
nessee. He married Lucinda Baker, and left 
two daughters, Mrs. Dabney and Mrs. Dortch, 
of Tennessee. For his second wife he mar- 
ried the widow of Judge Hugh Lawson 

VIL Sharp Blount (born 1771; died 1810,) 
married Penelope Little, daughter of Col. 
George Little of Hertford, and left three sons. 
(a) William Little Blount, (b) Jacob Blount, 

(c) George Little Blount. The first two died 
without issue. George Little Blount married 
a Miss Cannon of Pitt, and resided at Blount 
Hall in Pitt County, the seat of his grand- 
father Jacob Blount. 

It has been impossible to give more than a 
summary of the genealogy of this extensive 
family. It is hoped that the above is suffi- 
cient to enable any one to trace the connec- 
tions of its principal branches. 

It may be added that William and Willie 
Blount were both, in all probability, born 
at Blount Hall in Pitt County, and not in Ber- 
tie, as is sometimes stated, and as is inscribed 
on the monument erected by the State of Ten- 
nessee to the memory of the latter. There is 
no reason to suppose that their father, .Jacolj 
Blount, ever lived in Bertie. Also the story 
of the absurd mscription on the stone on Mrs. 
Mary Sumner Blount's grave in Tawboro, is 
entirely untrue. 

Genealogy of the Barringer Family, 

John Paul Barringer, born in Germany 1721, 
came to America 1743; settled in Pennsylva- 
nia, where he married^l ) Ann Elizabeth Iseman 
called Aiyi lis; came to Mecklenburg Co. N. C. 
about 1746, and there married (2) Catherine 
Blackw elder. He died in 1807. 

Issue: I. Catherine married 1st to John Phifer, 
one of the signers of (20ch of May 1775) Dec- 
laration of Independence; Issue (a) Paul, who 
married Jane Alexander and had George, Mar- 
tin, John N., Nelson and Caleb; (b) Margaret 
married to John Simianer; she (Catherine) 
married a second time to George Savage and 
had (a) Catherine, who married Noah Partee, 
and Mary, who married Richard Harris. 

II. John (Mt. Pleasant family.) 

m. Paul, born 1778, died 1844; married Eliz 
abeth Brandon, Ijorn 1783, died 1844; issue: 
(a) Daniel Moreau, born 1806, died 1873; in 
legislature 1829 to '34; '39, '54; Member of 
Congress 1843 to 1849; U. S. Envoy to Spain, 
1849; in Peace Congress of 1861; married Eliz- 
abeth W ithered, of Baltimore, andhad( 1 )Lew- 
in, born 1850; University of Virginia; married 
Miss Miles; (2) DanielM., born I860; (b) Mar- 
garet, married 1st to John Boyd; 2nd to An- 
drew Grier; (c) Paul, married Carson ; (d),\Iary, 
married C. W. Harris; (e) Matthew; (f) Wil- 
liam, married Alston, and had John, Paul. Wil- 
liam, Charles, Victor and Ella; (g) Elizabeth, 



married Edwin R. Harris; (li) Alfred; (i) Rufus, 
Brig. Gen. C. S. A., married 1st Eugenia Mor- 
rison, and had Anna and Paul; '2nd, Rosalie 
Chunn, and had Rufus ; 3rd, Margaret Long, 
. and had Osmond; (k) Catherine, married Gen. 
W". C. Means. Issue: Paul, Robert, James, 
William, Bettie, George and Aactor; (1) A^ic- 
tor, legislature of I860; Judge of International 
Court in Egypt; married Maria Massie. 

IV.Matthias; V. Martin; VI. Elizabeth, mar- 
ried to Ist, George Pitts; 2nd, to John Boon, 

of Guilford; VII. Sarah, married to Jacob 
Brem, of Lincolnton; VIII. Esther, married to 
Thomas r'larke, of Tennessee; IX. Daniel L. 
Barringer, born 1788; died 1852; legislature 
181.3-'19-'2.3; in Congress 1826 to 1835; mar- 
ried Miss White, granddaughter of 

Governor Caswell; removed to Tennessee, and 
was Speaker of the House; X. Jacob, married 
Mar^' Ury; XI. Leah, mai'ried 1st David Hol- 
ton, 2nd Jacob Smith; XII. Mary, mari'ied to 
Wesley Harris, of Tennessee. 

Genealogy of the Clark Family. 

Christopher Clai'k, a sea-captain, and mer- 
chant in Edenton, came from North of England 
about 1760. After some jenrs removed to Ber- 
tie_ County, near the mouth of Salmon Creek. 

He married 1st, Elizabeth , by whom 

he had Elizabeth, Mary and Sarah. 

I. Elizabeth Clark married Judge Blake Ba- 
ker, of Tarboro', and left no issue. 

II. Mary Clark married George West; born 
1758, died 1810, and left issue: [a] Robert 
West, who married Ann Dortch, by whom he 
had Isaac D., Robert, George Clark. Martha, 
married W. B. Johnson; Mary, married Chas. 
Minor; Arabella, married Q. C. Atkinson; Ann; 
Laura, married Robert McClure ; Elizabeth and 

[b] Mary AVest, married Judge P. W. Hum- 
phrey, and left Judge West H. Humphrey, 
married Pillow; Elizabeth, married Baylis; 
Georgianna, married Powell; Charles and 

[c] George West married Ann Lytle, and 
left Robert, George, Ann, married Gillespie. 

III. Sarah Clark married William Clements, 
and left: 

[a] Sarah; [b] Arabella, married C. Bay- 
lis; [c] Alary, married R. Collier; [d] Dr. 
Christopher C; [e] John H., and [f] RobeitW. 

After the death of his first wife, Christopher 
Clark married about 1778 or 1779, Hannah Tur- 
ner, of Bertie, daughter of Thomas Turner, and 

IV. .James West Clark, born 1769, died 1845, 
who married Arabella E. Toole, born 1781, died 
1860, daughter of Henry L Toole, of Edge- 
combe, and left issue: 

[a] Henry Toole Clark, born 1808, died 1874, 
University of North Carolina, 1826; North Car- 
olina Senate, 1859-'60 ; Governor, 1861 ; he mar- 
ried, 1850, Mrs. Maiy Weeks Hargrove [nee 
Parker] daughter of Theophilus Parker, of Tar- 
boro', and left the following children: Laura 
P., Haywood, Henry Irwin, Alaria T. and Ara- 
bella T. 

[b] Maria Toole, born 1813, died 1859; mar- 
ried, 1852, Alatt. Waddell; left no issue. 

[c] Laura Placidia, born 1816, died 1864; 
married, 1832, John AV. Gotten, and left Mar- 
garet E., married J. A. Englehard ; Arabella 
C, married Wni. D. Barnes; Florida, married 
Wm. L. Saunders, and John AV., married Eliz- 
abeth Frick. 

[d] Mary Sunmer, born 1817, married Dr. 
Wm. George Thomas, and have issue: George 
G., Arabella and Jordan T. 



Genealogy of the Haywood Family 

John Haywood, the founder of the family 
in North Cai'oliua, was born in Christ Church 
Parish, near St. Michael's, in the Island of 
Bai'badoes. He was the son of John Haywood, 
a younger brother of Sir Henry Haywood a 
Knight and magistrate in the old country and 
must have been a man of some note as Evelyn 
in his Memoirs speaks of having met him at 
court and was not faverably impressed with 
his arrogant manner. He settled in 1730 at 
the mouth of Conecanarie in Halifax, then a 
part of the great county of Edgecombe. He 
was Treasurer of the northern counties of the 
Province from 17{i2, until his death in 1758. 

He married Mary Lovett, by whom he had 
six children. 

I. Elizabeth married Jesse Hare, she died in 
1774 and had issue: [a] Ann married Isaac 
Groom and his son Isaac married Sarah Pear- 
son; [b] Mary married, tirst Richard Croora 
and second to Hicks. 

II. Mary Haywood married to the Kev. 
Thomas Burgess, 1761, ^\■hose son Lovett, mar- 
ried first Elizabeth Irwin, second Priscilla Mon- 
nie, third Mrs. Black; to the last named 
were born [a] Maiy married to Alston, 1824, 
[b] Elizabtb married, 1812, to Alston, of Bed- 
ford county, Virginia; [c] Melissa married to 
Gen. William Williams, whose daughter, Me- 
lissa, married to Col. Joseph John Long and 
their daughter, Ellen married to Gen. Junius 
Daniel, who was killed at Chancellorsville; — 
[d] John married Martha Alston and [e] 

Thomas, a distinguished lawyer in Halifax, 
who left no issue. 

III. Deborah married to .John Hardy but 
had no issue. 

IV. Col. William Haywood, of Edgecombe, 
married Charity Hare; he died in 1779, and 
bad ten children. [1] Jemima, married to 
John Whitfield of Lenoir, died 1837, with 
following issue; [a] William H. twice married 
and left seven children; [b] Constantine, left 
five children; [c] Sherwood, unmarried; [d] 
John Walter, left three children; [e] Jemima, 
left six children, married first to Middleton, 
second to Willams; [f] Mary Baffin; [g] Kiz- 
iah Arabella, had three children; [h] Eachel 
Daniel, married John Jones and had five chil- 
dren; [i] George Washington, not married. 

[2] John Haywood, State Treasurer for forty 
3'ears; married 1st Sarali Leigh, and 2nd Eliza, 
daughter of John Pugh Williams and had issue; 
by last marriage [a] .Tohn, unmarried; [b] Geo. 
Washington, unmarried; [c] Thomas Burgess, 
unmarried, [d] Dr .Fabius Julius, married Mar- 
tha Whitaker by whom he had issue; Fabius J., 
John Pugh, Joseph and Mary, married to Judge 
Daniel G. Fowle; [e] Eliza Eagles, unmarried, 
[f] Rebecca married to Albert G. Hall, of 
New Hanover County; [g] Frances, unmar- 
ried; [b] Edmund Burke, who married Lue\' 
Williams, and had issue; E. Burke, Alfred, 
Dr. Hubert, Ernest, Edgar, John and Eliza 
Eagles, married to Preston Bridgers. [3] Ann, 
born 1760, died 1842; married to Dr. Robert 



WilliamSj surgeon in the Continental Army^ 
and had issue; [a] Eliza, married to Rev. Jolin 
Singletary, issue; three sons: Col. George B. 
killed in battle, Col. Richard, and Col. Thomas, 
[b] Dr. Robert Williams jr., who left issue; 
[4] Charity married to Col. Lawrence of Ala- 
bama and had three children; [5] Mary mar- 
ried to Etheldred Ruffin, and had issue; [a] 
Sarah, married to Dr. Henry Haywood; [b] 
Henry J. G. Ruffin who married Miss Tart and 
was the father of Col. Sam. and also of Col. 
Thomas Ruffin, who fell at Hamilton Crossing, 
in Virginia. 

[g] Sherwood, born 1762, died 1829; mar- 
ried Eleanor Hawkins, born in 1776, died in 
1855, issue; [a] Ann, who married Wm. A 
Blount; their issue were Major Wm. A. Blount 
jr. of Raleigh and Ann, widow of Gen. L. 0' 
B. Branch, to the last named were born Susan 
0' Bryan, married to Robert H. Jones; Will- 
iam A. B.; Ann married to Armistead Jones; 
Josephine married to Kerr Craige of Salisbury, 
[b] Sarah married first to John Gray Blount, 
and second to Gavin Hogg, she left no issue; [c] 
Delia, married first to Gen. William WiUiams, 
and second to Hon. George E. Badger, issue 
to the first marriage Col. Joseph John Will- 
iams of Tallahassee, Florida, and to the second 
marriage: [1] Mary married to P. M. Hale; 
[2] George, [3] Major Richard Cogdell, [4] 
Thomas, [5] Sherwood, [6] Edward Stanley 
[7] Ann, married first to Bryan, second to 
Col. Paul Faison; [d] Dr. Rufus Haywood, died 
unmarried; [e] Lucy, married to John S. 
Bryan and had issue: [1] Mrs. Basil Manly, 
[2] Mrs. Thomas Badger, [3] Mrs. Wm. H. 
Young, and [4] John S. Bryan of Salisbury. 

[f] Francis P., married first Ann Farrall, 
second Mrs. Martha Austin, daughter of Col. 
Andrew Joyner of Halifax; 

[g] Robert W. married Mary White and 
left one child, Mary; 

[h] Maria T. unmarried. 

[i] Dr. Richard B., married Julia Hicks, 
issue: [1] Sherwood, [2] Graham, [3] Effie, 
married to Col. Carl A. Woodruff, U. S. A., 
[4] Lavinia, [5] Howard, [6] Marshall, [7] 
Eleanor, [8] Marian. 

[7J Elizabeth, born 1758, died ]832; married 
Henry Irwin Toole, [I] born 1750, died 1791, 
of Edgecombe, and left issue: Henry I. Toole 
[II] born 1778,diedl816; Arabella, born 1782, 
died 1860, and Mary, born 1787, died 1858. 

Henry I. Toole [II] married Ann Blount, 
daughter of Gov. Wm. Blount, of Tenn.; and 
left issue: [a] Henry I. Toole [HI] born 1810, 
died 1850; married Margaret Telfair ; [b] Mary 
Eliza, born 1812, died ; married Dr. Jo- 
seph J. Lawrence, of Tawboro'. 

Arabella Toole, married to the Hon. James 
West Clark. For their descendants see the 
Clark Genealogy, page Ixii. 

Mary Toole, married Theophilus Parker, born 
1775, died 1849, of Tawboro', and had issue: 
[a] the Rev. John Haywood Parker, born 1813, 
died 1858; [b] Catharine C, born 1817, mar- 
ried 1st John Hargrave, 2nd Rev, Robert B. 
Drane, D. D.; [c] Elizabeth T,, born 1820, mar- 
ried Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, D. D.; [d] 
Mary W., born 1822, married 1st Frank Har- 
grave, 2nd Gov. Henry T. Clark; [e] Col. Fran- 
cis M. Parker, and [f] Arabella C. Parker. 

[8] Wm. Henry, born 1770,died 1857, mar- 
ried Anne Shepherd, issue; [1] Hon. Wm. H. 
Haywood, born 1801; IJ. S. Senator, who mar- 
ried Jane Graham, had issue: Wm. H. killed at 
the Wilderness, Duncan Cameron, killed at 
ColdHarbor; Edward G.; Minerva, married to 

Baker; Jane, married to Hon. Sion H. 

Rogers; Ann married to Samuel Ruffin; Mar- 
garet married to Cameron; Gertrude married 
to George Trapier; Elizabeth unmarried. [2] 
Charity, daughter of Wm. Henry Haywood 
married Governor Charles Manly, and left issue: 
Col. John H., married Caroline Henry; Langdon 
C; Cora, married to Col. George B. Singletary; 



Helen married to John Gnmes; Julia, married 
to Col. McDowell, who was killed in battle; 
Sophia married to Harding; Ida married to Dr 
Jos. Baker of Tarboro, and Basil, commander 
of Manly's Battei'y, married Lucy Br^-an. 

[9] Stephen born 1772, died 1824, married, 
first Miss Lane 1798, by whom he had Dr. John 
Leigh Haywood and Beiijaman Fi-anklin Ha}^- 
wood; married second Delia Hawkins 1809, by 
whom he had Wm. Dallas,married Mary Cannon 
Margaret Craven married to George Little, Lu- 
cinda, married to Sasser; and Sarah; and Phil- 
emon H. Haywood, U. S. Navy. 

[10] Elizabeth, married to Governor Dud- 
ley, died 1840, and had issue: Edward B.; Wro 
Henry, married Baker; Christopher; Eliza Ann, 
married to Purnell; Jane, married to Johnson, 
Margaret married Col. Mcllhenny. 

V. Sherwood [son of John Haywood of Con. 
ecanarie,] married Hannah Gray and had Adam 
John, who married his cousin, Sarah the daugh- 
ter of Egbert, issue: one daughter .Margaret, 
(died 1874,) who became the wife of Hon. 
Louis D. Henry, born 1788, died 1840, and had 
Virginia, married to Col. Duncan K McRae ; Car- 
oline married to Col. John H. Manly; Augusta, 
wife of R. P. Waring; Margaret, married to Col. 
Ed'. G. Haywood; Mary, married to Matt. P. 
Taylor; Malvina, to Douglas Bell, and Louis D.^ 
married Virginia Massenburg. 

Since the aforesaid, sketch of tlie Haywood family 
had been put in "forms," a note from Dr. E. Burke 
Haywood, of Raleis:li, was received, in wliich he cor 
lec'ts tlie sketch in these particulars: The cliildien of 
John Haywood, the founder of the family in Noitli 
Carolina, slionld be sketched in tlie following order: 

I. William Haywood, of Edgecombe; 11. Sherwood; 
III. Mary, wife of Rev. Thomas Burgess: IV. Eliza- 
beth, wife of Jesse Have; V. Deabora; VI. Egbert, 
and VII. John, who died unmarried. 

VI. Egbert, the sixth child of John Hay- 
wood, died 1801, married Sarah Ware and had 
issue: [a] Sarah, married Adam John Hay- 
wood, [b] John, a Judge in Xorth Carolina and 
in Tennessee, the historian, died in 1826; [c] 
Dr. Henry, who married Sarah Ruffin, [d] 
Mary married Robert Bell, and Jiad [1] Mar- 
garet, married to Duffy, [2] Dr. E. H. Bell. 
[3] Col W. H. Bell, [4] Admiral Henry H. 
Bell U. S. NavyyJe'] Betsy married to Will- 
iam Shepperd and had issue: [1] Sarah married 
to Hon. Wm. B Grove of Fayetteville, a 
Member of Congress, 1791-1802; [4] Betsy 
married Col. Saml. Ashe, born 1763 died 1835, 
and to the last named were born Betsy, mar- 
ried to Owen Holmes; Mary Porter married to 
Dr. S. G. Moses of St. Louis; Hon. John B. 
Ashe, Member of Congress from Tennessee, 
married his cousin Eliza Hay, and moved to 
Texas; Hon. Wm. S., married Sarah Ann 
Green; Thomas married Rosa Hill; Richard 
Porter of San Francisco, married Lina Loyal; 
Susan married to her cousin David Grove; 
Sarah married Judge Samuel Hall of Georgia. 

[3] Susan Shep[ierd married David Hay; 

[4] Mary married Samuel P. Ashe of Halifax ; 

[5] ^Largaret married Dr. John Rogers; 

[61 William, [7] Egbert and [8] Henry. 
[See ante jiage 336.] 

VII. John, who died unmarried. 

The children of John Haywood, (State Treasurer for 
forty years, after whom Haywood County and the 
town of Haywood Were named,) the second child of 
William and Charity Hare, should be named in the 
following order: 

[a] Eliza Eacrles; [b] John Steele; fc] George Wash- 
ington; [d]Fabius Julius; [e] Alfred Moore; [f] Thos. 
Burgess; [g] Rebecca; [hj William Davie; [i] Benja- 
min Rush; [k] Frances Ann; [11 Sarah Wool; [m] Ed- 
mund Burke. 







Genealogy of the Phifer Family. 

The name Pfeiffer is an old and honored 
one in Germany. Very many of the name 
have held high and honored positions in the 
management of the Civil and Military aftairs 
of the Empire. A copy of the recoi'ds of State, 
together with information sutHcient to estab- 
lish the identity- of the American branch of the 
house has been elicited by a recent correspon- 
dence with branches of the family at Berne, 
Switzerland, and in Breslau, Germany. 

The two brothers, .John and Martin Pfeiffer 
who came to America, were descendants from 
the famil}' of "Pfeifters of Pfeiffersburgh." 

The records show the family to be "Pfeiffer 
of Pfeiffersburgh, knights of the order of 
Hereditary Austrian Knighthood; with armo- 
rial bearings as follows: Shield, lengthwise 
divi'-'ed; the right in silver, with a black, 
crowned Eagle looking to the right; the left 
in blue, from lower part of quarter ascending 
a white rock, with five summits, over the cen- 
ter one an eight-pointed star pendant. (Schild 
der Lange getheiit; reehts in Silber ein 
rechtsselhender, gekronter, Schwarz Adler 
und links in Blau ein auc dem Feldesfusse 
aufsteigender, Weisser Fels mit fiinf Spitzen 
uber desen mittlerer ein achtstahliger, gold- 
ener Stern Schwebt.) They were descended 

fi'om Pfeiffer Von Heisselburgh. A diploma 
(patent,) of nobility was issued to Martin 
Caspar Pfeiff"er and Mathias Pfeiffer in 1590, 
with armorial bearings of Knights of Heis- 
selburg order of Nobility of the Empire. 
Johnn Baptist Pfeiffer Von Pfeiffersburg, 
Knight, with armorial bearings as above stated 
was descendant of Knights of Heisselburgh and, 
hereditary heir of Pfeiffersburgh; Achenranian 
Mining and Smelting works; with exclusive 
privilege granted by the Crown, to trade in 
the "Brass of Achenrain and Copper of Schwatz_ 
A diploma was issued to him May 10th, 1721_ 
He received an jncrease of arms on the 4th 
of March 1785, (right field and second helmet.) 
The pedigree flourished, and a great-grand- 
son of Johnn Baptist Pfeiffer, Knight of Pfeiff- 
ersburg; Leopold .Vlaria, Knight of Pfeiffers- 
burgh, born 1785, possessor of Hannsburg, coun- 
ty Hallein. was matriculated into the nobility 
of the Kingdom of Bavaria after the invest- 
ment of the same." 

" Caspar Pfeiffer Von Pfeiffersburg, Knight, 
second brother to Johnn Baptist Pfeiffer, 
Knight of Pfeiffersburg, possessor of Treeher- 
witz, County Oels, Germany, lived in the year 
1713 on his estates. In 1725 he permanently 
located in Berne, Switzerland, and had con- 



trol of the sale of brass and copper from the 
Achenranian mines. He had two sons to come 
to America in the spring of the year 1737. 
John PfeifFer and Martin PfeifFer." 

Martin Pfeiffer carried on quite an extensive 
coirespondence with his rehitives in Berne 
and in Germany. All these letters, together 
with an immense quantity of his son's( Martin 
l^hifer Jr.) correspondence with the family 
in Berne and elsewhere; and all the records 
which Martin Pfeiffer and all his sons placed 
so much value upon and which had been so 
carefully preserved by the first members of the 
family, seem to have fallen into disfavor with 
Jolm Phifer (born 1779.) Tliey were packed 
away in trunks and kept up in the garret at 
the " Black Jacks. " 

All the members of the family had spoken 
German up to the time of John Phifer (1779.) 
He never spoke German to any of his children. 
It was with him the change in spelling the 
name to Phifer occurred. 

The papers were consequently unknown to 
any of the various children who, when at play 
in the large old garret, saw them. These pa- 
pers were all destroyed by the burning of 
George Locke Phifer's house. 

An old gold watch set around with diamonds, 
and thought to liear the arms of the family, 
together with various old trinkets, were also 

The sketch of this family is writtsn from 
knowledge communicated by different mem- 
bers of the family. 

The will of Mart in Pfeiffer, sr., was kept until 
the year 1865, when it was lost. Some of the Bi- 
bles of the family have also been lost. The pres- 
ent historj' however is accurate and can be relied 
upon in every respect. The information in 
regard to the family in Germany has been ob- 
tained by recent correspondence with a branch 
of the family in Berne,Switzorland and in Bres- 
lau, Germany. Great pains have been taken 

that every thing should be exact, and in many 
instances, the preparation of this paper has 
been delayed for months that a date should be 
correct. To the sketch of the life of John Phi- 
fer, the first son of Martin Pfeiffer, sr., a great 
deal of valuable aid was aiforded by Mr. Victor 
C. Barringer. 

The Phifer family has been for five genera- 
tions the most wealthy and prominent in Ca- 
barrus County. For many successive years they 
have been appointed to places of honor and 
responsibility by the people of the Counties of 
Cabarrus and Mecklenburg, some in each gen- 
eration have occupied prominent positions in 
the legislative halls of the State. Their love 
for truth, honor and justice, their liberality of 
opinion and their sterling qualities of mind and 
of heart have necessarily made them leaders of 
the people for generations. The}- have exercised 
great influence in directing the political and 
social development of their county and State. 
Not one single instance can be found of a fam- 
ily quarrel, the contesting of a will or any 
bankrupt proceeding by which the name could 
suffer. The men have all been noble men, the 
women have all been good and pure, and have 
well sustained the good and ancient name. 

Martin Pfeiffer was an educated man, and 
must have come to America rather well pro- 
vided with money, as he immediately became 
possessed of large tracts of land ; and became a 
prominent and influential man, a very short 
time after he settled in the State. The prom- 
inent place taken by his son John, as a leader, 
and as an orator in the early days also goes to 
show that his father must have been a man of 
unusual ability and distinction. 

John PfeifFer the younger of the two 
brothers who came to America in 1738, from 
Berne, settled in what is now known as Eow- 
an County, N. C. Very little is known of his 
life. He died some years before his brother 
Martin Pfeifter. He left his home in the up- 



per portion of Rowan county, to come down 
and visit his brother; after he had been gone 
for a week his family became alarmed about 
him and a messenger was sent to Martin Pfei- 
ffer's. It was found that he had not reached 
that point. The neighborhood was aroused 
and search was made for him. His body was 
found a day or so afterwards near the main 
road in an advanced state of decomposition. 
He is supposed to have become ill, to have 
fallen from his horse and died, as no marks of 
violence were found on his person. He had 
it is supposed, only two children; a son Math- 
ias and a daughter who married a Mr. Webb' 
Mathias Pfeiffer jr. had one child, Paul, who 
was a Baptist preacher and had one daughter 
whose name is now unknown. 

The above is all the information available 
as to this branch of the family. Their otf- 
spring does not seem to have been very num- 
erous, and the tAvo branches appear to have 
drifted apart. 

- Alartin Pfeifl'er, born October 18th, 1720, 
in Switzerland, died January' 18th, 1791, at 
"Cold Water," Cabarrus county, N. C. Reached 
America in 1738; in Legislature of 1777 from 
Mecklenburg county; married 1745, Margaret 
Blackwelder, who was born 1722, died 1803. 
Issue three sons: (I) John; (II) Calel); (III) 



John born at -''Cold Water," March 22nd, 
1747; died at "Red Hill," 1778; married 1768 
Catherine, daughter of Paul Barringer, (who 
was born 1750, died 1829; after John Phifer's 
death she married Savage ef Rowan county,) 
as a member of the Charlotte convention, 
John Phifer signed the Declaration of May 
20th, 1775; member of Provincial Assembly 
at Hillsboro, August 21st, 1775, and at Hali- 
fax April 4th, 1776, and of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of November 12th, 1776; 
commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, in Colonel 

Griffith Rutherford's Regiment December 21st, 
1776; served in the campaign against the Cher- 
okee Indians and the Scovelite Tories. Bro- 
ken down by exposure and his own tireless 
energy, he fell an early sacrifice in the cause 
of freedom. 

A man of distinguished character and super- 
ior attainments, and appeal's to have beeiT one 
of the most conspicuous of the remarkable men 
who figured in the foreground cf the move- 
ment which resulted in the independence. His 
burning and fervid eloquence did much to ig- 
nite the flames of indignation against the usur- 
pations of the mother country. He left the fol- 
lowing issue: (A) Paul, born at Red Hill, Nov. 
14th, 1770; died May 20th, 1801; educated at 
"Queen's Museum" afterwards "Liberty Hall" 
in Charlotte; married 1799 Jane Alexander, 
born 1750, who, after his death married Mr. 
Means of Mecklenburg. 

Issue: (I) Martin jr., born 1792, died in 
childhood, (II) George Alexander, born 1794, 
died 1868; at the University; in 1885 moved to 
Bedford county, Tennessee, then to LTnion 
county, Arkansas, where he died. Four of 
his sons were killed in the battle of Shiloh. 
In 1820 he married Elizabeth Beard of Burke 
county, N. C. Issue: (a)George; (b) Margaret 
married to Mr. Pool; (c) Andrew Beard ;(d) 
William; (e) Locke; (f) John: (g) Paul; (h) 
Mary Locke. 

(Ill) John N., born March 19th 1795, died 
September 7th, 1856, married (June 10th 1822) 
Ann Phifer, the daughter of Caleb Phifer; 
moved to Tennessee, then to Coffeeville, Miss- 
issippi, where he died. Issue: (a)Paul,died in 
youth; (b) Caleb same; (c) Barbara Ann, who 
married Dr. Phillips of Alabama; (d) Sarah 
Jane; (e) Charles W., at the University; 2;rad- 
uated at West Point Military Academy; com- 
missioned Lieutenant of Dragoons and sent to 
Texas. Entered C. S. Arm}^ as a Captain, pro- 
moted, for gallantry at Shiloh, to be Colonel; 



in 1864 made Brigadier General; the young- 
est General officer of the Confederacy; (f) 

(IV) Nelson born December 1797. 

[B] Margaret, born 1772, died 1806, second 
child of John Phifer; she married John Sirn- 
ianer, who for many years was Clerk of the 
Court, they had one child, Mary, who mar- 
ried Adolphus Erwin of Burke County and 
to them were born seven children; (1) Sim- 
ianer, (2) Bulow married and had a family 
(3)Matilda; (4) Alfred; (5) Mary Ann; (6) 
Harriet, married to Colonel J. B. Rankin 
and has a family; (7) Louisa, married James 
W. '■Wilson, and has a family. 


Caleb, born at Cold Water, April 8th, 1749; 
died July 3rd, 1811; in legislature 1778 to 
1792 from Mecklenburg; Senator from Ca- 
barrus 1793 to 1801 Colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary War, served with distinction, married 
Barbara Fulenweider, born 1754; died 1815. 
Issue; seven daughters and one son: (A) Esther, 
married April 10, 1793,to Nathaniel Alexander^ 
issue ten children: (1) Margaret, married 
Robert Smith and had only one child, Sarah_ 
who married Wm. F. Phifer, and they had only 
one child, Sarah, who married John Morehead 
and had Annie, Margaret, William, Louisa and 
John. (2) Caleb, married Lunda Chisholni; 
moved to West Tennesse and there died. They 
had Charles and John, both now dead; (3) 
Jane, married 1st to Geo. F. Graham, and had 
one child, Ann Eliza, who married to Col. 
Wm. Johnson; 2nd to Dr. Stanhope Harris 
and had Sarah, who married Jno. Moss; Jane 
married to Dr. Bingham, and Henrietta mar- 
ried to Caldwell. 

(4) Eliza married tirst, February 19th, 1821, 
to James A. Means and 2nd, to Dr. Elim Harris, 

( 5. ) Sarah niai-ried ( 1825 ) to Francis Locke 
moved to Montgomery Co. N.C., issue to them: 
Caroline, married to Dr. Ingram; James killed 

in the civil war; Elizabeth married to Under- 
wood and has a family. 

(6) Mary, married to Dr. Elim Harris, 
removed to Missouri, and there both died. 

(7) Nancy, born 1810, married 1833 to John 
Moss, of Montgomery County, N. C, issue: 
Esther, wife of Adolphus Gibson; Maiy, wife 
of D. F. Cannon; Margaret, wife of James 
Erwin; Edward; John. 

(8) Esther, married to Dr. James Gilmer. 

(9) Charles, moved to Memphis, Tenn., and 
acquired great wealth, died unmarried. 

(10) John moved to Tenn., but died in 

(B) Margaret, second child of Caleb, born 
Nov. 14, 1777, died Aug. 14, 1799; married in 
[1794] to .Matthew Locke of Rowan Co., had 
one son, John, who married Miss Bouchelle, 
but left no issue. 

[C] Elizabeth, born 1781, married [1802,] 
to Dr. Wm. M. Moore, Salisbury; on liis death 
moved to Bedford Co., Tenn., then to Mar- 
shall Co., Miss., there died in 1845. Issue [1] 
Abigail died in infancy; (2) Moses W., born 
Jan. 7, 1807, died 1851; married Rebecca Mc- 
Kenzie, [1840,] moved to Washington Co.? 
Texas. Issue: William; Sarah, who married to 
Dr Ferrill,of Anderson, Texas; they had three 
children, Bertie; Elizabeth andRobert;[3] Mar- 
garet E., born at Salisbury, Feb. 14, 1809, mar- 
ried 1824, to Edward Cross, who was born at 
Chestnut Hill, Penn., 1804, died 1833: moved 
to LaFayette Co., Tenn. Issue; seven children : 
(a) Caroline V., born 1826, married 1849 to 
Wm. Sledge of Panolacounty,Mississippi, moved 
to Washington county, Texas in 1851, then to 
Memphis, Tennessee in 1872. They hadWm. 
M. born 1850: Margaret E.,born 1853 and Ed- 
ward C. born 1854. 

(b) Elizabeth M., born at Salisbury, 1827; 
married (1843) Samuel P. Badhget, died in 
Texas in 1866; issue: Ophelia,died in infancy 



(c) Daniel F.,died in infancy, as did(d)Susan- 

(e) Edward born April 1st, 1833, lives in 
Austin, Texas: 

(f) Mary An a born 1835 in Lafayette county, 
Tennessee, married first, 1856, to Leonidas B. 
Lemay of Wake county ,E".C. ; in 1862 to Col. Al- 
len Lewis of Maine, who was lost at sea in 
1870. Issue: Ida, Elizabeth, Mary Ann who 
are dead; Leonidas B. Lemay, born January 
2l8t, 1857 and Allen Lewis,who are living in 
Memphis, Tennessee. 

(D.) Sarah, the fourth child of Caleb Phi- 
fer, married Dr. Wm. Houston of Mecklenburg, 
a successful practitioner of great wealth. They 
moved to Bedford County, Tennessee. Issue: 
Lydia married 1823 to Dr. Wm. Rhoan, they 
moved to Tennessee and reared a large family; 
Caleb married and has a family, lives at Shel- 
byville, Tennessee; Wm. married Miss Steele 
and has a family; Louisa married and has a 

(E.) Barbara born 1770, died 1819; married 
(1809) Abram C. McRee of Cabarrus. Issue: 
(1) Cornelius, married Margaret Means and 
moved to Alabama, where they reared a fam- 
ily; (2) Mary Ann married to Dr. Robert 
Means, and had one child, Poindexter, they 
live in Alabama; (3) Margaret, and (4) Phifer 
who married Miss Burt of Alabama and has 
a family. 

(F) Mary, married Dr. Robert McKenzie, 
an eminent physician of Chai'lotte; removed 
to Bedford county, Tennessee, then to Mis- 
sissippi,"'Lousiana and finally settled in Grimes 
county, Texas, where they died and were 
buried on the same day. Issue: (1) Rebecca, 
wife of Dr. Moses W. Moore (see ante page 
Ixix.) (2) Joseph, unmarried; (3) John, mar- 
ried and has three children ;(4) Mary, died in 
infancy; (5) Lucy married Pinkston, living in 
Gnmes county, Texas, has a family of tour 

(G) Ann, as has been stated became the 
wife of John N. Phifer. 

(H.) John Kulenwider, born 17S6, died 
1826; educated at Dr. Robertson's school, at 
Poplar Tent; entered the University; married 
Louisa Morrison of Lancaster S. C. Issue: a son 
and a daughter, who died in infancy, and 
Caleb, born 1825, died 1844, distinguished for 
scholarship at school, and afterwards at Pnnce 
ton; then read law with Judge Pearson. So 
young and full of high promises of usefulness, 
he died in his 19th year, and so the Caleb 
Phifer branch of the f.imily became extinct, as 
he was the last male mend)er of that branch 

III. . • 

Martin jr. born at "Cold Water," March 
25t.h, 1756, died at the "Black Jacks," Nov- 
ember 12th, 1837; married (1778) Elizabeth 
Locke, who was born 1758, died 1791; he was 
Colonel of a Regiment of horse, on duty at 
Philadelphia, and was distinguished for gallan- 
try in the field. And received high mention 
for his personal braverj- in the papers of State. 
He was the largest land-owner in the State, 
and had a great number of slaves. Had issue: 
John, George, Mary, Margaret and Ann. 

Issue :( A) John, born at Cold Water, Sept- 
ember 1st, 1779; died October 18th, 1845; en- 
tered at Dr. McCorckle's school at Thytira 
church in Rowan county: at the University in 
the first year of that institution, graduated in 
1799, with first honors; married August 27, 
1805, Esther Fulen wider, a daughter of John 
Fulenwider of "High Shoals," Lincoln county 
K C, who was born 1784, died 1846. 
Member of the Legislature 1803 to 1806; in 
House of Commons 1810 to 1819; and in the 
Senate in 1824. Defeated by Forney for Con- 
gress by twenty-five majority. "He lived a 
blessing, and his name will ever remain an 
honor to his family, his county and his State." 

He was one of the most intellectual and 
highly cultivated men of his time. His speeches 



ID the House and Senate show remarkable abil- 
ity. His public career, which promised to be 
one of unusual brilliancy, was cut off" by the 
failure of his eye-sight. He became almost to- 
tally blind in the latter part of his life. He 
was noted for his wonderful popularity, his 
great decision of character, and his eloquence 
as a speaker. 

Had issue: Martin, John Fulenwider, Caleb, 
Elizabeth, Mary Simianer, George Locke, Sarah 
Ann, Margaret Locke, Esther Louisa, Mary 
Burton. (1) Martin, born December 30th, 
1806, died September 11th, 1852; married Eliza, 
daughter of Jacob Ramseur, of Lincolnton, N. 
C; had no issue. (2) John Fulenwider, born 
August 13, 1808, died January 10, 1850; edu- 
cated hy Dr. Wilsnn near Rocky River church; 
a merchant and planter, died unmarried. (3} 
Caleb, born June 16, 1810 ; died March 11, 1878; 
educated at Dr. Wilson's, most prominent in 
financial and manufacturing schemes; director 
of N. C. R. R. for years. Memljer of House of 
Commons in 1844; and of Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1861-62. He was a student all dur- 
ing his life, and was well posted in both the 
scientific and current literature of the day. He 
married [1838] Mary Adeline, third child of 
David Ramseur, of Lincolnton, who was born 
Aug. 5th, 1817, died Sept. 20th, 1881. Issue: 
[a] Esther, born December 23, 1840, died Sep- 
tember 5th, 1857; [b] David Ramseur. born 
April 14th, 1839; a graduate of Davidson and 
of William and Maiy in Virginia; served in 
the C. S. Army; became a merchant in New- 
berry; married Sarah Wbitmire; had issue: 
Mary, Henry, Martin and Elizabeth. 

[d] John Locke, born October 28th, 1842, 
died January 26th, 1880: was educated in 
Philadelphia; served in 20th, N. C. Vols.; 
became a most sucessfnl merchant; [e] Char- 
les Henry, born September 28th 1847; served 
in the Confederate Artillery; then graduated 
at Davidson College (1866); a civil engineer 

by education. Xow successful as a merchant; 
[f] Robert Fulenwider, born November 17th, 
1849; graduate of Davidson [1866] successful 
as a planter and cotton buyer; [g] Martin, 
born June 26th, 1855, died March 10th 1881; 
[h] Sarah Wilfong, born February 26th, 1859, 
married [1883] to .Marshall N. WiUiamson in 

[4] Elizabeth, fourt, child of John Phi- 
fer born April 20th, 1812, married Dr. Edmund 
R. Gibson at the '-Black Jacks," February 25th, 
1885. Dr. Gibson was born July 6th, 1809, 
died May 28th, 1872, in Rowan County, an 
eminent physician, of large estate. Issue: 
[a] Esther Margaret, born 1836, died an infant; 
[b] "William Henry born June 2nd, 1837, kill- 
ed at Gettysburg, 1863; [c] John Phifer born 
January 5th, 1839; served as Lieutenant in 
the civil war; nnirried Martha .M. Kirkpatrick, 
[1864,] and had .Mary Grace. Now a mer- 
chant of Concord; [d] James Cunningham, 
born November 10th, 1840, served in the Con- 
federate Army, also Clerk of Court; married 
Elizalierh Puryear [1876] and has Elizabeth, 
William Henry, Richard Puryear and Jennie 
Marshall; [e] George Locke, born .March 15th, 
1844, died lS77;[f] Robert Erwin, born March 
15th, 1844, married [1876] Emily Magruderof 
Winchester, Virginia, issue: Emil}' .Magruder 
and Robert .Magruder; successful merchant in 

(5) .Mary Simianer, fifth child of John Phi 
fer, born December 7th, 1814, died an infant. 

[6] George Locke, sixth child; born June 
7th, 1817, died June 6th, 1879; entered the 
school of Robert I. McDowell, and then at 
Greensboro; a planter; married [1847] Rosa 
Allen Pen nick, daughter of Rev. Daniel Pen- 
nick,of the Virginia Presbytery; issue: [a] Ag- 
nes Tinsley born August 24th, 1850, married 
[1876]to Albert Heilig of Rowan, had George. 

[b] Esther Louisa born May 24th, 1852. 

[c] Sarah Maria born July 25th, 1854. 



[d] Annie Rosa born March 29th, 1857. 

[e] Marj Elizabeth born July 11th, 1859, 
died August 25th, 1882 married [1881] Will- 
Ramseur of Newton. 

[f] Daniel Pennick born December 14th, 

[g] John Young, born June 5th, 1864. 

[h] George Willis born February 1st, 1868. 

[i] Emma Garland, born September 4th, 

[7] Sarah Ann, born October 23rd, 1819; 
married May 31st, 1842, to Robert W. Allison 
of Cabarrus, who was born April 24th, 1806, 
a man of prominence, chairman of CQunty Com- 
missioners, in legislature of 1865-66; delegate 
to Convention of 1875. 

IsaaeT[a] Esther Phifer, born November 27th 
1843, married [1866] Samuel White of York 
county S. C, Capt. 7th N. C. Vols., C. S. A. 
issue: four children, Grace Allison, the only 
one living. 

[b] Joseph Young, born July 16th, 1846, 
educated at the University of Virginia; read 
law with Chief Justice Pearson, became apres- 
byterian clergyman, married [1876] Sarah Cave 

[c] John Phifer, bom August 22d, 1848; a 
merchant in Concord; married [1880] Annie 
Erwin, daughter of Hon. Burton Ci'aige. 

[d] Mary Louisa, born March 27th, 1850, 
died 1878. 

[e] Elizabeth Adeline, born March 26th, 
1852, married [1875] to John M White of 
Fort Mills, S. C. ; he was Colonel 6th S. C. 
Vols. C. S. A., and died 1877. She lives near 
Fort Mills. 

[f] William Henry, born February 26th, 
1854, died in infancy as did the throe follow- 

[g] Caroline Jane, born October 23d, 1855. 
[h] Annie Susan, born December 16th 

1557. [i] Robert Washington born March 15th 

[8] Margaret Locke, eighth child of John 
Phifer, born December 7th, 1821, died in in- 

[9] Esther Louisa, born May 31st, 1824; 
married to Robert Young of Cabarrus, Capt. 
C. S. A.; killed July 1864; she died .July 9th, 
1865; had John Young, Capt C. S. A., killed 
at Chaucellorsville, May 3d, 1863, 

[10] Mary Burton, tenth child of John Phi- 
fer, born November 10th, 1826; educated in 
Philadelphia, married [1850] John A. Brad- 
shaw of Rowan, now lives in New York. Is- 
sue: Harriet Ellis, Mary Grace, Annie, Eliza- 
beth, John who died 1866. 

[B] George, second child of Martin Phifer, 
jr., was born February 24th, 1782, died Jan- 
uary 23d, 1819; merchant and planter; Clerk 
of the Court; married [1808] Sarah, daugh- 
ter of John Fulenwider of High Shoals, 
Lincoln county, N. C. She was born 1786, and 
and after the death of George Phifer married 
Joseph Young,whom she survived, and died 
January 24th, 1868, at Hon. J. H. Wilson's 
house in Charlotte. 

Issue to George and Sarah Phifer: [a] Will- 
iam Fulenwider, born February 13th, 1809; 
graduate of Hampden-Sidney College; mer- 
chant at Concord; married [1833] Sarah Smith, 
and had Sarah, wife of John Morehead; who 
had Annie, Margaret, William, Louisa and 
John. On the death of his wife, William [a] 
removed to Lownds County, Alabama; cotton 
planter there; returned to North Carolina and 
married [1849] Martha White, issue: [1] Wil- 
liam; [2] Robert Smith, educated in Germany; 
remarkable musical talent,he married Bella Mc. 
Ghee of Caswell county, and has Wilhelmine, 
Thomas Mc. Ghee and Robert; [3] George; 
[4] Mary married [1882] to .M. C. Quinn; 
[5] Cordelia; [6} Josephine married [1880] 
William G. Durant of Fort Mills, S. C, they 
have Mary and William Gilmore; [7] Edward. 



[b] John Fuleuwider, born May 1st, 1810, 
married [1839] Elizabeth Caroline, a daughter 
of David Ramseur, she was born 1819; re- 
moved to Lownds count}^ Alabama; returned 
to Lincolnton. Issue: [1] George, born Febru- 
arj' 10th, 1811; educated at Davidson; served 
with distinction as Captain in the line, [C. S 
Army,] and afterwards on General R.F. Hoke's 
staff; married [1879] Martha Avery of Burke 
county ; issue : John ; Moulton ; George ; Edward ; 
Isaac; Walton; Maud; Waightstill. He is a 
cotton manufacturer at Lincolnton; [2] Will- 
iam Locke, born February 17th, 1843, killed 
at Chickamauga, Tennessee, September 20th, 
1863; [3] Edward born May 8th 1844; Cap- 
tain C. S. Vols. He died from wounds received 
before Petersburg, June 18th, 1864; [4] Mary 
Wilfong born December 2.5th, 1856, married 
[1881] to Stephen Smith of Livingston, Ala- 
bama, has one child Stephen. 

[c] Mary Louisa, born December 3d, 1814: 
married [1846] to Hon. Joseph Harvey Wil- 

* We copy from the Ealeifjh Ncws-Obserrer, ot Sept- 
ember 15tli, 1884, the following notice of Hou. Josepli 
Harvey Wilsou, who was born in the county of 
Mecklenburg. His father, the Rev. Jolin Mc- 
Kaniey Wilson, was a Scotch Presbjterian, and a di- 
vine of considerable intluence in tliat section of the 
State. The son inherited the talents and sterlins:qu:i'- 
ities of tlie father, and was early imbued witli the fa- 
ther's piety and he had been since his e.nly iiianhuod 
a consistent member of the Presbyteiiaii cliurcli 

He was admitted to tlie bar and bejraii tlie practice 
of the law in Charlotte soon after he became of afre, 
and for about fifty years he enjoyed a large and lucra- 
tive practice iu Mecklenburg and tlie surrounding 
counties. After the retirement of Wiltiani Julius Alex- 
ander and the death of his contemporaries of a ])ast 
generation, Mr. Wilson and the late Judge Osborne, 
who were nearly of the same age and always friends, 
contested the leadership of the profession iii Mecklen- 
burg, though Mr. Wilson, on account of his painstak- 
ing industry, always commanded a larger share of the 
routine and remunerative business of the county. He 
never found it advisable to take an extended circuit 
as was the rule among the lawyers before the war; 
but in Union, Cabarrus and Gaston counties he en- 
joyed a leading business aud was generally on one 
side or the other of every important case. Ever dili- 
gent and careful in the preparation of his cases, and 
eminently faithful to the interests of his clients, of 
sound judgment and thoroughly versed in the prin- 
ciples of the law, that he was a v ery successful prac- 
tioner is not remarkable. lawyer of his 
day reaped larger rewards in the legitimate prosecu- 
tion of the legal profession in the State; and being 
ecnomical in the proper sense of tlie term, while lie 
was at the same time liberal when calls upon his charity 

sou*; issue :[1] George married Bessie Wither- 
spoon of Sumter, S. C, who have Mary Louise, 
Hamilton, and Annie Witherspoon. He grad- 
uated at Davidson and at the University of 
Vii-ginia; [2] Mary married Charles E. John- 
ston, who have Mary Wilson aud Charles. 

[d] Elizabeth Ann, the twin sister of Mary 
Louisa; educated at Hillsboro; married [1837] 
to E. Jones Erwin of Burke, who died in 1871. 
Issue: Phifer married [1875] Corrinna More- 
head Avery; and have Annie Phifer; Corrinna 
Morehead and Addie Avery; [2] Mary Jones 
married (1874)to Mitchell Rogers and have 
one child Francis; [3] Sallie married [1882] to 
Dr. Moran and have one child, Annie Rankin. 

[e] Martin Locke born January 25th, 1818, 
died March 9th, 1853; educated at Bingham's 
school; removed to Lownds county, Alabama; 
a planter. Returned to N. C. [1848] married 
Sarah C. Hoyle of Gastoncounty. Left no issue 

[C] Mary Phifer, third child of Martin Phi- 
fer, jr., b;jrn December 1st, 1774; died 1860, 

and public spirit commended themselves to his judg- 
ment, he succeeded iu aceuuiulatiug a consideraiile 
fortune, of which he continued iu jjossessiou to liis 
death. In his success in his profession, as the result 
of patient, honest, faithful work, without any of the 
shining qualities of the genius, Mr. Wilson is one of 
the liest examides to the younger niemlicrs of the iiar. 
He proved to the satisi action of ali uliii Un^w liui 
that a lawyer can be a good Chrlstiin .in.lathi - . .i 
time a successful business man. While he cv^ : iO'.u 
a lively and patriotic inteiest in puiilir^ he 
could never be seduced from the pio^ei utinii i.i ,i,. 
profession by the ofler of political place or oltic , iumI 
he persistently refused even to serve his people in the 
State legislature until he was foiced [by a sense of 
public duty] to represent his county iu the Senate in 
18(i6-67 when he was elected president of that body, 
a rare compliment to one who had never before ser 
ved in a legislative body. It sliowed the very high 
esteem in which he was held in the State. 

Mr. Wilson was twice married, his tirst wife being 
Miss Patton.of Buncombe, and the second, .Miss Phifer 
of Cabarrus, who survives him, and he leaves three 
children of the first marriage and two of the second, one 
of whom, George E. Wilson Esq., was his partner at the 
bar, and an other is the wife of our esteemed neigli- 
bor, Mr. Charles E. Johnson, of this city. Besideshis 
widow and children, a large circle of loving friends 
niourn his departure. He died September 13th, 1884, 
in the fullness of years and maturity of time, the 
loss of but few citizens in the State could create a 
more profound sensation iu the commuuities in 
which they respectively live than did the death of 
this good .and honored man in the county of Meck- 
lenburg. The whole community were his friends; we 
doubt it he left an enemy. 



and 18 buried at Tuscaloosa, Ala. Married 
[1803] to William Crawford, of Lancaster, S. 
C. Issue: Elizabeth and William. After Mr. 
Crawford's death she married James Childers, 
of N. C, and moved to Tuscaloosa. Issue: 

(a) Elizabeth Crawford married John Doby, 
and had [1] Joseph, who married Margaret 
Harris and has a family; [2] Martin married 
Sallie Grier, and had one child; on her deatli 
he married Sallie Sadler; [3] James married 
Mary Walker and has a family; [4] WilUam 
married Altonia Grier, and had children. 

(b) William Crawford married Lncretia Mull, 
and had [1] Thomas, married Ist Mary Price, 
2nd Mrs. Klutz, and has a family; [2] William 
married Miss Smith, and has a family; [3] 
James married Sallie Ileilig, and have children ; 
[4] Robert married Miss Crawford, and tliey 
have children; [5] Lee married Miss Peeden, 
and has children. 

(c) Ann Childers married to Walker; 

issue; (1) Mary; (2) ;(3) Martin; (4) . 

(d) Susan Childers married Reed, but has no 

(e) Jas Childers, married, and has a family'. 
(D) Margaret, fourth child of Martin Phifer, 

jr., born December 7t.h, 1786; married [January 
7th,1808,] James Erwm of Burke, Co.,X.C. Is- 
sue, seven children: [1] William, married Ma- 
tilda Walton, and the}' had five children ; mer- 
chant in Morganton; his second wife was Mrs. 
Gaston, but had no issue; after her death he 
married Kate Ilappoldt, and to them were born 
two children. His children are [a] Clara, mar- 
ried to Mclnt^-re, and has a family, the oldest 
named Matilda; [b] Anna, married Robert Mc- 
Connehe}', and they have children; [c] Laura, 
married to M. Jones, but hadno issue; [d] Hen- 
rietta, married to GrayBynum; [e] Ella mar- 
ried George Greene, and they have three child- 
ren. By his third wife he had [f] Margaret 
and (g^ Evelyn. 

(2) Joseph Erwin. married Elvira Holt. He 

has been in the Legislature several terms, and 
once served as clerk of the court. Issue: Mary 
L.; Matilda; Margaret, married to Lawrence 
Holt, of Companj' Shops, and have five child- 
ren; Cora, married John Grant, of Alamance 
Co. [3] Martin, married .Jane Huie, of Salisbury, 
issue: five children; then to Miss Blackmann; 
issue: tb'-ee children; moved to Maury Co., 
Tenu., and there died. (4] George, married 
Margaret Hinson, of Burke Co., moved to 
Tenn.; they have nine children. 

(5) Elizabeth, married Hon. Burton Craige, 
of Salisbury; issue: [a] James; [!)] Kerr, a 
prominent lawyer, in Legislature from Rowan, 
declined nomination for Congress; married Jo- 
sephine, daughter of Geii. L. O'B. Brancli, an d 
theii- children are Nannie, Burton, Branch, Jo- 
sephine, Bessie and Kerr; [c] Frank, married 
[1877]- Fannie Williams, of Williamsport, 
Tenn., have three children; [d] Mary Eliza- 
beth, married Alfred Young, of Cabarrus, and 
have Lizzie, Fannie, Annie and Mary; [e] An- 
nie, married to .John P. Allison, of Concord. 

(7) Alexander. 

(6) Sarah, married Johti McDowell, of 
Burke; they have seven children, none of whom 
are married; James F]., Margaret, John, Wil- 
liam, Frank Elizabeth and Kate. 

[E] Ann, the fifth and last child of Martin 
Phifer, jr., born March 8th, 1788, died at 
Lancaster, S. C, .July 1st, 1855; married John 
Crawford, of Lancaster, brother of William, 
who married her sister Mary. 

Issue: [1] Martin married Alice Harris, they 
had four children: Charles Harris, married Sa- 
die Baskins; Anne, James and John. 

[2] Elizabeth, married George Witherspoou, 

a lawyer of Lancaster, S. C, where they live, 

they have four children: John, who married 

Addie White, of Rock Hill, S. C; James, An- 
nie and George. 

[3] Robert, married Malivia Massey, and 
have three children: Martin, Robert and Ella. 
They live in Lancaster, S. C. 


apfSfoHIS COUXTY preserves the memories printed." These princi[)les were derided by 

Wi^. of the first eontlict of arms between the imperious Tryon, and terminated in open 

jl^^B the Royal Troops of Enghmd, [16th conflict of arms. The Regulators were van- 

^']\^ May, 1771,] and the people of the quished b}- superior force and discipline, but 

gjl Colonies. Then and there was the the great germs of right and liberty were 

"f first blood of the Coloni.'^ts spilled in the firml\' planted in their minds, and a few years 

J United States, in resistance to the appres- Liter bore the fruits of victory and indepeiul- 

sions of the English Government atid the ence. Had this battle terminated diii'erentl}^ 

exactions of its unscrupulous agents. Tryon, (and undcrskilfulieaders,andata laterperiod, 

the R(jyal Governor of the Province of North this would h:ivc been the case,) the banks of 

Carolina, exhibited in his administration the the Alamance would have rivaled Bunker 

bloodthirsty temper of " the great wolf," as he Hill and Lexington; and the name of Hus- 

was so appropriately termed liy the Indians of bands, Merrill and Caldwell would have ranked 

the State. with the Warrens and Putnanjs of a later 

The officers of the Government, by exactions day. 
in the shape of fees and taxes, grieviously op- A writer on Xorth Carolina History, as to 
pressed an industrious and needy people. The this revolt, states that " the cause of the Reg- 
people liore these exactions with patience; re- ulators has been the subject of riiuch unmerited 
monstrating in their public meetings, in re- obloquy, clouded as it has been l)y the heav\- 
spectful but decided terms. Thissimple-minded pages of Williamson and Martin, and the ig- 
people, without aid fi'om much learning or norant disquisitions of uritutored scribblers, 
books, knew and laid down the great funda- Although on the occasion the\' were over-' 
mental principles of good government, '-that thrown, their principles were intimately con- 
taxation and representation should go together, nected with the chain of events that directly 
that the people had the right to resist taxa- led to the Revolution, and struck out that^ 
tion when not imposed by their legal repre- spark of independence which soon blazed from 
sentatives. and also the right to know for what Massachusetts to Georgia." (Jos. Seawell 
purpose taxes were imposed, and how appro- Jones' Defence of North Carolina.) 


For Time at last sets all things even, 
And if \ve do but watcli tlie hour, 

There never yet was human power. 
That could evade if unforgiven. 

The patient search, the vigil long, 

Of him who treasures up a wrong. 

I copied from the Rolls Office when in Eng- 
land, a dispatch from the Ro^'al Governor of 
North Carolina, (Martin) dated Hillshoro, 
30th August, 1772, never before published. 
The Governor describes his journey to the 
western part of North Carolina, through the 
Moravian settlements, which he pronounces 
" models of industry," to Salisbur}'. He 
passed through the region of the late disturb- 
ances. He records: " My eyes have been opened 
in regard to these commotions. These people 
have been provoked by the insolence and 
cruel advantages taken of their ignorance by 
mercenary, tricking attorneys, clerks, and other 
little officers, who have practiced upon them 
every sort of rapine and extortion. The re- 
sentment of the Government was craftily 
worked up against the oppressed; protection 
denied to them, when tliey expected to 
tind it, and drove them to desperation, which 
ended in bloodshed. My indignation is not 
only disarmed, but con^'erted into pity." 

Thus by the highest cotemporaneous au- 
thority are the acts and principles of the Reg- 
ulators fully justified. These acts were but con- 
necting links in the chain of events which led 
to the Revolution. Soon followed the events 
on the Cape Fear in 1772-73 and '74, then the 
Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence of 
20th May, 1775, then the actual conflict of arms 
at Moore's Creek in February, 1776. All acts 
done in North Carolina, with few exceptions, 
before any similar events had occurred else- 
where in this country. How bright are such 
glorious records and how proud are we of the 
memories of the people who present them to 
coming posterity ! 

-. They never fail who die 

In a great cause: 

Though years 
Elapse, and others share as dark a doom. 
They but augment the deep and sweeping thoughts 
Which overpower all others, and conduct 
The world at last to freedom. " — 


This county was long the residence of 
Thomas Ruffin. [Born 1787— Died 1870.] 

On entering the Supreme Court room of 
North Carolina, now more than fifty years 
ago, we observed on the bench of this exalted 
tribunal the conmianding person of Thomas 
Ruffin, for twenty 3'ears one of the Justices of 
that Court, and for many years its Chief Jus- 
tice. During this long period he was called 
upon to decide questions involving the life and 
interest of individuals, and complicated and 
intricate points of constitutional, common and 
statute law. The able opinions delivered by 
him have established hie reputation as one of 
the first jurists of his age in this or any other 
country. His opinions are models of learning 
and logic, and are quoted as authority not only 
in our own courts but in those of other coun- 
tries. Recently one of the Justices of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, on read- 
ing one of Judge Ruffin's opinions, pronounced 
him " one of the ablest common law -jurists in 

In his ministration of the law he was by 
some considered stringent and at times severe, 
but he was always conscientious and inflexibly 

He was not demonstrative in his feelings, 
but was cautious in his words and acts, select 
and sincere in his friendships, and steadfast in 
his attachments. 

In his finances he was prudent even to rigid 
economy. This he adopted as a principle, not 
believing in wastefulness or extravagance. 
His house was open to his friends and was well 
known as the abode of unstinted hospitality. 
He was exact and precise in his engagements, 
and punctual in performance. 

In person he was spare, uniform and neat in 



his dress, of a presence at once striking, com- Court the served his fellow citizens as presiding 

manding and venerable. To many who knew Judge of the county court. In the Spring of 

them both, he resembled, not only in mental 18G1, he attended that barren convention at 

qualifications but in person, Thomas Jefferson; Washington, "The Peace Congress," with 

both highly educated; both of the sameprofes- John M. Morehead, David S. Reid, Daniel M. 

sion;both of thesame political faith;both, in all Barringer, and George Davis as colleagues, 

the domestic relations of life, devoted and af- " The judicial ermine so long and so worthily 

fectionate,and both natives of the same State; worn," says Mrs. Spencer, " not only shielded 

and in person about same height, same colored him, but absolutely forbade all active partici- 

hair, and the same expression of countenance, pation in party politics." But he was no idle 

indicating great energy, resolution anddecision or uninterested spectator of the current of 

of character. events. He was opposed to nullification in 

Not only as a jurist was Judge Ruffin dis- 1832, and did not believe in the rights of se- 

tinguished, but as an able financier, and skilful cession in 1860. In private circles he combatted 

and successful as an agriculturist. both heresies with ail that " inexorable logic " 

He was born in King and Queen county, which the London Tiwies declared to be charac- 

Virginia, 17th November, 1787, the eldest son tcristic of his judicial opinions. He declared 

of Sterling and Alice Rufiin. He graduated " the sacred right of revolution " as the remedy 

at Princeton, 1805. Read law with David for the redress of our grievances. 

Robinson, an eminent lawyer in Petersburg, But the cloud in the political horizon grew 

in same office at the same time with Winfield thicker and heavier. When tlie State took 

Scott. Ho came to N£)rth Carolina in 1807 the final step of secession, he felt it to be a 

with his father and settled at Hillsboro, where duty to follow her fortunes, 

he married on 7th December, 1809, Ann, eldest He was elected to the State Convention at 

daughter of William Kirkland, by whom he Raleigh, and voted for the Ordinance of Se- 

had a large family of thirteen children, cession. Then was his last public service, 

among them was William Kirkland, (recently He was a communicant of the Episcopal 

deceased;) Sterling; Peter Brown; Thomas; Church, and warmly attached to that aiode and 

John, doctor; Mrs. Roulhac; Ann, who raar- form of worship; but liberal and tolerant to 

ried Paul C. Cameron; Alice died unmarried; the worth and virtues of other denominations, 

Mrs. Brodnax; Mrs. Edmund Ruffin; Patty, and in the consolations of Christian faith and 

(unmarried;) Sally married Upton B.Gynn, Jr. hopes of its promises, in the full possession of 

He was elected to the Legislature from his mental faculties, in charity and peace with 
Hillsboro in 1813, 1815 and 1816; the latter all, he died on l.'^th January, 1870, at Hills- 
year he was chosen Speaker; and the same year boro, loved and lamented by all who knew 
elected Judge of the Superior Court, which him. 

after two years' service he resigned. In 1825 sure the end of the good man is peace, 

he was again elected Judge, and in 1829 was |?Z.^ m^^^Uy ^ot^ Sad 
elected one of the Justices of the Supreme Nor weary, worn out winds e.xpire more soft. 
Court, to till the vacancy occasioned by the Rufus Yancy McAden represented Ala- 
death of Judge Taylor, which in 1852 he re- mance County in 1865, and was elected Speaker 
signed. He was again elected in 1856, and of the House. 

again resigned in 1858. For several years after He graduated at Wake Forest College, 

his retiring from the bench of the Supreme studied ^w and achieved prominence and posi- 


tion at the bar; but his fame rests chiefly on 
his reputation as a skilful financier. He is the 
grandson of the distinguished statesman and 
orator, Bartlet Yancy, and inherits much of 
the ability of his distinguished ancestor.- 

Thomas Michael Holt was born in Orange 
Count}-, now Alamance County, on 17th Octo- 
ber, 1855 ; is bj' occupation a farmer and a man- 

He is the President of the State Agricultural 
Societ}' since 1872. He is the principal owner 
of the "Haw River Mills," which has done 
much to encourage the cotton manufactories 

in the South. They are an ornament to the 
State. He was elected President of the 
North Carolina Railroad in 1874; and sena- 
tor from Alamance and Orange in Novem- 
ber, 187G. He is by all acknowledged to be 
afarmer of unequalled success; a manufacturer 
of great skill, and a friend and patron of in- 
ternal improvement, believing with the poet 
that — 

Art, commerce and fair science, three. 

And sisters linked in love, 
Thej' traverse sky, land and sea. 

Protected from above. 


Anson at one time [1749] comprehended 
the whole western part of the State. Its earl^' 
history is full of incident, of the sturdj' oppo- 
sition of her sons to oppression, and sj'mpathy 
with the Regulators of Orange County against 
the unrighteous exactions of the administra- 
tion of the Government officers, which rose to 
such a height that the people in 1768 entered 
the court house and b}' force violently expelled 
the officers of the court, and each took an oath 
of self-defence and mutual protection. 

I copied from the Rolls Office in England 
the oath prescribed, transmitted to the Earl 
of Hillsboro by Gov. Ti-yon, in a dispatch 

• " Brunswick, 24:th Bee, 1768. 

" I do solemnly swear that if any officer or 
an}^ other person do make distress of any goods 
or any other estate of any person sworne here- 
in, being a subscriber, for non-payment of 

taxes, that I will, with sufficient assistance, go 
and take, if in my power, the goods or other 
property thus distressed, and restore the same 
to tlie party from whom the same was taken. 
And in case anyone concerned heroin should 
be imprisoned, or under arrest, I will immedi- 
atel}' do my best endeavours to raise as man}- 
of the said subscribers as will be a force sutH- 
cient to set said person and his estate ;it lib- 
erty. If any of our company for such acts be 
put to any expense or confinement, I will bear 
an eiioal share to make up the losses to the 

"All tliese I do promise, and subscribe my 

This piiper has never before been published. 

In a memorial of the people of Anson County- 
to Gov. Tryon, they comi>lain of the conduct 
of " Col." Samuel Spancer, the clerk and mem- 
ber of the county, who purchased his office of 
Col. Frohawk, and gave i'lSO for it, and they 
allege that the people should not be taxed but 
by consent of themselves or their delegates, 



and they recommend that the magistrates, 
clerk, and sherift'should be elected by the people* 

What an early and rapid stride did these men take, at this early day, in the 
right of the people to govern themselves, and 
declare a principle that fiftj- years after became 
the law of the land! 

I find among the early records the name 
James Gotten, and from curiosit3'more than a 
hope that the memory' of such a man maj" be 
useful, \\Q present his infamous conduct. We 
could wish in describing the men of our State, 
to present only the patriotic, the virtuous, and 
the good; and, like the motto of the Koman 
sun-dial — 

" Non uumero horas, uisi Serenas." 

But truth demands that we should present 
facts. Such men as Gotten, in these perilous 
times, were only 

" Vermin gendered on the Lion's mane — " 
whose acts consign them to contempt. 

Among the Golonial records in London, I 
find the following letter: 

"Cruiser Sloop of War, 

" 21 July, 1775. 
" I have received your letter of the 15th 
inst., by Mr. Gunninghara, and highly approve 
of your proper and spirited conduct, while I 
cannot sufficiently express my indignation and 
contempt of the proceedings of Gaptain-Gen- 
eral Spencer and his unworthy confederates. 
You and other friends of the Government 
have only to stand yonv ground firmly ! 

" Major Snead may be assured of my atten- 
tions to all his wishes. 

" I beg my compliments may be presented 
to Golonel MacDonald. 
" I am, Sir, 

" Your humble servant, 

"Jo. Martin. 
" To Lt. Gol. James Gotten, 

"Anson Go., N. G." 

I found, also, among the Golonial records in 
London, the deposition of James Gotten, 

* For copy of this memorial, see Wheeler's History 
of N. C, II, 21. 

taken 14th Aug., 1775, on board of Uis Majes- 
ty's sloop of war, the " Gruiser," where he had 
been for succor and for safetj'. Anson Gounty 
had become rather too hot for him, which 
proves the determined spirits of the patriots, 
and whose names should be cherished in his- 
tory. This deposition states — 

" I was called before the committee for 
Anson Gounty; and Samuel Spencer, the chair- 
man, stated that they had sent for me as one 
of the burgesses of tlie county, to know if I 
would sign and appi'ove of the resolves of the 
Gontinental Gongress, which were read to me 
by Mr. Thomas AV^ide. I refused. They said 
that they should proceed against me, and gave 
me two weeks to consider. 

" On the Tuesday fi)llowiug, David Love, 
accompanied b^' William Love, Samuel Curtis, 
William Covington, and another, all armed, 
came to my house and took me, nolens nolens, 
towards Mask's Ferry, on the Pedee. 

" I escaped from them, traveling as secretly 
as possible, sleeping in the woods at night, 
and reached this vessel on Sunday night last." 

Deposition of Samuel Williams, who es- 
caped with Colonel Gotten, taken at the same 
time and place: 

From dispatch of Gov. Martin, dated — 

" New York, 15(h Sept., 1777. 

" Two vessels have arrived here from North 
(]Iarolina, bringing I'efugecs. 

"A Mr. James Gotten, of No. Ca., who went 
hence some time ago, will probably have waited 
on \-our Lordship). 

" He is a man of vulgar life and character, 
and is a native of New EngUuul, and I do not 
estimate him very highly." 

We now will bid " Good-bye to James." 

Allusion has been made to Sanmel Spencer. 

He was a member of the Colonial Assembly 
at an early day, and in 1774 elected to the 
Provincial Gongress at New Berne, which was 
the first organized movement of the people in 
a legislative capacity in open opposition, and 
independent of the Royal Government. This 
body sent delegates to the Gontinental Con- 
gress at Philadelphia. 


It may be interesting for reference, to note ding and the red cap for a challenge to bat- 

the Provincial Congresses, the place and time 
from the first to the last, which formed the 

1st met on 25th August, 1774, New Berne; 
2d met on 4th April, 1775, New iJerne; 3d 
met on 21st August, 1775, Ilillsboro; 4th met 
on 12th April, 1776, Halifax; 5th met on 12th 
November, 1776, Halifax; which latter body 
formed the Ci)nstitution on 18th December, 

He was repeatedly elected to the State 
Congresses, and in 1777 was chosen one of the 
three judges of the Superior Courts, 
elected undei' the State Constitution, which 
elevated position he held until his death. 

He was a member of the ctmvention at 
Hillsboro, in July, 1788, to deliberate upon 
the Federal Cjnstitufcioii, its able and active 
opponent, and contributed greatly to its I'e- 

Of his character and career as a judge (since 
of this early day there do not exist any 
reports of the decisions of tlie courts) we 
know but little; but from his long exercise 
of this high otHce with the approbation and 
respect of his associates, he was esteemed a 
faithtnl and able jurist. He died in 1794. 
The account of the sinu-ular cause of his death. 

tie, made so violent and unexpected an attack 
on his Honor, that he was thrown out of his 
chair on the floor, and befoi-e he could get any 
assistance, so beat and bruised him that he 
died in a few days." 

A Philadelphia paper, at the time, as to this 
occurence, makes the following ;'<.« iVe'-pvlt. 

In this deseiieiate ase, 

WIi:it hosts ol knaves ensjage. 
And do all they can 

To fetter braver iiieii; 
Breading they should be free. 

Leagued with the scoundrel laok, 
-'Even turkey cocks attack 

The red cap of Liberty. 

Tn this county resides Thomas Samuel Ashe, 
one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme 
Court of North Carolina. 

The maxim is correct in history as in o'hcr 
matters, "Vivrntes von li.-d mminm luulurr'.." 
But our Reaiiniscencos of the State wonld 
be incomplete without a sketch of tiii^ woi-thy 
citizen. In doing so, however, the advice of 
Othello will be observed : 

-Speak of me as I am; 

Nothing extenuate, or set down aught in malice. 

There is no name more familiar to the peo- 
ple of North Carolina, or more highly appreei- 
ated by tliem, than tliat of xYshe. In every 
contest fir libcrt}', from the earliest pci'iol of 
our histor}-, ^vhetller on the tield of actual bat- 

as stated in my History of North Carolina, tie or in the conflicts of politics, there is no 

having been doubted, we extract fVom the 
Fayetteville G.tzctte of 1794 the following: 

" Died. — At his seat in Anson County on the 
20tli ulto., the Honorable Samuel Spencer, 
L. L. D., and one of the Judges of the Supeiior 
Courts of tliis State. His Honor's health had 
been declining for about two years, Ijut he 
performed the last circuit three months since, 
and we understand intended to have left iiome 
in a few days for this town, where the Superior 
Court is now sitting, had it not been for the 
following accident which it is thought hast- 
ened his death. 

" He was sitting on the piazza with a red cap their valor. 
on his he;id, when he attracted the attention (jf 
a large turkey gobbler. The judge being sleepy " 
began to nod; the turkey mistaking the nod- - Asheville and Ashboro 

peri, id when persons of this name have not 
been first and foremost in the defence of our 
country's rights and iil)erty, and in the prompt 
resistance to opjircssion. In gi'atefnl ap[ireci- 
ation, the State he.s preserved t'ne name of 
Ashe, by inscriiiing it on one of iier counties 
and on two of her m ist ilonrisliing towns.* 
Surely, then, lujne of u.^ of the pres nt age, 
who have i'l'iciited the rich lega:-}' v.mii liy 
their eti'orts and their bhuul^ can refuse the 
ies',.ect and honor dae to their s.icrifices and 


The ancest;)!- of this name, John Ba[itista 
Ashe, a century and a half ago, [17-30,] op- 
pD^eil the ab'.iseri and nsurpations of the 
Go\ernor Burringtwi, hy whniu he was op- 
pre&sc(] and iniiiri.soned. His ehlest son, in 
the oa'.liest d;i\vn of our Rcvohition, was the 
decided advocate and ch-fender of popular 
rij;lits, and tlie rcsukite and unyielding oppo- 
nent of tyranny and olhcial aliuse. lie 
the daring piatriot tliat '"' lje;;rde(l tlic iHuig- 
las in his castle," aiul defied " the widf of tlie 
State," Go\'. Tiyon, to execute the infamous 
Stamp Alt of his master. lie seized, in liis 
very presence, the stamp master, ancl com- 
pelled him to pledge hini.~e!f n.t to execute 
thv' enactment. It was he that drove 
the !a-t of tliL' lioyal Goviriior^ from his pal- 
ace, destroyed Ids foi-t, and e 'in^udied him to 
soek refuge on hoard of the English man-of- 
war in t'le C ipc Fe '.r Kiver. ]''or these acts 
he v.-as (h.mnunrc.l hy the Go\'ernment in a 
Royal pro lamation. In the cause of p>i ular 
rights lie v.-as wi'ling " to .spend and he spent," 
and did spL-nd his su'istance, and wa.S ready to 
lay dov.-n hi i lil'e in the cause of the [icoplc. 
Iliscoiirse and condact received, as it descr\-od, 
the sujiport of the pjoplj. '• They loved him 
hccause he first lo\-i d them." '• Xone fear..'d 
to foil w wliei'e a.i Ashj h'd." So fai' from 
heeding o:' fo.i-ir.g the i'uhiiinations of power, 
he resigned t!ie commission he had held in the 
Royal s;rvice, and hy pie Igin i,- his e>t ite he 
soon raised a regiment, wdiich he was iinini- 
mously called to eominand, and rendeed im- 
port uit services in the Revolutionary War to 
the day ol' his d ath. 

"This family," .;iys .Mr. bavi;, in lils ad- 
dress at the University, [1855,] '• contrilmted 
largely to the cause of the country in the 
Revolution— c-.'ery gi- )wn mile of the fim- 
ily." Deep, then, should he our i;-ratitude. 
They and their descendants have since per- 
vaded our countiy, from the Cape Fear to the 
mountains; to TViinessce, Califcnmia, Mi.ssonri, 

and elsewhere. Wherever they have gone 
they are respected fi)r their virtues, and es- 
teemed for their abilities. They have occu- 
pied, in their adopte 1 h;nn_'S, positions of 
honor, trust, and [irotit, illustrated and ele- 
vated such [lositions, as Jones, in his Defence, 
has cxpre.ssed it, •' by genius, talent, and ac- 

Another son of John l>aptista Ashe, and 
who.-e patror.omic the subject of our sketch 
bears, was his <lirect ancestor. 

Judge Ashe was liorn in June, 1812, at llav,-- 
fields, then Orange County, now A'amance. 
He received his education from William Riivi:- 
ham, the eldei', and at the University of the 
State, where he gra<luated with high honors 
in 1832, in the s ime class with TIiouils L. 
Clingman, James C. Dohbin, John 11. Uaugh- 
ton, ('adwallader Jones, and others. Those 
wh 1 knowth'se names, and tlieir splendid en- 
d Avmcnts, and tlieir hriliiant career in life, 
will appreciate the honor attained in such 
conqietiti ui. lie read law with Judge Ruflin. 
with wdiom he always was a spndd favorite. 
After being licensed to [iractice law, by tlie 
Supreme Court, he settled at Wadesljoro, 
where he now resides, lie was eleetod a 
member of the House of C<immons in 1842. 
and a member of the Senate in 18')4. 

In the triu'ilcd times of the civil war, lie 
was elected a niembei- of the Confederate 
Congress, and in 18 J4, a member of the Con- 
federate Senate, but never took his seat. 

In 1 68, be was nominated t(^ lead a forlorn 
hope, as the Deme.cratic candidate for Governor, 
in ojipnsition to Governor Ilolden, and made a 
gallant, but unsuccesd'ul, campaign. In 1872, 
lie received the u lexpected and unsolicited 
nominati )ii ['nv the Congress of the United 
States; and again i.i 1874. IL; was trinm[ih- 
aiit ly clecte I, and sjived faithfully and use- 
fully. Xu member of either pii ty stood higher 
in CiMigress for integrity, intelligence, and 
fidelitj- to the Constitution. A member of 


one of the most important committees (the BurgAvin, and has a large and interesting fam- 
ily. He is a member of the Episcopal Church, 
and a consistent and sincere follower of its 
sacred tenets. 

We conclude our feeble sketch in the words 
of Cardinal Wolsey of Sir Thomas More : 

Judiciary), he commanded the confidence and 
respect of his associates, and many of their 
most important reports were the results of his 
acumen and patient investigation. He was 
most attentive to these onerous duties; al- 
ways punctual in bis attendance, and rendered 
essential service in their deliberations. 

After four years' service in Congress, to the 
universal and profound regret of his associ- 
ates, he was retired from Congress b} the 
nominating con\'ention of his district, and he 
returned to his profession, which was far more 
germane to his tastes and his talents than the 
bustle and excitement of political strife. It is 

-He is u learned man! 

May he continue long in the people's favor, 

And do justice for truth's sake and his conscience; 

That his bones, when he has done his course and sleeps 

in blessings, 
May have a tomb of orphans' tears wept over them. 

[See Appendix, Genealogy of the Ashe 

Richard Tyler Bennett was born near 
Wadesboro. He was prepared for college by 
well remembered b}' the writer of this sketch, the Anson Institute, under the superintend- 

how universal and sincere, in Congress and out 
of it, were the expressions of regret at his re- 
tirement. The prediction was then made 
which soon became prophecy, that " North 
Carolina was too proud of such a son to allow 

ence of Professor Mclver, and was for a time 
a student at the University. He read law 
under Chief Justice Pearson, and finished his 
legal studies at Lebanon College, Tennessee. 
He ardently entered the Confederate service 

him to remain long in retirement; that soon in the Civil War as a private, refusing the po- 

hc would he called on to occupy other and sition of an officer ; but afterwards, from his 

more elevated positions." This prediction has gallantrj' and usefulness, was promoted to a 

been verified; for, without any intimation or colonelcy. He was engaged in several battles, 

exertion on his part, in June, 1878, he was severely wounded, and finally taken prisoner, 

nominated by the State Convention, on the and confined in Fort Dela\vare until the close 

first ballot, as one of the Associate Justices of 
the Supreme Court, in preference to a score of 
the ablest lawyers of the State. 

He was triumphantly elected, at the head 
of the ticket, by the people at the polls, and 
we predict, again, that the ermine worn so 

of the war. 

Since the war he has continually^ resided at 
Wadesboro, and for some years was the part- 
ner of Hon. Thomas S. Ashe. 

He was a member of the Convention of 
1875, and of the House in 1873-'74:. He was 

long and so gracefully by our Hall, Hender- selected as elector for this [7th] district ou 

son, Taylor, Ruflin, Daniel, Gaston and others the Hancock ticket, and was doing j'eoman's 

will suffer no detriment from Judge Ashe. service in this position when he was nomi- 

Judge Ashe is now in the meridian of life, nated as Superior Court Judge, in place of 

and there are years of strength and usefulness Judge Buxton, resigned, in August, 1880. 

yet to be employed by him in the interest of "He is," says the Charlotte Democrat, "a 

the people of a State that love and honor him. gifted advocate, and highly esteemed by the 

He married a daughter of the late George profession." 




Beaufort County preserves the naine Heniy 
Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, and although it 
is Dot within our proposed project, yet 
we cannot refrain from recording, in a 
sliort note, the worth and character of tlais il- 
lustrious statesman. 

We copy from the " Gentleman's Maga- 
zine," (London, 1803, vol. 73, 994,) as a beau- 
tiful description of a model gentleman: 

" Died. — At his seat Radmenton, Count}' of 
Gloucester, on 11 Oct., 1803, in his 59th year, 
the most noble, Henry Sommerset, Duke of 

" His Grace will be much lan.iented by his 
family, friends, and liis numerous tenantry. 
He maintained the dignity of iiis station 
rather by the noide simplicity of his manners, 
and his provei'bial hospitality, than bj-any at- 
tention to exterior splendor or display of fash- 
ion. It was not his taste to solicit notice by 
an}' of those attractions at which the public 
gaze with temporary admiration. 

" In politics, he supported a tranquil, digni- 
fied inclependenee, and the support he gener- 
ally gave to His Majesties' Ministers, could 
never be attributed to any motives but such 
as were perfectl}' consistent with the integritj' 
wliicli distinguished Ids life." 

He was a distinguished Free Mason; was 
Grand Master of England, and as sach com- 
missioned Grand Master Mont ford, of ^S^ortli 
Carolina, in 1771, to establish lodges in Amer- 
ica, and from whom the Grand Lodge of 
North Carolina holds its charter. He became, 
b}' purchase of the Dulce of Alliemarle, pos- 
sessed of the right as one of the Lord's Pro- 
prietors of the Province, which in 1729, re- 
vested in the crown. Worthy is the name 
preserved in our State. 

The capital of Beaufort preserves the name 
[clarum et venerable) of the immortal Wasli- 

This name has been so frequently the sub- 
ject of eulogy and admiratiou, that any at- 

tempt to enlarge on his character and services 
would be ridiculous excess. But we car, not 
refi'ain from printing and preserving tire ex- 
quisite and truthful extiact from Mr. Jeifcr- 
son's works: 

Jep'erson's Character of Wasliwgton. * 

Letter from Jefferson to Dr. Walter Jones, 
2d Jan., 1814: 

"I think I knew General Wa-shington inti- 
matel}' and thoroughly. His mind was gi'eat 
and powerful without being of the ver}' first 
order; his penetration sti'ong, though not so 
acute as that of a aSTewton, Bacon, or Locke, 
and as far as he saw, no judgment was e\'cr 
sounder; it was slow in operation, being little 
aided by invention or imagination, but sure in 
conclusion, hence the common remark of his 
officers of the advantage he derived from 
councils of war, where, hearing all suggestions, 
he selected whatever was best, and certainly 
no General ever phmned his battles nmre ju- 
diciously. But if deranged during the course 
of action, if any member of his plan was dis- 
located by sudden circumstances, he was slow 
in a readjustment. The consequence was that 
he often failed in the field, as at Monmouth, 
but rarely against an enemy in station, as at 
Boston and York. He was incapable of, 
meeting personal danger with the calmest un- 
concern. Perhaps the strongest feature in his 
character was [)rudence; never acting until 
every circumstance, eveiy co:isideration, was 
maturely weighed, refraining if he sav,' a 
doubt; but, when once decided, going through 
with his purpose whatever obstacles opposed. 
His integrity was most pure; his justice most 
inflexible I have never known; no motives of 
interest, or consanguinity of friendship or 
hatred, being able to bias his decision. He 
was, indeed, in every sense of the word, a 
wise, a good, and a great man. His temper 
was naturally irritable and high-toned; but 
reflection and resolution had obtained a fii'ui 
and habitual ascendency over it;, if ever, 
however, it broke its bounds, he "was most 

*rrom the Domestic Life of Tbos. Jefferson, by his 
fCi-aiidaugliter Sarah N. Lianclolph; New York, Harper 
& Brothers, 1872, p. 356. 



tremendous in his wrath. In his expenses lie 
was honorable, but exact; liberal in contribu- 
tion to whatever promised utility', but frown- 
ing and unyielding on all visionar}' projects, 
and all unworthy calls on his charity. His 
heart was not warm in its aft'ections; but he 
exactly calculated every man's value and gave 
him solid esteem proportioned to it. His 
presence, yon know, was fine; his stature ex- 
actly what one could wish. His deportment 
was easj', erect, and noble; the best horseman 
of his age, and the most graceful figure that 
could be seen on horseback. 

" Although in the circle of his friends, 
where he might be unreserved in safety, he 
took a free share in conversation, his collo- 
quial talents were not above mediocrity, pos- 
sessing neither copiousness of ideas nor fluency 
of words. In public, when called on for a 
sudden opinion, he was unready, short, and em- 
barrassed; yet he wrote readily, rather dif- 
fusely, in an easy, correct style. This he had 
acquired by conversation with the woi-ld, for 
his education was merel}' reading, writing, 
and common arithmetic, to which he added 
surveying at a later day. 

" His time was employed in action chiefly, 
reading little, and that only iu agriculture and 
English history. His correspondence became 
necessarily extensive, and with journalizing 
his agricultural proceedings, occupied most of 
his leisure hours within doors. 

" On the whole, his character was, in its 
hiass, perfect; in nothing bad; in a few points 
inditf'erent, and it may truly be said, that never 
did nature and fortune combine more perfectly 
to make a man great, and to place in the same 
constellation with whatever worthies have 
merited from man an everlasting remembrance, 
for his was the singular destiny and merit of 
leading the armies of his country successfully 
through an arduous war to the establishment 
of its independence; of conducting its coun- 
cils through the birth of a CTOvernineut, new 
in its forms and principles, until it settled 
down into a quiet and orderly train, and of 
scrupulously obeying the laws through the 
whole of his career, civil and military, of 
which the history of the world furnishes no 
other example. 

" He has often declared to me that he con- 
sidered our new Constitution as an experiment 
on the practicability of republican govern- 
ment, and with what dose of liberty man could 
be trusted with for his own good ; that he was 

determined the experiment should have a fair 
trial, and would lose the last drop of his blood 
in support of it." 

To a friend, on one occasion, Mr. Jefl'ersou 
exclaimed, in a burst of enthusiasm, " Wash- 
ington's fame will go on increasing until the 
brightest constellation in yonder heavens shall 
be called by his name." 

' His memory sparkles o'er the fountain, ' 
His name's inscribed on loftiest mountain — 
The gentle rill, the mightiest river, 
Rolls mingled with his name forever ! 

Washington, like the great patromia of Beau- 
fort, was an enthusiastic Mason. 

In the language of Mr. Knapp, in his admira- 
ble sketch of Judge Gridlej', Grand Master 
of Massachusetts — 

" It was fortunate for the Masonic frater- 
nity that a man of such fine elements should 
become engaged at this early period in the 
cause of tlie craft; his weight of character, his 
zeal and his ability to defend and support its 
cause, was important, and did much to diffuse 
Masonic light and knowledge. This order of 
benevolence had just been established in this 
new world when he was appointed its Grand 
Master, and he wore its honors unsullied to 
the last hour of his life. His coadjutor in 
planting and cultivating this exuberant vine 
of charity, with whose fruit all nations have 
been blessed, was the sage and patriotic Frank- 
lin, under whose hand.s,by the smiles of Prov- 
idence, its roots have struck deeper and 
deeper, and its branches spread higher and 
wider; while the fondest hopes of philanthropy 
have been more than realized in the perma- 
nency and the prosperity of our country and 
our craft. If their spirits could revisit the earth 
and take note of what is doing here, with 
what joy would they witness the extension and 
progress of every branch of knowledge among 
their descendants; and with what [ileasure 
would they count the number of charitable in- 
stitutions which, like the dews of Heaven, so 
gently spread their blissful influences and shed 
their healing balsams upon the wounds of 

"The history of benevolent and useful in- 
titutions are as valuable to the community as 
are the lives of eminent men. These institu- 
tions are like rivers wliich spring from remote 
and hidden fountains, and are in their course 



enlarged by a thousand tributary streams, 
which all unite in one grand current, to swell 
the amount of human happiness and lessen the 
ills which flesh is heir to." 

This truthful eulogium may well be applied 
to North Carolina, for the men who fought 
for and framed her Constitution were earliest 
and devoted friends to the cause of Free Ma- 
sonry. Among her Grand Masters were Sam- 
uel Johnston, [1788,] Richard Caswell, [from 
1789 to -92,] Wm. R. Davie, ['92 to 1799,] 
William Polk, [1800 to 1802,] John Louis 
Taylor, [1803,] John Hall, [1801,] Robert 
Strange, [1824,] Edwin G. Reade, [1865,] 
Robert B. Vance, [1866.] 

These distinguished men were proud to lay 
aside for a time the sword of the soldier, the 
ermine of the judge, and the laurels of the 
statesman, to labor as fellow-crafts in the 
cause of " Free and Accepted Masons." 

The craft is in a flourishing condition in 
North Carolina. There are now about 400 
Lodges and about 12,000 members, sustaining 
in asylums at Oxford and Mars Hill 134 or- 
phans, and advocated bj' the Orphans' 
Friend, a periodical. 

An incident worthy of record as to the hu- 
manizing influence of Masonry, even in the 
face of •' grim-visaged war," occurred at the 
battle of Manassas. A gallant Georgia oflicer 
was shot down as he was forming his company 
in line of battle. He refused to be taken from 
the field. His regiment, under an overwhelm- 
ing charge ot tlie enemy, was compelled to 
fall back, and the poor fellow, unable to move, 
was made prisoner. He was about to be bay- 
oneted, when he gave the Masonic sign of dis- 
tress. The uplifted weapon fell harmless, and 
he was taken up by brotherly hands, his 
wounds attended to, and his sufi"erings allevi- 
ated. This was Orderly Sergeant 0. B. Eve, 
of the Miller Rifles, of Rome, Georgia. 

Many such incidents occurred at other 
times and places, proving the influence and 
value of Masonry. 

The Blouxts of Beaufort.* 

As early as 1782, General John Gray Blount 
represented the county of Beaufort in the 
Legislature. He was enterprising and success- 
ful in business, and a large land owner. His 
father was Jacob Blount, who was an oSicer 
at the battle of Alamance and in the Revolu- 
tionary War. Jacob was also the father of 
Governor "William Blount, (for sketch of 
whom see Craven,) who was Governor of Ten- 
nessee, and of Thomas, who was a volunteer 
in the Revolutionary army at the age of six- 
teen, and commanded as major at the battle 
of Eutaw; was a member of Congress in 1793- 
'99 and 180o-'09, and died at Washington 
City 1812. Jacob was also the father of Wil- 
lie Blount, Governor of Tennessee from 1809 
to '15. 

General William A. Blount, born 1794, died 
1867, was the son of General John Gray 
Blount, and was well known in North Caro- 
lina, and much esteemed for his genial quali- 
ties, his extended and varied abilities, and his 
public services. At the early age of eighteen 
he entered the arm}' of the United States as 
a subaltern, in the war of 1812, and continued 
in the army until the war was over. Such 
were his faithful services that he was promoted 
to the rank of captain. 

On his return from the a"my he was elected 
major-general of the third division of North 
Carolina militia, a position at that time, in the 
unsettled condition of our affairs, of much 
distinction and responsibility. His next pub- 
lic service was as a member of the Legislature 
from Beaufort County, in 1825, and sucli was 
the acceptability of his course that he was re- 
elected in 1826 and '27. 

When in the public councils, he advocated 
the most liberal system of public improve- 

*\Ve present under Craven County a careful and elab- 
orate genealogy of the Blount family, which will, we 
trust, be acceptable for reference and worthy of 



meuts, and was for years a member of the 
Board of Internal Improvements. He was the 
devoted friend of public schoolSj and for a 
long time a member of the Board of Trustees 
[appointed 1825] of the Universitj-; its stead3-, 
active, and consistent friend. 

He was intensely southern in his whole 
course of life; the active opponent of all pro- 
tection and class legislation; the devoted ad- 
vocate of free trade and the rights of the 
States. His course in the Free Trade Conven- 
tion at i'hiladelphia, one of the ablest bodies 
that ever assembled in this country', proves his 
ardent devotion to principle. 

But it was at home, in the exercise of the 
kindly charities of life,thea'ft'ectiouate parent, 
the obliging and symphathizing neighbor, the 
sincere and uncaleulating friend, his open- 
handed charity — 

Charity that feels for another's woes, 
And hides the faults that we see; — 

that specially marked the life and character of 
General William A. Blount. 

None that knew him (and the writer knew 
him long and well) can ever cease to remem- 
ber his genial manner, his commanding pres- 
ence, and his knightly bearing. 

His conversatioual powers were unrivaled; 
though often incisive, pointed and witty, they 
were never coarse or oifensive. These quali- 
ties made him always a welcome guest, and 
"the flashes of his wit often set the table in 
a roar." 

Of him may be trulj- said as Anthony uf tlie 

noble Brutus — 

flis life was gentle; and the elements 

So mixed in him, that nature might stand up 
And say to all the world, this was a Man. 

[Julius Cresar, Y, s.] 

He was twice married; first to E"ancy Hay- 
wood, and second to MissLittlejohn. By the 
first he left a son, Major Wm. A. Blount, 
and a daughter, iNTancy, who still resides at 
Raleigh, and who married the lamented Gen. 
L. O'B. Branch. 

" Being thus fathered and thus husbanded" 
is the peerless rival of the Portias of ancient 

ilr. Cambreling, of New York, born 1786, 
died 1862. 

Although the public services of Churchill 
Caldom Cambreling have redounded to the 
fame of another State, yet he is a native son of 
North Carolina; and we believe in the divine 
injunction, to "give unto C;esar the things 
that are Csesar's." We intend to claim the 
merits, character, and services of every son of 
North Carolina, wherever we can find them. 

The follov.'ing is a partial list of the native 
sous of North Caroliua who have distinguished 
thenrselves as citizens of other States: 

Allen, William, (Ohio,) born in Chowan 

Ashe, John B., (of Tenu.,) New Hanover. 

Bj'num, Jesse, (La.,) Halifax. 
Benton, Thns. H., (of Mo.,) Orange. 
Bragg, John, (Ala.,) Warren. 
Blounts, VvHUiam, (Tenn.,) Craven. 
Willie, (Tenn ,) Bertie. 

Cannon, Newton, (Tenn.,) Guilford. 

Daniel, J. R. J., (La.,) Halifax. 

Dargan, (Ala.,) Anson. 

Darby, (Miss.) 

Dixon, Archibald, (Ky.,) Caswell. 

Eaton, John IL, (Tenn.,) Halifax. 
Etheridge, (of Tenn.,) Currituck. 

Foruey, W. H., (Ala.,) Lincoln. 

Gentry, Meredith P., Tennessee. 
Gause, (of Ark.,) Brunswick. 
Grant, James, (Iowa,) Halifax. 

Handey, J. R., (Conn.,) Richmond. 
Hawks, F. L., (N. Y.,) Craven. 
Bishop, (Mo.,) Craven. 

Jackson, Andrew, (Tenn.,) Hnion. 
Johnson, Andrew, (Tenn.,) Wake. 

King, Wm. R., (Ala.,) Sampson. 

Moore, Gabriel, (Ala.) 
Mosely, W. D., (Fla.,) Lenoir. 

Pickens, Israel, (Ala.,) Mecklenburg. 
Polk, Jas. K., (Tenn.,) Mecklenburg. 



Eabuni, Wm., (of Georgia,) Halifax. 

Steele, J. H., (K H.,) Eowaii. 
StokeSj Montforcl, (Ark.,) 
Wni. B., (Tenn.,) 

White, Hugh L., (Tenti.,) Iredell. 
Williams, Thomas, CAliss.,) Surry. 

Beijjamin, (Ala.,) Surry. 
Marmuduke, (Ala.,) Surry. 
Wiley, J. Caleb, born in Cabarrus County; 
member of Congress from Alabama. 

Ill every portion of our nation may be found 
some native sons of the State, who, although 
separated, have never ceased to love their 
dear old mother; and who cherished to the 
last an abiding affection for her — a love un- 
surpassing the love'of woman. 

AVe can say with ^Eneas to his fdas Acha- 
tes — 

Quis jam locus? 

Qnx regis in terris uostri, non plena laboris.* 

Nor has Xorth Carolina been selfish or churl- 
ish to those of other States who have settled 
and made her borders their home. 

Of the members of the Continental Con- 
gress Burke was from Ireland; Caswell from 
Maryland; Hooper from Massacliusetts; Penn 
from Virginia; Williamson from Penns^dvaT 

ISTeither of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence for North Carolina was a native 
of the State. Ilewes was a native of New 
Jersey; Hooper, of Massachusetts;, Penn, of 

Penn, of Virginia, also signed the Constitu- 
tion as a Delegate from North Carolina. 

Of the 1st Congress, [1789 to 1791,] Samuel 
Johnston was a native of Scotland; Hugh 
Williamson, of Pennsylvania. 

Of the 6th Congress, [1799-1801,] William 
H. Hill v/as a native of Massachusetts. 

Of the 10th Congress, James Turner v/as a 
native of Virginia. 

*What place, wliat country, on the globe is not f uU 
of our labors — Virgil I, 459. 

Felix Walker of Virginia was a member of 
the 15th, [1817-'19,] 16th, ['19-'21,] and 17th, 
['21-'23] Congresses. 

Henry W. Connor, of Virginia, was a mem- 
ber of the 19th, 20th, 21st, 22d, 23d, 24th, 
25th, and 26Lh Congresses. 

Abram AV. Venable, of Virginia, was a 
member of the 30th, [1847-49,] 31st, and 32d, 

Eicliard C. Puryear, of A'irginia, was a ntem- 
ber of the 33d [18o3-'55] Congress. 

H. M. . Shaw, of Ehode Island, was a 
member of the 3oth Congress. 

Xathaniid Boyden, of ^lassachusetts, David 
Ileaton, of Ohio; John T. Deweese, of Arkan- 
sas, and John E. French, of New Hampshire, 
were members of the 40th [1867-'69] Con- 

James C. Harper, of Pennsylvania was a 
member of the 41st [1871-73] Congress. 

And these are distinguished wherever they 
roam Ijy their intrinsic worth, their unobtru- 
sive demeanor, their aibhorence of vice and 
love of virtue, their fidelity to their promises 
and contracts, tiieir obedience and respect to 
law. And ^vhen elevated by an appreciative 
[icople, have been always equal to and no\'er 
above or below the position they occupied, 
but discharged every duty with integrity, in- 
telligence, to the satisfacti(_m and approbation 
of their constitutents, and honor to the 

To return to our subject: Mr. Candjreling 
was a member of Congress from New York 
City from 1821 to 1839; chairman of the 
C>)mmitteeof Ways and Means at one time 
and of Foreign Affairs, which important posts 
were evidence of the high appreciation of his 
transcendent abilit}- as a statesman. In 1840 
he was appointed Minister to Eussia. 

His name was derived from his great- 
grandfather, Cliurchill Caldom, whose father 
caxne from Scotland and settled on Pamlico 
Eiver. On the nuiternal line he was the 



graudsoii of John Pattoii, a gallant officer of 
the Revolution, major of 2d Regiment of the 
X. C. Line in the Continental Army, and 
was engaged in the hattles of Brandywine, 
Germantown and Monmouth. He was horn 
in Washington, Beaufort County, N. C, 
and educated in 'Sew Berne. From the 
situation of his family, for he was early 
an orphan, he left schocd before- his edu- 
cation was complete, and went into a store as 
a clerk. He moved in 1802 to Xew York, and 
engaged in mercantile pursuits with John 
Jacob Astor,and as his confidential clerktrav-., 
eled extensively over the world. His reports 
in Congress, especially on commerce and navi- 
gation, were models of research and logic, and 
were republislied in England. He died at 
AVest Neck, New York, on 30th April, 1862. 
(See "Demo. Review," VII, No. 11— " Lan- 
man's Biographical Annals.") 

George E. B. Singletary. — On the 5th June, 
1862, in a skirmish which ensued across Tran- 
ter's Creek, near Washington, in this county, 
between the 44th Xortli Carolina and a heavy 
force of Union troops, fell the gallant com- 
mander of the Xorth Carolina troops. Colonel 

Colonel Singletary was an experienced and 
gallant officer, and had seen some service in 
the war with Mexico. 

Colonel S. was the oldest son of an Episco- 
pal clergyman, and much esteemed for his 
legal acquirements and his genial social 

He had married Cora, eldest daughter of 
Governor Alanly. 

He was succeeded by hisj'ounger brother in 
command of the regiment. 

Captain John Julius Guthrie who was 
drowned near Nag's Head in November, 1877, 
while endeavoring to succor the passengers 
and crew of the U. S. Steamship "Huron," 
was a native of the town of Washington, the 
son of Dr. John W. Guthrie and his wife 

Elizabeth, daughter of Captain William ?ilc- 

Capitain Guthrie was no ordinary man, and 
well deserves remembrance for his virtues in 
private life, and his heoric gallantry. His 
education was conducted by Rev. Dr. Wm, 
McPheeters at Raleigh, and in 1833 he was 
appointed a cadet at West Point; but prefer- 
ing the adventurous life of a sailor, after one 
year's probation at West Point, his friends 
procured in 1834 a midshipman's warrant in 
the Navy. He served with great acceptability 
at home and abroad, especially in the war 
with Mexico, and in the Anglo-French war 
in China ; when our flag was insulted, displayed 
great gallantry and captured Barrier Forts, 
hauling down the China flag, which trophy he 
presented to the State, and for which he re- 
ceived the thanks of the Legislature. 

The following is a copj' of the letter of the 
Governor, and of the resolutions of the Legis- 

Testimoxt to Gallantry. 

[Oommunicated to the National Intelligencer.] 

Executive Department, 

Raleigh, Aug. 23, 1859. 

Sir: I have this day received from Capt. A. 
J. Lawrence a Chinese flag, taken by you in 
an assault upon the barrier forts in the Canton 
river in November, 1856, bj^ the forces of the 
United States ships "San Jacinto," "i''orts- 
mouth," and "Levant," as a present in j-our 
name to the State of North Carolina. 

Having been apprised of your desire to 
make this disposition of the flag, the last Gen- 
eral Assembly, by resolutions, authorized me 
to receive it from yo\i in behalf of the State, 
and at the same time to express to you the 
high appreciation of that body of your gal- 
lantry on the occasion referred to, and of this 
evidence of your veneration for the State of 
3'our birth. 

Believing that I cannot discharge this pleas- 
ing duty in a more acceptable manner than by 
transmitting these highly complimentary reso- 
lutions, I herewith enclose a copy of them as 
transcribed from the statute book. 

These resolutions, I am well assured, are 



none the less expressive of the sentiments of 
the people of the State than of their repre- 
seiitatives who enacted theni; for they have 
ever manifested a lively pleasure at the hon- 
orable distinctions achieved by the sons of 
North Carolina in every department of the 
public service. Every distinguished action of 
the citizens proves useful to the State in the 
example it affords to the youths of the 
country, who are thus apprised of the gratify- 
ing rewards that ever await a faithful dis- 
charge of duty. 

This flag, so gallantly taken by 3'ou in the 
maintainance of the rights and protection of 
the pei'sons of American citizens in a distant 
land, will be placed among the valued treasures 
of the State, and will be looked upon by 
posterity, impressing all who may see it with 
the sentiments of esteem in which are held 
the brave conduct of the faithful soldier in 
the service of his country; and to our youths, 
to wliom from time to time the stor}' of its 
capture may be narrated, will be told that it 
is a trophy for which the State is indebted to 
one of her courageous sons who entered the 
service of the country when a mere boy, and 
who, without the aid of fortune or the in- 
fluence of powerful friends, won his way to 
honorable distinction by his own upright 
deportment and gallant spirit. Thus, sir, will 
a valuable lesson be taught them, exciting in 
their bosoms a laudable ambition to emulate 
like honorable a^jtions. 

Trusting that your career will prove one of 
continued usefuhiess to the country and dis- 
tinction to yourself, I have the honor to be, 
verj' respectfully, yours, &c., 


Lieut. John Julius Guthrie, U. S. Navy. 

Besoltitions antlioriziug the CTOvernor of tlie State 
to receive a flag tendered to the State of North 
Carolina by Lieut. Guthrie, of the U. S. Navy. 

Y/hereas John JuUus Guthrie, a lieutenant 
in the United States Navy and a native of the 
State of North Carolina, now on oflicial duty 
at the National Observatoi'y, Washinarton, 
D. C, did, on the 20th day of November, 1856, 
capture and carry off as a trophy of war a 
Chinese flag from the first of four barrier forts 
captured in a combined engagement by the 
"San Jacinto," -'Portsmouth," and"Levaiit,"on 
the part of the American naval force, and other 
vessels under the command of Rear Admiral 
Seymore, on the part, of the English, in the 
Canton River-. 

And whereas the chastisement inflicted on 
that occasion was in defence of American and 
English citizens residing in that localitj-, and 
had the happy etiect of securing to them 
immunity from violence and insult to their 
persons and property: 

And whereas said Lieut. Guthrie has been 
induced by his friends in the city of Raleigh 
and elsewhere to express a willingness to 
tender this flag to his native State,- with a 
desire that she would accept it as an humble 
evidence of filial sentiments and affectionate 
recollection: Therefore — 

Resolved: That the Governor of the State 
be authorized and requested to accept the flag 
thus tendered by Lieut. Guthrie at such time 
and place and in such way and manner as may 
appear suitable and proper. 

Resob-^d further: That he be requested, in 
behalf of this General Assembly, to express to 
Lieut. Guthrie its high appreciation of his 
gallantry on that occasion aiid this evidence 
of his venGration for the State of his birth. 

Resolved tlurdly: That the Governor be far- 
ther requested to make such disposition of the 
flag, when received, as he may think this 
trophy of her son deserves. 

Ratified February 1.5, 1859. 

True cop3' from the original. 

Grauaji Daves, 
Private Secretary. 

Raleigh, August 22, 1859. 

After service of nearly thirty ye.irs, when 
the civil war broke out, he was under the 
necessity of resigning, and entered into the 
Confederate service, where he did eflicient 
and active duty at New Orleans and elsewhere. 
He was at one time in command of the 
"Advance, "running the blockadebetween Wil- 
mington and the Bermudas. After the war was 
over, he removed with his familj- to Ports- 
mouth, Va., and in the Fall of 1865 was 
pardoned by the President, (Johnson.) lieing 
the first officer of the regular service who had 
received Executive clemenc3\ His disabilities 
being removed by a unanimous reconmrenda- 
tion from tlie memboi's of Congress, he was -ap- 
pointed by General Grant to the "Superin- 
tendency of the Life-Saving Stations from 
Cape Henry to Cape ILatteras," in the dis- 
charge of the duties of which he lost his life. 



He left a ■'.vife (Louisa, dangbter of Benjamin 
Spratiy,) and children to mourn his loss. It 
was near the dreaded Cape Ilatteras so often 
l.eforc and since the death-place of the brave, 
did the gallant Guthrie meet his death. 

This fearful spot has been beautifully and 
fearfully depicted in poetrj- by another son of 
North Carolina, now, too, no more: 


The Wind King from the North came down. 
Kor stopped by river, mount, or town; 
But like a boisterous god at play, 
liesistless, bounding on his way, 
He shook the lake and tore tlie wood, 
And flapjied his wings in merry mood, 
Nor furled them, till he spied afar. 
The white caps flash on Hatteras Bar, 
■Where fierce Atlantic landward bowls, 
O'er treacherous sands and hidden shoals. 

He paused, then wreathed his horn of cloud. 
And hleAv defiance long and loudj 
"Come up! Come up, tlion torrid sod, 

That rul'st the Southern Sea! 
Ho! lightning'-eyed and thunder-shod, 

Come wrestle here with me! 
As losset thou the tangled cane 
111 hurl thee o'er the boiling main.'' 

The angry heavens hung dark and still. 
Like Arctic night on Ilecla's hill; 
The mermaids sporting on the waves. 
Affrighted, fled to coral caves; 
The billow cliecked its curling crest, 
And, trembling, sank to sudden rest; 
- All ocean stilled its heaving breast. 
Keflected darkness, weird and dread. 
An inky plain the \Yaters spread — 
So motionless, since life w;is fled! 

Amid this elemental lull, 

'.\ hen uatu)-e died, and death lay dull. 

As though itself were sleeping there — 

Becalmed upon that dismal Hood. 

Ten fated vessels idly stood. 

And not a timber creaked! 

"Come up! Come up, thou torrid god. 
Thou lightning-eyed and thunder-shod. 
And wrestle here with mel" 
Twas heard and ansvi'cred: "Lo! I come 

From azure Carribee, 
To drive thee, cowering, to thy home. 
And melt its walls of frozen foam." 

From every isle and mountain dell. 

Prom plains of pathless chaparral. 

From tide built bars, where sea-birds dwell, 

He drew !■■ ilurid legions forth — 

Andspr' ^ to meet the white-plumed North 

Can mortal , ngue in song convey 
The fiu'y of that fearful fray? 
How ships were splintered at a blow — 
Sails shivered into slireds of snow— 
And seamen hurled to death below! 
Two gods commingling, l.iolt and blast, 
'Ihe huge waves on each other cast, 

And bellowed o'er the raging waste; 
Then S]ied. like harnessed steeds, afar, 
T hat drag a shattered battle-car 
Amid the midnight din of war! 

Smile on. smile on, thou watery hell. 
And toss those skulls upon thy shore; 
The Failor's widow knows thee well; 
His children beg from door to door. 
And shi^■er, while they strive to tell 
How thou hast rolibed the wretched poor! 

[Jos. ^y. HOLDEN.] 

This theme has also inspired the pen of an 
earlier poet: 


[From the National Gazette, Philadelphia, ilonday, 
January 16, 1792.] 

In fathoms five, the anchor gone, 

AVhile here we furl the sail. 
No longer vainly laboring on 

Against the western gale; 
NVhile here thy bare and barren cliffs, 

O Hatteras, I survey. 
And shallow grounds and broken reefs; 

\^ hat shall'amuse my stay"? 

The Pilot comes. From yonder sands 

He shoves his barque so frarl. 
And hurrying on, with busy hands, 

Emjiloys both oar and sail. 
Beneath this rude, unsettled sky 

Condemn 'd to pass his years; 
No other shores delight his eye. 

No foe alarms his fears. 

In depths of woods his hut he builds, 

Whei'e ocean round him flows. 
And blooming in the barren t.ilds 

His simple garden gruws. 
His wedded nymph, of sallow hue, 

N mingled colors grace. 
For her he toils, to her is true. 

The captive of her face. 

Kind nature here, to make him blest, 

No quiet harbor plann'd. 
And poverty, his constant guest, 

Restrains the pirate band. 
His hopes are all in yonder flock 

Or some few hives of bees. 
Except, when bound for Ocracock,t 

Some gliding barque he sees; 

His Marian then he quits with grief. 

And spreads his tottering sails, 
While, waving high her handkerchief. 

Her commodore she hails. 
She grieves, and fears to see no more 

The sail that now forsakes. 
From Hatteras' sauds to banks of Core, 

Such tedious journeys takes. 

Fond nymph! your sighs are breath'd in vain. 

Restrain those idle fears. 
Can yon. that should relieve his pain, 

Thus kill hiui with your tearsV 
Can absence thus beget regard. 

Or does it only seem? 
He comes to meet a wandering bauri 

That seeks fair Ashley's stream. 



TIio' disappointed in his views, 

Not joyless will we piu't; 
Nor shall the god of mirth refuse 

The balsam of the heart. 
No niggard key shall lock up joy; 

I'll give him half my store, 
Will he but half his skill employ 

To guard us from your shore. 

Where western gales once more awake 

What dangers will be near. 
Alas 1 I see'the billows break. 

Alas ! why came I here ? 
With quarts of rum and pints of gin, 

(to. pilot, seek the land, 
And drink till you and all your kin 

Can neither sit nor stand. 


* Written off the Cape, .July, 1789, on a voyage to 
South Carolina, being detained sixteen days with strong 
gales ahead. 

t All vessels from the northward tha^ pass witliin 
Hatteras Shoals, bound for New Berne and other places 
on Pimlico Sound, commonly, in favorable weather, 
take a Hatteras pilot to conduct them over the danger- 
ous bar of Ocracock. eleven leagues \V. S. \V. of the 

Edward Stanle3' I'epresented Beaufort Coun- 
ty in 1844-'46 and '48, and was often Speaker 
of the House. 

He was elected Attornej-Genei'al in 1847, 
and a member of Congress from 1837 to 1843 
and from 1849 to 1853. He removed then 
[1853] to California, to practice his profes- 

In 1857 he was the Bepablican candidate 
for Governor, and was defeated, receiving 
21,040 votes to 53,122 for the Democratic can- 
didate, Weller. 

After the capture of New Berne [14tii March, 
1862,] he was appointed by Mr. Lincoln Mili- 
tary Governor of North Carolina, which, after 
a few months, he resigned, and returned to 
San Francisco, where he died, on the 12th 
July, 1872. 

We would fain tread lightly on the ashes of 
the dead, but faithful history demands, like 
Cromwell of his artist, "Paint me as I am, 
warts and all." 

Mr. Stanley was considered as a decided 
party leader in Congress, and acquired an un- 
happy reputation for an over-indulgence in 
vindictive feelings and ultra denunciation of 
his political opponents. This 'inhappy trait 

of character, as was to be expected, involved 
him in frequent diffieulties, political and per- 
sonal. Perhaps it was constitutional, and a 
fatal inheritance; for his fatiiei had, in a 
political quarrel, killed Governor Spaight, and 
was considered aggressive and violent in his 
political conduct. Inheriting this trait, Mr. 
Stanley had, in Congress, involved himself in a 
violent personal altercation with his colleague, 
Hon. Thomas L. Clingman; another with 
Hon. Mr. Inge, of Alabama, which terminated 
in a duel, and with Governor Wise, of Vir- 
ginia, who applied a riding-whip to his shoul- 

His career as .Military C4ovei'nor of North 
Carolina was a failure, not meeting the ap- 
probation of those who sent him, and destroy- 
ing his reputation with those with whom he 
was reared, and by whom he had been hon- 
ored. The most' notable achievement of his 
mission was his letter to General D. H. Hill, 
of 24th March, 1802, abounding in bitterness, 
in which he declared that he " preferred serv- 
ing in a brigade of negroes " than to belong 
to the troops commandad by General Hill, 
who then was defending Mr. Stanley's native 

Whatever motives influenced Mr. Stanley to 
undertake so hopeless a mission, all his at- 
temijts to compromise the difHculties were 
idle and abortive. The bloody chasm had 
Opened its ponderous jaws, 

and any endeavor to heal the dissensions be- 
tween the excited belligerents only tended to 
bring suspicion from one side, and hatred from 
the other. 

The following letter, from one of the tirst 
men in point of al)ility in North Carolina, and 
a near kinsman of Mr. Stanley, shows puljlic 
opinion as to Mr. S.'s course, an 'he state of 
public affairs at the unhappy r :,rioci, and de- 
serves to be preserved. It was written to 
Hon. Alfred Ely, who was a member of Con- 
gress from New York, and was at the battle 



of Bull Run as a spectator. lie was taken 
prisoner, and at the date of this letter was an 
inmate of the Libby Prison in Richmond: 

" Mr. Ely: — Your letter to Mr. Stanley, pro- 
posing to him to cheribh the feeling of " Uni- 
onism " in North Carolina, came to my hands 
in an unsealed envelope, directed to mj^ wife. 
I take the liberty of setting you right upon a 
fact, and showing you what a hopeless task 
3'ou have proposed to Mr. Stanley. 

" There is no Union feeling in North Caro- 
lina, as you suppose, and is probably supposed 
by the generality of Northern men. 

" There ivas in this State a very strong 
Union feeling — a sti'ong love for the Union afe 
established by our forefathers — but as soon as 
Mr. Lincoln's proclamation of April, 18(31, ap- 
peared, offering us the alternative of joining 
an armed invasion of our Southern Sister 
States, for their subjugation, or resisting the au- 
thorities of the United States, onr position 
was taken without a moment's hesitation. A 
Convention was promptly called, and instant- 
ly, without a dissenting voice,^ that Conven- 
tion resolved to take our sides with the al- 
ready seceded States, and share their fate for 
good or evil. From that moment, however 
we may have differed in other things, there 
has not been, and there is not, any difference; 
hence our people with one heart sprang to 
arms. Our people have now nearlj^ sixty regi- 
ments in the iield, (not skeletons, but fall 
regiments,) and among them not a single con- 
script or drafted man. Hence we have ta.xed 
ourselves freely; have used our credit freely 
in making loans to support the war. The 
spirit which has produced this has never 
flagged; but is now as high and active as at 

" Mr. Ely, think a moment ! We have been 
in\-aded b}' an enemy as unrelenting and fe- 
rocious as the jiordus under Attilla and Alai'ic, 
who overrun the Roman Empire; he comes to 
rob us; to murder our people; to insult our 
women; to emancipate our slaves, and is now 
preparing to add a new element to this most 
atrocious aggression, and involve us in- the 
direful horrors of a civil war. He proposes 
nothing else than our entire destruction; the 
desolation of our country; universal emanci- 
pation — not from a love of the slaves, but from 
hatred to us. 'To crush us;' ' to wipe out 
the South;' to involve us in irremediable 
miser^^ and hopeless ruin. 

" Now, Mr. Ely, if your own State of New 

York was so threatened, what would be your 
feelings and purposes ? From these, you may 
judge of ours. 

'■ We look with horror at the thought of 
being again united in any political connection 
with the North. We would rather, far, that 
oar State should be a Colony of England, or 
France, or Sardinia. 

" The North may be able (though we do not 
believe it) to conquer us, and even to keep us 
conquered, and if it should be the wise and 
good purpose of the Almight}' that this shouhl 
happen, we shall endeavor to suffer with pa- 
tience whatever ills may befall n-s; but a vol- 
untar}- return to any union with the North, 
we cannot, will not, accept on any terms —a 
revival of any Union sentiments is an impos- 

" I think, therefore, Mr. Ely, you would do 
well to advise Mr. Stanleyto abandon his en- 

" He a Governor of North Carolina! a Gov- 
ernor deriving his authority from a commis- 
sion of Mr. Lincoln! 

"The very title is an insult to us. The very 
appointment is the assumption of the rights of 
a conqueror. But wc are not yet conquered. 
And clo you think Mr. Stanley's coming here, 
in such a character, supported by Northern 
baj'onets, serves to commend hin\ to our favor; 
to breathe in us the gentle sentiments of amity 
and peace toward himself or those who sent 
him here? Mr. Ely, as you hive opened a 
correspondence with Mr. Stanley, 3'ou had bet- 
ter write to him yours'.df, and say this to him: 

"If he wishes the honored name of Stanley 
to Ijecome a bye-word and a reproach, and to 
be spoken with scorn and hatred \ty all Xorth 
Carolinians henceforth and forever, let him 
pi'osecute his present mission. If hj does not 
wish this, let him return whence he came, and 
leave us to fight out the contest as best we 
ma}', without his interference. 

•'Georhe E. Badger." 

Whether Mi'. Stanley eve;- received this let- 
ter or read it we are not advis,.'d; but, as al- 
ready stated, he soon resigned his post, went 
to California, from whence he never returned. 
But as to Judge Badger, when the finale of 
the anha[>p}' contest was sjttied, and all the 
hopes, as e.xpre-ised in the foregoing graphic 
letter, were destroyed, his majestic mind sunk 
under jthe blow. Like some gallant ship in her 


proud career is suddenly thrown on hidden AVm. A. Blount, whose biography- we have 

and perilous rocks, quivers under the disaster, just presented. 

and finally sinks under the overwhelming He studied law and has attained the highest 

waves to darkness and to death. lie died soon rank in liis profession. His oiiiiiions as a 

after the v/ar. [1866,] paralyzed in body and Judge of the Supreme Court are considered l\y 

enfeebled in intellect. many as models of research and learning. To 

Theruins of thenoblest man sorue, however, " that glorious uncertainty " 

'riwteverlivedhi tide of times. g^ proverbial to the law, is apparent in his 

Eichard Spaight Donnell, born 1820, died rulings. Yet he is vnuch esteemed by the pro- 

1865, represented this county in the Senate in fe-:sion as a just and learned jurist. He has 

1858, and in the Commons in 18G0, '62 and never mingled much in politics, for, like 

'64; and in the latter two sessions he was Alichael Angelo of his profession, he thinks 

elected Speaker. In 1847 he was elected a the law too jealous a mistress to allow any 

member of the 30th Congress, at tlie early age rival in his affections. Like Hooker in his Ec- 

of tweutj'-seven. clesiastical Polity, he believes " of law there 

He was educated partly at Vale, and gradu- can l)e no less acknowledged than that her 

ated at the University of Jvdrth Carolina in seat is the bosom of God; her voice the har- 

1839. mony of the world. All things in he:iven and 

He studied hnv and arose to high distinc- earth do her homage; the very lea -it, as feel- 

ti(jn in the profession. He wrote in 18'J3 a ing her care; and the greatest, as not exempt 

letter on "the rebellion," which gave him from her power. Both angels and men and 

much reputation as a statcsnum. creatures of what conditiim soever, though 

Blest Avith a competency, if not a super- each in difl'erent sort and nnmner, yet all 
Suit}- (if estate, he pursued his profession and with uniform consent admiring her as the 
politics more as an amusement than f)r profit niother of their peace and joy." 
or promotion. Edward J. Warren lived and died in Beau- 
He was much loved by all who knew him fort County. He was a native of the State of 
for his genial and gentle manners, his modest, Vermont, f'ame to Xi_)rth Carolina and set- 
unassuming temper, and high-toned princi- tied in Washington, as a teacher, 
pies. As a man, he was just and faithful; as Ho read law and attained great eminence in 
a la^'ver, of learning aiul probity, and as a the profession. He I'cpresented the county in 
statesman, aliove all intrigue or repi-oacli. the Senate in 1S62 ami 1-64, ami was Sp^'aker 

He died unnnirried, and his memory is en- of the Senate. He was appointed b}' Governor 

balmed in the affections of all who knew him. Worth one of the Judges of the Su[)erior 

William Blount Hodman, born 29tli January- Court. 

1817, represented Beaufort County in the He married Deborah, daughter of Richard 

Convention of 1868. He was elected one of Bonnor. He died in 1878, much esteemed 

the Justices of tlie Supreme Court, the term and regretted, leaving Charles F. Warren, now- 

of which exjiired in 1878. at the bar, and Lucy, who married William 

He was educated at the University ofXorth Rodman Myers. 

Carolina, and graduated in 1836 with the first James Cook, late a captain in the Confed- 

honors. erate Xavy, says Dalton, was a native of Beau- 

llis mother was the daughter of General fort, Carteret Count}', N. C. His name should 

John Gray Blount, and the sister of General be preserved among "the men of Xorth Caro- 


liiia." ilis teri'ific engagcnieiit wliile com- daring character, and his tragic end, make liia 

inanding the Confederate steamer " Albe- history interesting. 

niarle " with the Federal fleet, and clearing He was born in October, 1828, near the sea, 

tiie Sound and the Eoanoke river, after the (his father heing for years collector of customs 

capture of Pl^'mouth by General Robert F . at Ocracock Inlet,) and possessed naturally a 

Hoke, who was so ably seconded by General love for the ocean, which became the ruling 

M. W. Ransom, was a feat unparalleled in the passion of his life, and eventually his grave, 

annals of our naval warfare. Xever before At the early age of 16, he left home on his 

liad the size of such guns and the weight of first vo^'age, and in 1848, he shipped as an 

theii' crushing missiles been directed against ordinary sailor before the mast, on the United 

any single vessel. Yet she struggled through States steamer " Oregon," on a voyage from 

it, having had the misfortune to have carried Kew York to San Francisco, via Cape Horn, 

away one-half of one of the two guns she took His diligence, attention, and gond conduct, 

into the action. She was literally loaded down were so marked that he was make tirst officer 

by the enemj-'s shot, and in this condition had of the ship " Columbia," on the dangerous and 

to fight to the end, un.til she gained a port of then unknown coast of Oregon. When some 

jefuge. daj-s at sea, the ship was discovered to be on tire. 

During the perilous ordeal, Captain Cook She had on board 400 troops, under the com- 

was calm and collected; no excitement marked mand of General Wo;;)l. The coolness, intre- 

Jiis conduct. Quietly did he give his orders, pidit}', and energy of 3"oung Tayloe, on this 

jxnd his men partaking his spirit, promptly and perilous occasion, contributed greatly to the 

quietly obeyed. savhig of the ship, passengers and crew. This 

Captain Cook was as modest in his deport- was expressed in the grateful thanks of the 

ment as he. was brave and fearless in action, passengers by resolutions. 

Had such an exploit occurred under the Eng- On his return to San Francisco, the war in 

lish, flag. Cook would have ranked with the Nicaragua was found to be the exciting ques- 

ISTelsons and Wellingtons of his age; but, as it tion of the day, and offered allurement to the 

is, he sinks into obscurity, forgotten, almost, daring. He tendered his services to General 

by his j'.ative State, upon which he Walker, and was assigned to the command of 

shed such imperishable honor. He was the fleet of steamers and gunboats on the Lake 

then in very delicate health, and after of Nicaragua. Pie more readily engaged in 

this terrible conflict, never completely this expedition of " the gray-eyed man of 

recovered again. Soon after this battle his destiny," since hisyounger brother, James, was 

brave spirit winged its flight from the bosom an officer in Walker's army, and had borne a 

of his family, in Portsn)outh, Virginia, to join conspicuous part in many desperate battles 

the spirits of his gallant comrades that had from the breaking out of the war. It was 

gone before him, where merit is rewardec^l, then and here that I fornted the acquaintance 

and not success alone, as in this vale of of these two gallant young men. I was at this 

sorrows. time the Minister Resident of the United 

Charles Frederick Tayloe, son of Colonel States near the Republic of Nicaragua, and I 

Josliua Tajdoe, who represented Beaufort was much pleased with their modest and in- 

County, in 18-14, in the Senate of the State telligent conduct. James fell in battle in the 

Legislature, should not be forgotten. His desperate endeavor to raise the seige of 

short and eventful life, his chivalric and Grenada, thus relieving General Henningsen 


and his command, beleaguered l)y the troops of alone could not have effected this, hut our 
Guatemala. It may not be uninteresting to Government, under lead of Governor Marcy 
record here the true facts in relation to this and others, denounced Walker, although 
expedition in which £0 many of our country- President Pierce received Padre Vijil as the 
men took part, and where so many and valu. Envoy and .Minister Plenipotentiary of AValk • 
able and enterprising lives were sacrificed, er's govei'iiment, and authorized Captain 
The cliaracter and the olijects of this expedi- Davis, of the United States Xavy, to take 
tion have never been understood or fairly Walker and bring him to the United States; 
stated. Now, when more than a quarter of a which was done. L5ut soon Walker again re- 
century has passed, and prejudice and pnssion turned to Central America, when, under or- 
subsided, the truth should a[ipear. When I ders. he was again seized by Commodore Paul- 
arrived in Nicaragua, I found the republic ding and brought to the United States. This 
convulsed in civil war. War is the normal act was pronouncL'd b_y the President " a grave 
condition of Central America. The t'.vo error," and sevei'el3' den!>unced in Congress, 
parties, the Democratic, headed by General .and very generall3'l)y the press of the cauntry 
Castellon, and tlie Legitimists, by General Cha- as unjust and unconstitutional, 
niora, waged a fierce and bloody internecine Walker again embarked for Central Am-jr- 
contest. The Democratic Jiarty sent agents to ica, and landed with a few troops in Ilondu- 
California for men and arms. These engaged ras, where, after souie bloody and successful 
the services of General Walker and others, skirmishing witii tlie Honduras tro ips, he en- 
who became enlisted in tlieir service, and camped near Truxillo. While here a superiMi' 
Walker was placed in command of a regiment, force, dispatched by Captain Salmon, of the 
and became a naturalized citizen of Nicara- I'ritish man-of-war " Icai'us," under com- 
gua. lie soon, by his energy and activity, maud of Alvarez, of the Honduras army, de- 
trained the ragged, barefooted an<l half-naked nianded of Walker his surre.ider. Walker 
natives to become disciplined troops, and as then surrendered to ^/(c iJ/-i7/.s/i q^'c^r, who de- 
such led them to victory. He soon took the livered him to the Honduras authoi'ities. Thi.' 
towns of San Juan del Sar,Virgin Bay, and the next day [12tli Septendier, 18G0] he was shot, 
cities of llivas and Grenada, the latter che His fate was melancholy and undeserved, 
capital and a city of l(j,000 inhabitants. I Doubtless Walker had faults, but he siipplant- 
witnessed tliis battle, which was of short dur- ed a government of ignorance, superstitim, 
ation, and which completed the conquest of indolence, imbecility, and treachery. Had he 
tlie republic. The President of Nicaragua succeeded, he would have I'ivaled the fame of 
tied, and after a short interim, Walker was Houston, and added to the area of human lib- 
elected President. Amei'icans from New York, erty and enjoyment. Compai'e the present con- 
New Orleans and California, and almost every dition of Texas and Calif irnia now with whit 
State of the Union, flocked to "this El it was under the rule of Mexico. There is a 
Dorado." Peace and pro.sperity for the time destiu}' in the aftairs of nations, as well as of 
smiled on this beautiful country. men. 

From the natural fondness of these people Captain Tayloe, after the failure of Walk^ji', 

for war and revolution, the other republics of was ordered to conduct his command through a 

Central America (as Costa Eica and Guate- trackless and almost inaccessible route, from 

mala) proclaimed hostility, and determined to Rivasto Point Arenas, duringwhich marchthe}' 

drive the Americans from the country. They sufiered every privation that famine^ disease, 


savage foes, veiiomons reptiles, and a torrid countr3-man; but neither sea nor time can 

climate conld inflict. Tbey reached Point burj' his virtues and his gallantry from our 

Arenas worn down by exertion. He then memories, our sympathies, or our afi'ections. 

embarJvedin alirig to Panama, and from thence Toll for the brave' 

on the regular steamer to California. , Th'' 'f f e that are no more; 

^ _ _ _ All sunk Ijeneath the wave, 

After remaining in San Francisco a few Fast bj' their native shore. 

■weeks to recruit his exhausted system, in Toll for th.e brave! 

-inrfTi 1 iix- 1-1 11- J.- Brave Tavloe! lieisa;one; 

Ibol he embarked tor his home and his native hjs j^st sea flght is fouo-ht 

land, a passenger on the steamer "Central His work of glory done. ' 

America." This gallant sliip had nearly com- Toll for the brave ! 

pletcd hov voyage, and was in sight of the It has been suggested as proper tu recall 
home and birthplace of our hero, v.'here his af- some further memories of Central America, 
fectionate pai'cuts anxiously were awaiting and of a long residence in that interesting 
the return of their "war-worn son" when the country at a most exciting period. Even at 
alarming discoveiy was announced that the this day this country is of rare interest, form- 
ship had sprung a leak. Young Tayloe, al- ing as it does the connecting link between 
though only a passenger, was the first to tender the two great oceans, and which from recent 
his sel■^■ices to the noble Herndon; and from surveys by Captain Lull, of United States 
that tin.e until the Irig " JMiirine "' I'ounded to I'Tavy, and others, will be the pi'obalile route 
under her lea, he was foremost in relieving tlie of the oceanic canal. 

steamer; working at the pumps until they were The resignation of Hon. Solon Borland 

exhausted and useless. When all hope of sav- caused a vacancy in the Mission to Central 

ing the steamer was idjandoned, he remained America, and v.ithout any solicitation or ex- 

at his post, an example of coolness, of courage pectation on m}- part, my name as 2^1inister 

and seamanship. He was indefatigable in aid- Resident to the Republic of Nicaragua, was 

ing the ladies, children and others in embarking sent to the Senate, and on the '2d August, 1854, 

on tiie relieving ship, and could have saved (my birth-day) I received from the State De- 

hinist'lf but for his attention to others. Lut partment my commission. This was consid- 

on consideration with the officers it was de- ered, from the position of the country and the 

cided that the ship would continue afloat till complications as to tlie protectorate assumed 

dajdight, and as did Captain Herndon and our by England, as an important and delicate 

lamented John V. Dobbin, (brother of James mission. Mr. E\'erett, of .Massachusetts, in 

C. Dobbin, Secretaiy of the jSTavy ]S5o-'57,) March, 1853, stated in the Senate that "it was 

Captain Tayloe retired to his stateroom, more important than the mission to London 

seeking that repose that his continued labors or Paris." After waiting for instructions and 

demanded. arranging my private affairs for a long ab- 

In the course of the night a huge wave sence, with uy- family I departed from Nor- 

owept with violence the ship's decks, and she folk, Virginia, on 31st October, 1854, on board 

went suddenly down with all on board, the U. S. steam frigate " Princeton," com- 

Thus perished, off his native coast of North manded by Captain Henry Eagle. We 

Carolina, near Cape Hatteras, one of her touched at Havanna for a supply of coal, and at 

boldest, bravest sons. Pensacola we went on board the " Columbia," 

The eternal sea in its dark waves have swal- the flng-ship of the home squadron, corn- 
lowed up the mortal remains of our gallant uianded by Commodore JN'cwton, a model of- 



ficer and accomplished genlieman, who landed 
us in December, 1854, after a long voj-age of 
nearly thirty days, at San Jnan del N"orte. 
The ixiild climate, the gorgeous foliage and 
rich scenery, created pleasure and surprise. 
One can hardl\' realize, who has never visited 
the tropics, the mildness and beauty of the 
climate; the very air is redolent with the 
fragrance of fruits and flowers, to breathe 
which renders existence itself a luxury. The 
evenings are still more delicious. These have 
been graphically described. 

" By and by night comes on ; not as it comes 
to our northern latitudes, but it falls suddenly, 
h^e a rich drapery, around you. The sun goes 
down with a glow, intense and brief. There 
is no lingering twilight, but suddenly the stars 
burst forth, lightening, one by one, the hori- 
zon. They come in a laughing group, like 
bright-e^'cd children relieved from school, and 
reflected from tlie lake they seem to chase each 
other in frolicsome play, printing sparkling 
kisses on each other's luminous lips. The low 
shores, lined with heavy foliage of the man- 
groves, looked like a frame of massive antique 
carving around themirror of the quiet lagoon, 
across whose quiet surface strean.ied a silvery 
shaft of light from ' the Southern Cro.^s,' pal- 
pitating like a young bride at the altar. Then 
there were whispered ' voices of the night,' 
the drowsy winds hushing themselves to sleep, 
and the gentle music of the little ripples of 
the lake, pattering with fairy feet along the 
sandy shore. The distant lieavy and monoto- 
nous beatings of the sea, and the occasional 
sullen plunge ot some marine animal, gave a 
novelty and enchantment to the scene, and 
entranced my senses <luring the delicious hours 
of my first evening alone with nature on the 
Mosquito Shore."* 

We could well ask, v.-ith Kodgers: 

This region is surely not of earth. 

Was it not droiipeu from Heaven ? 

Kot a grove but is of citron, pine, or cedar; 

Not a grot, sea worn, and mantled with the gadding 

But breathes enchantment. 

This lovely region, where Providence bus 
done so much and man so little for himself. 

* " Waikna, or Adventures on the Mosquito Shore;' 
by Samuel A. Baird. 

we found, as already stated, involved in the 
tumults of civil war. As we journeyed to Cas- 
tillo, some seventy miles up the river, the 
marks of blood spilled in a battle fought on 
the day before on the wharf on which we 
landed were seen. As before stated, both jwr- 
ties claimed to be the supreme power of the 
government. The Democratic party, headed 
1>3- Castillon, held most of the republic except 
Grenada, and had tliat city under close siege. 
I was assured that this would be soon raised, 
and the Legitimists resume the authority of 
government. I was instructed to present my 
credentials to '' the Tresident of Nicaragua." 
Now a knotty diplomatic problem came up, 
which I alone must solve. A mistake would 
be fatal. I applied for instructions, but none 
came. Mr. Stephjn-;, a predecessor, was in- 
volved [1841] in a similar quandary. lie 
tried in vain. Once, as he states, lie 
thought '' he came very near discovering a 
live President. But suddenly he ciunosed on 
the back of a mule." Mr. Squire [1849] did 
find ai'resident in 1-iamirez. But when Mr. 
Kerr [in 1851] came he was not so successful, 
for tlie republic, as now, was in civil war. 
Mr. Borland, my immediate predecessor, did 
find a President, (Don Fruto Chamoro,) but 
he is now heleagured by superior force, and 

By instructions of the Government, I re- 
mained some time in Greytown, or San Juan 
del Norte, engaged in collecting testimony as 
to the destruction of propert}^ by the bom- 
bardment of Greytown [9th July, 1854] by 
Captain Hollins, and then went to Virgin Bay, 
on Lake Nicaragua, whore I remained three 
months, during which time the siege of Gre- 
nada was raised. General Chamoro died of 
cholera, and General Estrada was declared 
President and assumed the duties, and in 
April, 1855, I was recognized by him as the 
Envoy Kesident, and raised the flag of the 
United States at Grenada. 



Under instructions, a treaty was formed the profession of medicine and acquired 

[20th June, 1855] of amity and commerce. knowledge from tlie ablest masters, yet he 

The President was kind and polite, and more saw and felt that it was not as auspicious as 

of a poet and musician than a soldier or states- the profession of the law for an ambitious and 

man. Our intercourse was kindly and pleas- aspiring temperament. He entered the law 

ant, and the republic was quiet. But it was oiiice of Edward and Andrew Ewing, and 

only the lull that precedes a fearful storm, remained there two years. He was admitted 

The agents of the Democratic party succeeded to the bar in June, 1847, at New Orleans, 

at San Francisco in engaging the services of His active temper still sought additional 

William "Walker, and on the 4th of May, 1855, action, and he entered the stormy sea of 

he embarked on the brig ''Vesta" for Nicaragua, politics. He became editor of the New Orleans 

with fifty-tM'o followers, to invade a territory Crescent. 

of more than 200,000 people. Was the act of In July, 1850, he went to California, and 

Cortez in burning his ships after landing his' was connected with the Z>a«V^ fieraM, just then 

troops more daring or desperate? established by .John Nugent. He had some 

He and his force landed at Realejo, and was diifieulty with Judge Parsons as to some 
strengthened by three hundred native troops articles he wrote for the paper, and he removed 
under General Valle. After a repulse at Rivas to Marysville, and devoted himself to the law. 
by Colonel Boscpie, in whicli Achilles Kewen In October, 185-3, he visited Sonora, and, 
and Timothy Crocker and some of Walker's Avith Gilman, Emory, Crocker, and others, 
best troops were killed, he attacked Guardiola made an unsuccessful attempt on the Mexican 
at Virgin Bay, whom he defeated with heavy authorities. Walker returned to San Fran- 
loss. He captured, without loss, the steamers cisco, and was arrested and tried for violation 
on the Lake of Nicaragua, and on thts 12th of the neutrality law, but was acquitted. 
October, after a sharp conflict, he captured The Democratic party of Nicaragua for- 
Grenada, which, as before stated, completed warded to him a commission as colonel and 
the conquest of the republic. The President an extensive grant of land, through agency 
and Cabinet fled, and many rescn'te<l to my of Byron Cole. 

house and placed themselves under the flag Gathering a band of si.\ty-t\vo followers, 

for protection. I met now, for the first time, (among whom were C. C. Hornb}', of North 

General William Walker. He apipeared to be Carolina, and Julius de Brissot,) he landed at 

about thirty-one years of age [born m Nash- Realejo, in the northern part of Nicaragua, 

ville, Tennessee, on 8th May, 1824.] He was His history will now be connected with 

liberally educated, and graduated at the Lni- Nicaragua for all time, 

versify of Tennessee in October, 18-38. . He had, as already stated, captured Grenada, 

He studied medicine, and received a diploma and was now ■' master of the situation," and 

fr-om the Medical University at Philadelphia, had the possession of the capital. Had AValker 

in April, 1843. He then went to France and possessed some portion of that quality which 

England, where he completed his studies. He General Lee called "a rascally virtue," he 

then traveled extensively on the Continent, could have attained complete success. The 

v/here he learned to speak and write the history of every nation repeats only the history 

French, German, Italian, and Spanish Ian- of nations gone before. First comes the 

guages. He returned to the United States in adventurous pioneer, with his rifle; then the 

June, 1845. Although he liad a fondness for schoolmaster, with his books; then the clergv- 


mail and his creed; then the merchant, the troops wouhl venture, for they knew that no 

railroad and the teleo;raph. power conld save them if once in the handsof 

The advent of Wah^er vs'as not unpleasant Corral. Appeals were made to the Consuls 
nor ^ unexpected to the simple-hearted and from Sardinia, Prussia, and France, resident at 
gentle natives of Central America. They had Gi'enada, without success. Finally, the Arch- 
heen grievously oppressed by the Spanish bishop of Grenada, with the a;rent of the 
dominion; nor was their condition much Transit Company, called on me, and besought 
better under their successors. "There was a "'^ to act as a messenger of peace. Thus 
tradition among them." says Crowe, in his nrged by them, I agreed to go. Accordingly 
" History of Central America." published in 'i steamer was made ready, and with Mr. Yan 
London in 1850, " founded on an ancient Dyke, of Philadelphia, who was acting as 
prophecy made years ago, that these people Secretary of the Legation, and L>on Juan 
would ..nly be delivered from cruel i>ppression K»iz, 'ate Secretary of Y'ar, we went to 
by ' a gray-eyed man.' " Mr. Crowe adds in a Ki^'^s with the certificate of_ election of Gen- 
note the prophetic remark: "We would remind ^™ Corral. 

those who attach any imp.ortance to this pro- Ki^'-is is a walled town about fitty miles from 

phecy, that it may be reserved for our trans- Grenada. 

Atlantic brethren to fulfill this prophecy." ^^^^ found it closely picketed and full of in- 

" Last week we saw many of the native fnnated soldiers, commanded by General Za- 

Indians," says the Grenada Nicarnr/hcnse, " in ti-ucbe. 

our city, who desired to see General Walker; On inquiry for General Coi'ral, I was in- 

and they laid at his feet the simple offerings fanned that he had just left Rivas with all his 

of their fruits and fields, and hailed his ap- forces, to attack Walker at Grenada. A 

pearance, with fair skin and gray eyes, as ' the courier was immediately dispatched to Corral 

gray-eyed num of de-^iny,' so long and so ^^'ith the communicatiim of his election as 

anxiously waited for by them and their President. Zatruche, the General in command, 

fathers." '^vas one of the most bloodthirsty and perfidi- 

The next day after the capture of Grenada, '"^^s men in Central America. Smarting under 

an election was held by the people for a pro- the defeat he had met with at Yirgin Bay. 

visional IVesident, and under the policy of fram AValker, ho was insolent and imperious. 

Walker, and at his suggesti,-n. General Ponci- After waiting for some hours for Corral, (and 

anoCorral waschoseii. General C. was at this wesinceascertainedthat he was still in Rivas,) 

time at Rivas, at the head of a large force of I directed the ho-ses to be brought, purposing 

troops, preparing to march on Grenada and to return to Yirgin Bay and there await Cor- 

drive Walker out of the country. Walker raPs coming. My servant then came amd in- 

knew tliat with his small force and his unre- formed us "that Zatruche had taken the 

liable allies, that an attack by Corral (who horses, aud that a guard was then approaching 

had .some military genius and experience, and to seize me and ray secretary." They entered, 

much desperate courage) would be serious if and I never saw a more ferocious and villain- 

not disastrous. lie knew that Corral was ous looking crowd, armed to the teeth; their 

very andiitious, and fond of power and place, uniform was a scanty shirt tliat hardly reached 

Hence this election. the knee, a dilapidated straw hat, with a red 

But how to get this information to Corral ribbon, and barefooted. We were then placed 

was the point. Not one of Walker's native in the cpiartel with a guard over us. Our poor 



boy (Carlos), after the doors were locked, 
with sobs and tears, informed us that we were 
to be shot at sunrise to-morrow. Mr. Van 
D3-ke, with great emotion, said that he cared 
but little for himself, but much for me and my 
little ones and wife at CTi-enada. I felt buoyed 
up by the consolation that I was in the line of 
duty — on a mission of mercy and peace. Xever 
did I spend a more unhappy night; the dim 
lamp revealed the army officials peering at in- 
tervals to ascertain our confinement, and the 
watch-word, Alerto, (all well,) sounding in 
our ears from the line of guards. But early 
in the morning the sound of cannon and rifles 
was heard firing on the town. Zatrache had 
felt their fatal accuracy and danger. He 
rushed in and e.Kclaimcd, '-'In the name of 
Christ ! Senor, what does this mean ? " He 
was informed that my friends had expected 
me to return last night; that they had deter- 
mined to rescue me, and in doing so would 
not spare one of his part}'; that the}^ were 
well-armed with rifles that were certain, and 
with cannon. " Won't you write a small let- 
ter [an billitte), to them to cease their tire ? " 
This was pre-emptorily declined. He then 
^said, " You kn )W, Sonor Minister, tli;it we 
aa-e friends; you ai-e very deai' to me. Go out to 
Tthem, forthwith, your horses are at the door, 
and I \vill send a guard of honor to escort you 
and your flag." Accepting the leave, but de- 
clining the honor of the escort, we soon 
mounted and were soon at the steamer where 
Captain Scott was with only six men and four 
small brass cannons. We soon reached V^irgin 
Bay, where Judge Cushing, the agent of the 
Transit Line, was, and who had dispatched the 
steamer to relieve me, and who stated that 
when I set out on the day before, he had n;;ver 
expected my return. Judge Cushing, late our 
Minister at Bogota, and agent at this time of 
the Transit Company, had, only a few days 
before, been seized and imprisoned by Za- 
truche, and only escaped murder by payino- a 

ransom of two thousand dollars in gold. 
That my destruction was imminent, is 
proved by the letter of Ceneral Corral, that 
" he would not be responsible to what might 
happen to me personally'," as he had issued 
orders to Zatruche to execute me. But the 
kindness of Scott, and a gracious Providence 
prevented his atrocious purpose. 

The following letter, the original of which 
is in my possession, was received by me at Vir 
gin Ba3": 

" Commander-in-Chief of the 

" TiEP. OF ISTic'a. Headquarters, 

" Marching, 17th Oct., 18^5. 

" To the Minister of the United States: 

" I am placed under the imperious necessity 
to manifest to the Minister of the United 
States that in consequence of his leaving the 
city of Grenada in the steamer of the Acces- 
sory Transit Company, taken by the chief 
commanding the forces who occupy that place 
with the object to hurt the forces of the Su- 
preme Government, whom I have the honorto 
command at Rivas, I now inform >/ou that I am 
not, or will not he responsible for what niai/ happen, 
to poa personalli/, fov having interfered in our 
domestic dissensions to the prejudice of the 
Supreme Government, by whom he has been 
recognized; and has made him-;elf the bearer 
of comnmnications and proclamations against 
the legitimately recognized authoritj'. There- 
fore I now protest and give youuot'o that iu 
this same date I have inforn\ed Governor 
Marcy and the new-spipers of New York. 
I am your dear servant, D. F. L., 


To which the following reply was sent: 

" Legation of United States, 
" Near Republic of Nicaragua, 
" ViRGi>f Bat, 18th Oct., 1855. 

" To GmH Ponciano Corral: 

" I have honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
'your letter of yesterday, in which yon inform 
me that j^ou are compelled to manifest your 
protest against me for leaving the city of 
Grenada with the intent of injury of rhe 
forces under yonr command i;i the town of 

"Ireph^, I had no such object \n visiting 
Rivas, as will appear more fully by a letter 
which I wrote to the military governor of 
that department, a copy of which I enclose. 



" I had no personal desire to leave Grenada; 
and for some time positively objected; but 
infineneed by the chief citizens of Grenada 
(your own friends) the venerable fathers of 
the church, the tears of your own sisters, and 
3'Our daughters, I consented to visit you, ac- 
companied by Don Juan Ruiz, the Secretary 
of War, and your superior in office, bearinsr 
the olive branch of peace; and a proposition 
from the commander-general of the iJctnocratic 
forces, to make j'ou the provisional President 
of the Republic. When it was stated you 
were absent, I desired to return to this place. 
Judge m}' surprise, when I was informed by 
the Prefect and Governor, that I should not 
return, my life threatened, and my person 
(with my secretary, servant, and the national 
flag) imprisoned in the quartel under strict 

" For this violation of the laws of nations 
and my personal rights, I protest, and be 
assured. General, that my Government will 
hold 3"0U and your Government to a severe 
respousilulity for such lawless conduct. 

•' You further inform me that 'you will not 
be res[>onsible for what may happen to me 
for mj' personal safety,' and that you will 
inform Governor Marcy, the Secretaiy of 
State, and the newspapers of New York of 
my conduct in this matter. In reply, I inform 
you that when I have kept my word of honor 
to the Governor of Rivas to remain here two 
days to await your reply, I shall I'etiirn to my 
post at Grenada; and that I do not request, 
nor have I everex[iected,you tobe responsible 
for m}' personal safet3\ The flag of the United 
States is sutticiently jiowerful for my protec- 
tion, backed as it is by a patriotic President 
and thirty millions of people. 

"I have mj'self fully informed Governor 
Marcy of all these matters; and feel in no way 
responsible to j-ou and the newspapers of 
New York for my official conduct. 
" Yours faithfnllv, 

" Miimtcr of U. S. A. neur 
" the Republic of Nicas/u/wi.'"' 

As I left Rivas a parting salute from a heavy 
cannon was fired at us, which struck near us an 
adobe gate, and covered ns with dust and dirt, 
but with no other effect than to make us 
me7id our gait in retreat. 

On my return to Grenada, General Walker 
called on me. On learning the cause of my 

delay, my imprisonment by Zatruche, he ex- 
pressed but little surprise, but remarked quiet- 
ly-, that he expected I would come to grief; 
and " it would have been a fortunate event 
had Zatruche carried out his intention to shoot 
me; for then," he added, " your Government 
must have resented such outrage, and taken 
my part." This was cool, rather than con- 
soling, and characteristic of Walker, who 
looked upon men as the mere titulary pawns 
of the chess board, to be moved and sacrificed 
to advance the ambitious plans of others. His 
conduct can only be justified or apologized 
for b\- the fact that he was at the time in immi- 
nent peril himself. The enemy had now the 
possession of that portion of the country on 
which the Transit Compau}- had their route. 
From this reservoir he could only receive rein- 
forcements. The enemy, exasperated to mad- 
ness, and infuriated by defeat in every battle 
by an inferior force, their capital taken, their 
President and Cabinet fugitives, wei'e ready for 
the most desperate deeds. The agent of the 
Transit Company, .Judge Cushing, as already 
stated, was seized and the office broken open, 
and his life jeopardized. The steamer, loaded 
with passengers from New York and San Fran- 
cisco, was tireil on by Port S;iu Carlos, to the 
imminent peril of every one on board, and sev- 
eral persons killed, among them Mrs. White, of 
Sharon, New York; and many wounded, 
among them J. G. Kendrick, then of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, now of St. Louis. Many whose 
names were unknown were found murdered, 
with their throats cut, and their bodies robbed 
even of their clothes. The steamer, u nable to 
pass the fort at the outlet of the river, or to 
land at Virgin Bay, on the 2iid Oct., 1855, 
came to Grenada, with 250 passengers, to claim 
the protection of the American .Minister. To 
add to the misfortunes, the cholera was raging 
among the crowded passengers. A connnittee 
called on the Minister for relief, and I went 
on board. Such a scene I never before wit- 


iiessed. Dead and womidcd, sic-k and dying with the instincts of his race and color, he 

from cholera, crowded the decks. One died was planning treason and murder. Letters 

(Nicholas Carrol) with the cholera, while I from him to Gardiola and Zatruche were in- 

was on board. Many of these were Avealthy; tercepted, urging them to come with arms and 

all respectable, and all my countrymen. I force, and overthrow the new government. 

persuaded them all to leave the crowded and lie was arrested, imprisoned, tried for treason 

infected ship, took them into my own house, hy a court-martial, and coudemned to be shot, 

as many as I could accommodate, and rented which sentence was executed in the plaza of 

a large house for the others. Grenada, at 2 p. m., on 8th November, 185.5. 

Added to these miseries, evident prepara- I was on the plaza of Grenada on the 8th 

tions were making for a sanguinary battle November. 1855, iu company v/ith Captain 

which was near at hand. Arrests were hourlj' Scott, Judge Gushing, and some friends, when 

made and imprisonments, and continual appli- the tolling of the Cathedral bell, the solemn 

cations for protection and relief. air of crowds of spectators, indicated some- 

The Secretary of Foreign Afiairs of the late event of deep and solemn importance. 

Government, Don Mateo Mayorga, for the out- A guard of soldiers marched out from the 

rages at San Carlos and other places, was lying quartel, with whom appeared General Ponci- 

dead at this time in the plaza, shot b3' order ano Corral. On one side of him was a priest, 

of AValker; leading and wealthy citizens ar- bearing in his hand a small cross, and on the 

z'ested and imprisoned. other his faithful friend, Don Pedro Rouhard, 

What a scene of horror! what a night of the Consul of Fraiice. The splendid person of 

anxiety and excitement was experienced! Corral seemed Ijorne down with calamity; his 

An anxious and fearful morning came; but features bore the marks of extreme mental 

General Corral, instead of attacking Grenada, suffering. He took his scat in tlie fatal chair, 

made his appearance in the plaza accompanied which was placed with its back to the wall of 

by his staff and General Walker, with some the Cathedral. He crdmly took out his haud- 

of his officers. A treaty of peace betM'een kerchief, folding it in his hands, and bound it 

these generals was made, (2.3d October, 1855,) around his eyes; then, folding his hands iu an 

by which Don Patrico Rivas was named as attitude of pra\-er, uttered the word "/Jro/;^" 

provisional President — an oblivion of past dif- — ready. A detail of Mississi[>pi rifles, at the 

ferences. Walker was made Commander-in- distance of about ten paces, at the word, tired, 

Chief of the Army and Corral Minister of and every ball pierced through and through 

War, the barricades of the streets destroyed, his body; he fell dead from the chair, and his 

the pi'isons all opened, and peace dawned on spirit departed to answer for the deeds done 

the land. Corral marched his forces into the on earth — 

city, wearing the blue ribbon, and they were With all his crimes broarl blown, 

incorporated into the army of Walker. The ^'f ^^°Z '"' -'"'"^ t*'""''' ''i''° ^''"^''^^ fr"* ','f ^^" • ' 

j^ ^ ""V ui i.<iiixci. iiit. But, ni our cn-cumstance and course ot thought, 

two chiefs embraced each other on the plaza, ' Tis heavy with him. 

and the officers, military and civil, proceeded I witnessed, with painful emotion, this tragic 
to the church " to return thanks to the God of scene. General Corral was of a soldierly de- 
Peace for the termination of the war." meanor and commanding presence. He was 
Everything now seemed quiet. But it was ratlier portly iu size, weighing about two hun- 
only temporary. At this very time, when the dred pounds, social in his cliaracter, of daring 
real strength of Walker was known to Corral, courage and indomitable purpose. He was ex- 


oessively polite, and profuse in his expressions coniiiianding Hpr Majestj-'s steamer "Icarus," 

of friendship. He was as sincere as his nature, ^^'ho delivered him to General Alvarez, of the 

education, anii mixed blood would allow. So Honduras army , and on the 12th Septeml>er, 

natural was intrigue and treachery ingrained 1860, he was shot. 

in his nature that he practiced these vices This is a copy of the last note that Walker 

when it were easier to be honest and sincere, ever wrote: 

He was popular among the people, and his j hereby protest, before the civilized 

death caused a profound sensation in the State, woi-ld, tliat when I surrendered to the captain 

It would be foreign from the plan of this ^fjler Majestv's steamer, the '• Icarus," that 

, .,,,''.... . officer expresslv received mv sword and pistol. 

work to record all the spirit-stirnng events in ^^^ ^^.gj, ^^^ ^^^ ^^,.„^g ^^ (.^1^-,^, ^^^^^^,^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 

the career of Walker, or to attempt to de- surrender was express!}', and in so many words, 

scribe the character of the country or its in- to him, as the representative of Her Brittanic 

habifmts Majesty. William W.^lker. 

On board tue Steamer " Icarus," September 

The career of General Walker, after many ^u, i860. 

battles between the Nicaraguan forces and m - -u i ■ ^i - r ir ivr-n- 

^ . ilius perished, m the prime of lite, W ilhaiii 

Costa Rica, as well as Guatemala, had varied -ttt ,i , ,, , ^. o,^ r ^ 

' . Walker, at the early age ot 3b, as tearless a 

fortunes; from his injudicious interference with . ' ' , - ,^ 

' "' man as our country ever produced, .\ecessa- 

the Transit Company, and other causes, his ca- -t ^ ■ e \ i "ii • i ^ i ^ ■ i ^i 

^ ■^ , . rily brief has been this sketch, which the stir- 

reer was checked l3v defeat, and in MKy.1857, ■ ' 4. i- ^i ,.- a.- ^ 1 i. • 1 

'_ •' ring events 01 the time atiord ample material 

an agreement was entered into by him and i - 1 ^ i i i. 1 i r> ^ -^ - 

'^ _ _ •' and might have mncn extended. But it is 

Captain Charles Henry Davis, a Commander 1 V t ti ^ 1 t 

^ ' .' only a glance at these events, comprehending 

in the United States ISTavy, ship " St. Mary," , , ,"• , ■ 2. e ■ j. i. ^^ ^ % 

■" ' -' the salient points ot interest, are attempted 

by which " General Walker, with sixteen offi- -,, ... j ■ .• at i ^.i ^ t i, 

■^ . . witli truth and justice. Much that I have en - 

cers of his staff,' marched out of Rivas with i .i .. 1 ' -i -r ^ 

' deavored to describe, it not 

their side-arms, pistols, horses, and personal P.u-s fui; mesiriema vidi, 

baggage, under guarantee of said Davis not to ^nd had Walker been prudent and successful, 

be molested by tlie enemy, and be allowed to the battles of Grenada and Rivas would have 

embarkon the 'St.Mtiry,' then in the harbor rivaled the triumph of Snn Jacinto, and 

of San Juan del Sur; and the said Davis un- talker ranked with the Houston of other 

dertaking to transport them safely to Panama, ^^ys. Ilis enterprise and valor deserve our 

in charge of a United States otHcer." From aspect, and his tragic end our sympathy, 

Panama, Walker returned to the United Duncan is in his grave. 

States. He was received with much enthusi- ;^"?:5'?,'! "^^„??,^,7-^Ln!: f'''^'^ T"{ 

Treason lias done his worst, nor steel nor poison, 

asm ; nor was he disturbed by the Government Malice domestic, foreign levy, 

, , ^^ . ^ . . . , ■ o , JSTotluug can toucU him farther. 

or the united btates tor any violation of law. Macbeth. 

Pie soon endjarked again for Nicaragua, with P''rora the disordered condition of this coun- 

men and arms, when, whether with orders try, and from individual danger incident to 

from tlie Government of the United States or any foreigner, I was instructed by the State 

not. he was seized by Captain Paulding, as al- Department to retire from Grenada to San 

ready alluded to. He was brought back .to Juan del Norte. In impaired health, 1 was 

the United States. He again embarked for allowed to return home, and in 1857 resigned. 

Central America, and lauded in Honduras, The events of these three years can hardly be 

where he had some skirmishes near Truxillo, classed in ni}- life as among " The Pleasures of 

when he surrendered to the English officer Memory." 




Whitniill Hill, (born 12th February, 1743. dell, and marched in 1812 in OLt'ence of Nor- 

Died 12th September, 179?,) was born in Ber- folk. He was for a period of years a pillar of 

tie Count}', and the ancestor of a large and the Baptist Church, universally loved for his 

wealthy family in Eastei'n Carolina. noble Christiiin qualities, and was for a long 

■ Pie was educated at the P^niversity of Penn- time the clerk of the county court, 

sylvania, and was the early and earnest advo- David Stone, born P'ebrnary 17, 1770. 

cate of the rights of the Colonists in the Revo- Died 7th of Octobei', 1818. 

lution, and served faithfully in all the legisla- Among the distinguished names in the ear- 

tive bodies — Provincial, State, and National — lier liistory of JN"orth Carolina, is tliat of 

the devoted patriot and statesman. David Stone. 

Pie was a membei' of the Provincial Coii- His father, Zedckiaii Stone, came early to 

grcss that met at Plillsboro, 20th August, 1775, North Carolina from New Engbind (Vermont, 

and at Halifax, on 4th April, 1776, and elected we have understood,) and having purchased 

to House of Commons from Martin County, lands from the Tuscarora Indians, settled in 

in 1777; Senator, 1778-'79 and 'SO. He was Bertie Couiity and married Mrs. p]lizabeth 

Speaker of the Senate in 1778. In 1778 he liobson, [nee Shrivors,) of Martin County, 

was a delegate from Noi-th Carolina to the He lived at Hope, live miles from AVinds(n', 

Continental Congress, and served until 1781. and carried on mercantile and farming busi- 

He survived the perils of the Revolution, ness. 

and was one of the ablest advocates of the He was a devoted and a ready frier.d to the 

Constitution of the United States in the Con- cause of libert}' and independence, and was a 

vention which met at Plillsboro in July, 1788, member of the Provincial Congress, at Hali- 

which rejected the Constitution by a vote of fax (1776) which formed our State Coiistitu- 

184 to 84. He died at Hill's Perry, Martin tion. 

County, on 12tli of Septendxu', 1797. pj^ ^^,^^3^ ^-^j. j.,^,,,^_^. ^^,^^^^ annually elected a 

His letters to Governor Burke, while a 

Senator of the Leii'islature from Bertie, and 

member of the Continental Congress at Phila- .^^g distinguished for his intelligence and 
delphia, 1780, have been preserved, (see Uni. shrewdness of cbaracior. 

His son, Da\ id Stone, was born at Hope, 
17th of P'ebruary, 1770. 

Mag. X, No. 7, Alarch, 1861,) and breathe the 
pure spirit of patriotism and valor. We re- 
gret that so little has been preserved of this 

patriotic statesman, whose character and ^'^^^ early education was conducted b.y the 

whose services .leserve the regard of posterity. '*^'*t teachei's that the country coul.l atioid, 

The name of Jonathan Tayloe is reiuem- =^"^1 he was diligent, laborious, -aul apt to 

hered with veneration and regard in Bertie 'sarn. 

County. One of this name is recorded as a After his acadendc studies \vere com[.)!etcd, 

freeholder in Bertie County far back in Colo- j-oung Stone was sent to Princeton College, 

nial times, and one of the name yet lingers where lie gradiuited in 1788, with the lirst 

upon the scene of his long pilgrimage, though lionors. Dr. Y\'ithers[)Oon, then the President 

he was old enough to be a soldier under Lieu- of the College, often referred with approba- 

tenant Gavin Hogg and Captaiu James Ire- tion to bis studious and exemplary conduct, 


and predicted for him a bright career of Congresses, 1801 to ISHG. In ISOS Mr. Stone 

honor and useiuhiess. was elccte<l Governor of the State. He dis- 

Ile studied law with General IVilh'ani R. charged all the dnties of that elevated position 
Davie, whose kiiowledge and successful nrac- with great dignity during his constitutional 
tice well cpialilied him to prepare and fie term. In 1811 and 1812 he again appeared 
upon l]is students that arii:or whicli W(!uld as a mend;er of the Legisla.ture, and hi>; ex- 
enable them to endure tl;e ti'ts of the legal pei'ience, abilities an.d principles gave him 
tournament. His teachings were inculcated commanding influence. This was a stornn- 
with an elegance of manners, and a suavity of period in the political history of the State, 
temper, that, v/hile they instructed, gave sat- A bill to confer the choice of electors for 
isfaction and pleasure. Judge Daniel, long President and Vice-President of the Tuited 
one of the Judges of our Supreme (^ourt> States n[>on the Legislature, so as to give an 
who lIso read law with him, pronounced Gen- undivided vote (instead of the district svstem 
eral Davie one of the most able juiists and then in vogue,) was introduced and advocated 
accomplished gentlenien he evei- knev\'. Under by Governor Storje; this failiiig, he introduced 
such a teacher, Mr. Stor.o was well titted for a similar measure to choose the electors bv a 
the duties of his profes-;ion; and from his genei-al ticket system, which lie advocated 
solid acquiieinents, his signal ability, his close witli great ability and nnenutded elocpience- 
attention to the interests of his clients, the This measure was opposed by Duncan 
skillful and careful pre}!aratioii of his Cameron, John Stanly, and others; and also 
he won the confidence of the community, and miscarried. He opposed tlie proposition of 
attair;ed tlie highest rank in liis profession. Mr. Phifer to make a choice of electors liy tiie 
Wiien in the 2'3th year of his age, he was ekct- district system, Imt this w;is adopted. At 
ed by the Legislature a Judge of the Snpei'ior fliis session he was again elected a Senator in 
Court of Law and Equity. Congress to serve for six years, from the 4th 

He (.'arly embarked on the stormy sea of of March, 1813. 

political life, in which, from thesua\'ity of his He possessed extraordinary and highly culti- 

mauuers and the soliditj of his acquirements, vated intellectual powers, cautious and shrewd 

he enjoyed a long and brilliant careei'. From in business transactions, fond of mone}', and 

IT'.'O to ITb'l he was a member of the House successful in tiie accuniulatiou of propert}'. 

of Commons. In 1795 he was elected one of He was twice married, first to Miss Harriet 

the Judges of the Sa[)erior Court, theduties of Turner, b}- whom he lei't several children; 

which he discharged with dignity and ainlity second to Miss Dashield, of Washington City, 

until 1799, when lie 'A'as chosen Representative (For Genealogy of the Stone family of 

in Congress. In 1801 he was elected Senator in Bertie County, Xorth Cai'olina, see Appendix.) 

Congress, which place he resigned in 1807, on Gerieral Stone entered tlie Senate again at a 

being again elected Judge of Superior Court, period of intense national excitement. The 

Whilst a member of the Senate his distin- United States were at war with tlie most pow- 

guished colleague, Jesse Franklin, was Pi'e,-i- erful nation on earth, and pai'ty spirit raged 

diiut pro (em. of that body. It is a fact worthy with unwonted violence. The majorit3- of the 

of record that at this time the presiding officers pe«)ple of !N"orth Carolina supported Madison 

of both Iloiises of Co'igress were from "Torth and the war, and the Legislature elected Gov- 

Carolina, Mr. Macon having been Speaker of ernor Stone to sustain that policy; but, unfor- 

the L )wer House daring the 7th, 8th, and 9th tunatel3-,he differed from the Legislature and 


the people. His reasons were, as stated in (see Craven County,) and was his private see- 

Xiles' Register, (vol. vii., 10.3,) that •"•these retarj-. 

measures had led to ■division among ourselves. He was a law3'er by profession, and so b.ighly 

and 10 bankruptcy and ruin to the nation." esteemed that, at the age of 28, he was elected 

The embargo, a measure strongly recom- Judge of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, 

mended by the Presid-ent, had passed the He was the Governor of Tennessee from 

House. It was rejected in the Senate by two 1809 to 1815. This long [leriod of public sor- 

V(.'ites only, and one of them v.-as Governor vice, in so elevated a position, proves the wis- 

Stone's. He also voted against a bill to raise dom and pi'udence of his conduct and his ac- 

bj' direct tax revenue to support the war. He ce'ptahie service. It was his fortune to be 

^ompkained, pei'sonally, that to a call for in- Governor in a most exciting period of our his- 

formation from the Coniiuittoe of Ways and 'tor3- — during the war with England — and he 

Means, the reply was that " th-ere was not gave to the administration his cordial and 

;time to furnish the desired information." constant support. He tendered to President 

In this course he diifered from his colleague, Madison 2,500 troops, and placed them iinder 

■Governor Turner, of the Senate, and from command cjf Andrew Jackson, who won for 

Willis Alston, Peter Forney, John Culpepper, his counti-y the glorious victory at New Or- 

Meshack Franklin, William R. King, Nathan- leans. 

iel Alacon, William H. Murfree, Israel Pick- He was equally active in the Creek war, 

ens, Richard Stanford, and Bartlett Yancey, rai'sing 2,000 volunteers and §300,000. 

His course called down the c-ens'ire of the Leg- He married Lncinda, daughter of John and 

.ielature. Anne Norfleet Baker, of Bertie County. 

In i^ecend3«r, 181-4, Mi'. Branch, afterwards He died at the residence of lYylie Johnson,- 

Governoi', as chairman of tlie si>ecial conr- near Nashville, in 18-35. A monument was 

mittee up)ou the subject, reported a resolution erected by order of the Legislature unto his 

that " the conduct of David Stone had been memory at Clarksville. He left several chil- 

in opposition to his professions, and had jeop- dren, among them Mrs. J, T. Dabuey; Mrs. 

'ar-dized the safety and interest of the coun- Dortch, whose son, Willie B. Dortch, mai-ried 

try, and had incurred the disapprobation of a daughter of Governor A. V. Brov/n. 

this General Assembly." The names of Cherry and Outlaw are pre- 

This passed, 40 to 18, and Governor Stone served b3' a patriotic and talented race full of 

forthwith i-esigned his seat in the Senate, generous feeling and kindly dispositions. 

This closed his distinguished and eventful George Outlaw was born, lived and died in 

public life, and four years afterward he died, Bertie County. He was distinguished, says 

in the 48th year of his age. Mr. Moore m his History of North Carolina, 

Govei-nor Stone was in person tall and com- for the blandness of his manners, and was as 

raanding; of reddish hair, which he wore, as noted for liis usefulness in the Church, as for 

was then the fashion, in a queue. his talents as a statesman. He entered jiublic 

Willie Blount, Governor of Tennessee, was life as a member of the House of CJommons iu 

born in Bertie Countj' 1768; died 1835. 1796 and in 1799, and a meinberof the Senate 

He was the son of Jacob Blount, already re- from 1806 to 1822, with some intermissions, 

ferred to in a sketch of the Blounts of Beau- of which body he was Speaker in 1812, '13, 

fort. He was the brother of Governor Wil- and '14, and elected a member of the 18th 

liam Blount, the first G(n'eruor of Tennessee, Congress, 182o-'25, to supply- a vacancy occa- 


sioned b}' the resignation of H. G. Burton, lina, Senator in Congress, Secretary' of the 

elected Governor. He was the iirst Moderator IS'avj-; Matthias E. Manly, Judge of the Supe- 

of the Chowan Baptist Association, established rior and Supreme Courts; Augustus Moore, 

in 1806. Judge of Superior Courts; Edward D. Sinims, 

Ilis fine personal appearance, his kind, genial niendDer of Congress, 1824, from South Caro- 

manners, and his generous, charitable temper, lina. In even this galaxy- of merit and talent 

rendered him universally popular. His son, Mr. Outlaw was conspicuous. 

George B. Outlaw, succeeded him in the State He studied law with that able and accom- 

Senate, in 1823 and 1824, whose widow {nee plished jurist, William Gaston, and by his 

Jordan) married Governor John Branch. assiduity, ability' and laljor did credit to his 

Thomas Miles Garret was a resident of this accomplished preceptor. He was admitted to 

county, and lived near Colerain. His educa- the bar in 1827, and soon rose to the front 

tion was good. He was prepared for college rank of his profession. For years he was the 

by John Kimberly, and graduated in 1851, in Solicitor of the Edenton Circuit, in which 

same class with David M. Carter, Bartholo- respoiisiUe position he won the respect, confi- 

mew Fuller, Francis E. Shober and others, dence and admiration of the bench, bar and 

He read law, and by his diligence and capacity- juries. When to his discriminating judg- 

attained renown. But the war broke out, and ment, oppression or [lersecution was attempted, 

he joined the army. He was brave and de- he was mild and yielding, but wheu the law 

voted to the cause, and fell in battle as colo- was violated, no matter by whom, high or 

nel, at the head of his regiment, amid the low, indigent or wealthy, it was firmly vindi- 

horrors of that fearful conflict. He remarked cated. 

on the eve of the engagement that the day Naturally' generous and just, though reso- 

would end with a general's wreath or with lute, he was universally p.ipular. His warui 

his life. Both were verified. A commission and enthusiastic temper was often r.)used wheu 

arrived next day as brigadier, but too late! duplicity oi- artifice was attempted; and be 

There are but few persons in North Carolina would assail his victim with resistless power 

who did not know David Outlaw (born about and matchless eloquence. This trait in his 

181)5 and died 1808,) and appreciate his esti- character was well known to his associates at 

mable character. He was born, lived and died the bar, as also to the community at large, 

in Bertie County. He was endowed by nature Often has the trembling offender of justice, 

with a clear and penetrating mind, which was when on trial, whispered to counsel, " Do.i't 

highly improved by a liberal education. He make Outbiw mad, for if you do, I shall not 

graduated in 1824 at the University of the have any chance to escape." He was truly 

State, at the head of his class. Wheu it is '' a terror unto evil-doers, and a praise to them 

recollected who composed this class, and their who do well." "To the just, he was mild and 

mental material, this high honor will be gentle; but to the fro ward lie was as fierce as 

appreciated. Among them were Daniel B. fire." 

Baker, Benjamin B. Blume, John Bragg, Such a man c^iuld not fail to secure regai-d 

member of the Legislature, member of Con- and respect. He wm frequently elected a 

gress, and Judge in Alabama; James W. Bry- member of the Legislature, and was elected 

an, distinguished lawyer, Senator 1836 from member of the 30th (1847,) 31st (1849,) and 

Jones County; Thomas Dews, of Lincolnton; 32d (1851) Congresses. Here his unbending 

William A. Graham, Governor of North Caro- integrity, his unselfish patriotism, his unques- 



tioiied abilities, and his pure and nnob.trusive. 
virtues, commanded the respect inid the affec- 
tion of his associates. Pie was ever read}' to 
do cjeneroiis acts, while he scorned any intrigue 
or artifice— the unflinching foe to corruption, 
extravagance or indirection. Sincere and 
honest himself, he was unsuspicious of deceit 
or fraud in others. 

In his person Colonel Outlaw was but little 
favored hy nature. He was verj' near-sighted, 
and constantly wrix' glafses that were gieen,, 
and wJiich to straiigei's made him appeal' dis- 
tant, reserved, and aAvkward. Yet, with 
these disadvantages, to those who knew him 
well, this rugged exterior did 

Hide a precious jewel in its head, 

and present everj^ quality of honor, truth, and 
justice that can dignify human nature. 

His last public service was as a member of 
the State Senate in 1863. He died on 22d 
October, 1868. 

.His latter days were clouded by misfortune. 
The vicissitudes of wai', his confidence in 
friends, and his carelessness in financial mat- 
ters, had wrecked his fortunes. Tlje natural 
infirmity (defective eyesight) terminated in 
total blindness. But his generous qualities 
triumphed over calamity. To such men may 
!S"orth Carolina proudly point as the mother 
of the Gracci did to her sons, and sincerely 

Tiiese are my jewels. 

James W. Clark, born 1779, died 1843, was 
a native of Bertie County, son of Christopher 
Clark, wh(.i died at Salmon creek. 

He was liberally educated, and graduated 
at Princeton in 1796. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Legislatni'e from his native county 
in 1802-'3. lie removed to Edgecombe Coun- 
ty, which he rejiresented in 1810 and 1811, 
and in the Senate 1812-'13 and '14, and elected 
a member of the 14th Congress — 1815-'17. 
He served out his term and declined are-elec- 

tion. He was succeeded by Br. Thomas H. 

He served in 1827 as Chief Clerk of the 
Kav}' Bepartment under Governor Branch. 

He was an enterprising, patriotic and honest 
man, loved and respected by all who knew 
him. He married Arabella, (laughter of Henry 
I. Toole. He died in 1843, leaving one sou, 
who became Governor of the State, 1861, and 
two daughters. Maria, who married Mat Wad- 
dell, and Laura, who married Gotten. 

(For the Genealogy of the Clark family, 
see Appendix.) 

Patrick Henr}- Winston resides in Bertie 
County, but is a native of Franklin County. 
He was educated at Wake Forest, and at the 
Columbian University, at Wiishington Citj", , 
wliere he graduated. He read law at Chayiel 
liill, and after receiving a license to piactiee. 
settled in Windsor. He rejjresented Bertie 
County in the Legislature in 1850 and 1854. 

In 1861, he, together with Hon. B. F. Moore 
and Sam'l F. Phillips, were elected by the 
Legislature as Judges of^ the Court of Claims. ^^ 
This was a delicate and severe duty, and this 
able court discharged it M'ith fidelity and 

After his term in the court had expired, he 
was aii])ointed by Governor Vance Financial 
Agent of the State in her fiscal relations with 
the Confederate Government. 

In 1S64 he was elected one of the Council 
of State, and by that body chosen President, 
a position at this time involving great respon- 

In 1865 he was chosen a member of the 
Constitutional Convention from Franklin, 
whithi>r he had taken refuge dui-ing the 
tiTiubles of the war, and no one did more to 
liuild up the broken down walls of our [loliri- 
cal Zion than Mr. Winston. Ho was of the 
few men \'\'ho declined to sign an open letter 
to Governor Holden, requesting him to be a 
candidate for Governor. In 1868 he was 


ottered nnd decHiifd tlie nomiiintion for Con- A fearful epidemic appeared in Bertie Coun- 

oresp, preferring to pursue the practice of his ty, as recorded in Niles' Eegister, vol. x, 364:, 

jii'ofessioii, of -which lie is alike a pillarand an wliich was most fatal anioiuj- the people, 

oraament. He posscses untiring industry, in May, 1816. Some sections, especially 

profound leai'ning, and uiispotted reputation. Cashie Neck, were nearly depopulated. The 

He has a family likely to he as distinguished statement says that " the most robust consti- 

as their father lor ahility, influence and in- tiitions melted before it as wax liefore a tire." 



AVith this count}- are associated nianj- stir- and amcMigst otliers Janieis ]-'orterfield, an 

ring events connected with the war of the Irishman hv birth. i)ut wiio for some years 

Re^■oluti(ln, which attested the [.atriotism of had been a resident of Pennsyh-ania. Mi', 

her sons, and their devotion to liberty. Porterfield had five children — Eleanor, who 

The battle of Elizabelhtoun, fought in ^.intermarried with C"!. Thomas Owen, the 

July, 1781, was a complete victory of the father of Gen. James and the late Gov. John 

Whigs, led by Thnmas Brown, over the To- Owen; one son who died in early life; John 

ries, commanded by Slingsby and Godden. and James, who lor man}' years were mer- 

This has lieen already so fully I'eCfU'ded from ehants in Fayetteville, and Denny, who is 

authentic documents in the Ilistoi'y of North the subject of this brief sketcii. 

Carolina (IT, SG,) that its repetition is un- On the bi'caking out of tlie lievolutionary 

neeessar}' lieie. The heroic character of Denny war, the whole family of Portertields espoused 

Poiteitield is detailed in The Memories of the Whig cause. In the death of James Por- 

Cross Cieok. terfield, senior, the Whigs lost an able and in- 
fluential fi'icnd. But his widow, animated 

The Memories of Cross Creek. ,^^, ^j^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^,^^^^^^ ten>perament, made her 

The [lighhinders of Scotland, after their mansion iieadrpiarters for the Whigs of Cross 

defeat at Culloden in 1746, migrated to North Creek. She was celebrated as an expert c:irt- 

Carolina, under the advice of Neill McNiell. ridge-maker, and freciuently spent nights in 

They found a resting-place on the banks of preparing bullets to be tised by the Americans. 

C;;pe Fear, at what has remained the head of At that time she lived in the house that has 

navigation on that rivei' to the [.resent time, for many yeais been known as the residence 

As early as 176-2 Cross Creek and Cambell- of John McLeran, deceased, and now of his son 

ton (now Fayetteville) began to assnme ini- William. 

portance in a commercial point of view, the Under such a father and mother, and in 

fame whereof attracted many from abroad, such times, Denny Porterfield grew to man- 


hood. lie became a solilicr, served with dis- hij' between converging fires, and in full sight 

tinction in the American armj', and attained of tlie British army. Porterfield modestly 

the rank of Major. It is not our object to replied, that when he entered the Ameiican 

give a detailed account of the exploits of army he had subjected his powers of mind and 

Denny Porterfield, bwt will simply endeavor body to the glorious cause, and if needs he 

to record his daring bravery as exhibited in was prepared to die in its behalf, 

his last battle. Greene communicated the command, which 

It is a well known fact that while Corn- was to order into service a reserved corps that 

"wallis retreated from Guilford Court House lay in ambuscade, ready to advance upon re- 

ma Eayette^■ille and Wilmington to York- ceiving the signal agreed on. 

town, where be was C()ra[>L'lled to surrender to With a brave and undaunted bearing Major 

the prowess of Washington, Gen. Greene, in- Porterfield dashed off upon his fleet courser, 

stead of pursuing him, determined to relieve and so sudden and unex[iected was his ap- 

North and South Carolina from the persecu- pearance among the British, and so hei-oic the 

tioiis of Lord Kawdon, and so pressed upon deed, that they paused to admire his bravery, 

him, that in July, 17:51, he took post at the and omitted to fire until he was bej-ond the 

Entaw Springs, where the Americans attacked reach of their guns; liut on his return, they 

ihim and drove him from his entrenchments, fired, the shot took effect in bis breast, and 

Foremost in this intrepid charge was the the brave Denny Porterfield fell, and sealed 

Ihigh-souled and valorous Denny Porterfield his devotion to the cause with his blood, on 

Avho seemed to have a charmed life, as he ex- the plains of Eutaw. His horse escaped uu- 

,posed himself upon his mettled charger, with hurt galloped into the American lines, and 

epaulettes and red and buff vest on., to the nevei' halted till he reached his accustomed 

murderous fire of the enemy. Lieut. Col. place in the ranks. 

Camp)bell received a mortal wound while lead- Gen. Greene, who witnessed the instinct of 

ing the successful charge. Porterfield and his the animal, shed tears, and ordered David 

brave companions rushed on to avenge his Twiggs, father of Miss Winny Twiggs, now of 

death, and took upwards of five hundred Fayetteville, to take charge of the horse and 

prisoners. carry him to Mrs. Porterfield at Cross Creek. 

In their retreat the British took post in a And upon a Sunday afternoon the mother of 

strong brick house and picqueted garden, and the distinguished gentleman who com.uuni- 

from thisiidvantageous position, under cover, cated some of the facts detailed, remembered 

commenced firing. to have met David Twiggs coming into Cross 

At this crisis in the battle Gen. Greene de- Creek, who in one breath announced the fall of 

sired to bring forward re-inforcements to his beloved Major and the success of the 

storm the house. To save time it became American arms at Eutaw. He brought with 

important that some one should ride within him the red buii' vest that Major Porterfield 

range of the British cannon. It was in reality wore, and Gen. James Owen hjis informed me 

a forlorn hope. The A.merican General would that he remembers to have soen it, and that 

detail no one for the enterprise, but asked if there was a rent or tear on one side and 

any one would volunteer. Instantly Denny slightly blood-stained. On the retreat of 

Porterfield mounted hia charger and rode into Lord Kawdon, Gen. Greene retained posses- 

his presence. Gen. Greene inquired if he was sion of the field, and there the body of Denny 

aware of the pei'il, if he knew that his path Porterfield found an honorable grave. His 

tjlad:en coukty. 


tiorse lived for several 3'ears, a pensioner roam- 
ing at pleasure on the hanks of Cross Creek — 
known and heloved hy all who venerated the 
valor and chivalry of Denny Forteriield. 

John Rutherford, or Eutherfurd, resided in 
Bladen County. 

He married Penelope Eden, the widow of 
•Governor Gabriel Johnston, and lived on the 
.place in Bladen, where th« Governor had built 
a house. {Moore, I, 147.) 

He was one oi" the Council of Governor 
Martin, a«d should not be <;onfo«nd«d with 
the nanieof General Gritiith Rutherford, who 
did great military service in the Revolution. 

John Owen, (born 1787; died 1841,) was'andson of Major Porterfield, above al- 
luded to, and the smi of Thomas Owen, who 
died in 1803, and was a brave officer of the 
Revolution, and commanded a regiment at 

To many of our State, he was well known, 
and by all he was highiy appreciated for his 
-amiable character, his generous disposition, 
and pure and upright demeanor. It was not 
his taste, or his fortune, to command in the 
field of war, or even 

The applause of listeniag Senates to command. 

He preferred rather to enjoy the quiet com- 
forts of home and his family, and the kindly 

.intercourse of neighbors and friends. 

JSuch was his popularity that he was often 

■ elected by the people of Bladen a member of 
the Legislature, (18l2-'27, and in 1828;) 
duriny the last year he was chosen Governor. 
He was within one vote of being elected Sen- 

.ator in Congress in 1831. 

He was President of the Convention at 
Harrisburg, in 1840, that nominated General 

Harrison for President. He was ofiered the 
nomination as Vice-President; he declined, 

■and Mr. Tyler was nominated. Had his mod- 
esty allowed his acceptance, as was the course 

•of vevents, he would have been President of 

the United States. But his health was very 
precarious, and would not allow him to accept 
any position. He died October, 1841, at 

He married, at an earl}' age, the daughter of 
General Ttiomas Brown, the hero of the battle 
of Elizabethtowu, leaving an onlj' daughter, 
who married Haywood Guion, deceased, and 
who now resides at Charlotte. 

Governor Owen was a true type of a Xorth 
Carolinian. Sincere, but chary in his profes- 
sions find promises; and faithful and exact in 
his performances; varied and deep in his 
acquii-ements, but modest, reticent and unol>- 
trusive in his demeanor; tirm and gallant in 
maintaining his conWctions of right. His 
name is worthy to be classed with Bayard of 
Franco: " Suns peur, sans reproche.''' 

His brother. General James Owen, was well 
known for his urbane aiid intellectual charac- 
ter. He was elected a member of the loth 
Congress (1817,) and President of the North 
Carolina and Raleigh Railroad. 

His sister married Elisha Stedman, of Fay- 

James J. McKay, (born 1793; died 1853,.) of 
this county, was distinguished as a lawyer and 
statesman. He was often a member of the 
Legislature in the Senate (1815, '16, '17, '18, 
'22 and '26;,) district attorney' of the United 
States, and a member of Congress from 1831 
to 1849, serving at one time with great accep- 
tability as Chairman of the Comniittee of 
Ways and Means. In the National Conven- 
tion of 1848 General McKay received the un- 
divided vote of North Carolina as a candidate 
for Vice-President. As a statesman he was of 
unquestioned ability, of stern integrity, capa- 
ble of great labor and patient investigation. 
He was in public, as in private life, a radical 
economist,and belonged to that school of which 
Mr. Macon was the father, and he, with George 
W. Jones, Cave Johnson, of Tennessee, and 
John Letcher, of Virginia, werefaithful disci- 


pies. General McKay died very suddenly at where he graduated in 1843, in the same class 

Goldsboro in 1853. with Hon. Jolm L. Bridgers, Hon. Robert P. 

In closing our sketches of " The memories Dick, Philo P. Henderson, Judge Samuel J. 

of fifty years or more," as regards the men of Person, and others. He served in the Legisla- 

Bladen County, we should do injustice to the ture in 184G to 1850 in the House, and 185+ 

integrity of history and to merit and vii'tueto and '58 in the Senate, aifd in the Congress of 

pass over the name of Thomas David McDow- the Confederacy. 

ell. one of the purest men in public and private He is a planter by profession, and now lives 

life that lever knew. in dignified retirement like Cincinatus, nntil 

He was born in Bladen County, the son of he is called, like him, by the people, to posi- 

Dr. Alexander ^IcDowell, on the 4th of Jan- tion of res[X)nsil)ility and horn;!', which his 

iVd\'y, 1823. merits entitle him, and his talents so admira- 

His education was liberal, conducted at the bly qualify him to adorn, 
oualdson Academy and the University, 



There are so many memories that cluster selves; never yielded quiet obedience to the 

around the early times of this ancient county, rule of the lords proprietors, nor were they 

associated vvitli the chivalric daring of her pa- even on good terms with the rulers tif Roy- 

trintic sons, that the historian is embarrassed alty. Governor Dobljs, with amiable traits 

by the riches the glowing record presents. The of character and with all the pitrouiige of the 

difficulty arises not so much in finding material Government, could win but few ad\'ocates. 

for his study as in selecting events and sub- Governor Tryon, his successor, by tarns threat- 

jects most worthy of preservation. Here was ened and flatter j<l them, l)Ut in vain; and 

the ancient borough of Brunswick." This flnaliy they drove out Gov. Mirtiii, tlie fist 

section was the home of Howe, of Harnett, of the Royal Governors, from the country, 

and of Hill, where wealth and enterprise to whom, like the guests of Macbeth, the peo- 

reared stately' mansions; whore generous hos- pie of Brunswick saiii, with more decision 

pitality, gentle courtesy, and social barmonj- th:in comity, 

prevailed, and where wit, science and refine- At once, good niii-lit! 

ment found a habitation. *^^T^ "»* "''O" ^Iie order of yoiu- going- 

But go at once. 

These people were happy when left to them- r,,, , i ,i o^ . . , c 

^^' 1 hese people, when the ^tamp Aet w;is before 

^ , the Parliament, saw the stoi'm approaching; 

'The avicient town of Brunswick; once the seat of . , ... 

the Royal Government, was on tlie left bank of the without tear they wacchL-d its course, and 

('ape Fear River, ahout 10 miles from the iiresent town i -,. ii ' i ., i •. x- -,.1 l: 

of .SmithviUe. It was nearly destroyed on the Tth i '^'''^^'^ '^ ^■•^'^^' tl"^^^ brea-:.tod itstury with tirni 

Sejiteinber, 1769, by a hurricaup, which is dei.icted in and mani v spirit. When its dud passao-j was 

a dispatch from Iryon. (Uolonial Doc's from Rolls ^ l .^ 

Oiiice, London.) announced, th,; Chevalier Bayard of the day, 


John Ashe, then Speaker of jhe House of the and inarched in trinm[ili to the residence of 
Colonial Assembly, boldly proclaimed to the the Governor at Wilmington. Thu whole 
RoA^al Governor, suri'ounded \>y his satraps, town was wild with excitement, and was 
that "he would resist the execution of the ilhiniinated at night. The ne.\t morning Col- 
act to! " one! Ashe, at the head of a crowd of people, 

It was here occurred a scene which excels T\'eiit to the house of the Governor and de- 

in daring ati}' event of the age; and which manded the Stump-muster, (William Hous- 

leaves the Boston Tea Party a secondary ton,) who had fled to the Govern. )r for s.ifety. 

legend in point of courage and patri(jtism. The Governor refuses to deliver him up, and 

In the year 1766, su English slo.ip-of-war, forthwith prepai'ations are made to surround 

(the '• Diligence ") is seen entering theharhor. and burn the house, in which was the Gover- 

" The meteor flag of England " flaunts proudly nor. Stamp-master and others. Terrified, 

from her mast, and her cannou, loaded and although a practiced soldier, the Governor 

read}', fi'owned upon the devoted town, yields, and Houston is delivered up. They do 

She sails gracefully into the harbor, and no act '.f bloodshed; but firmly conduct IIous- 

drops her anchor. Governor Tryon, anxiously ton to the Mai'Icet-house, where he makes a 

expecting her, announces her arrivtd by a soloaui pledge in writing '• never to receive 

proclamation dated Gth Januar}-, 17^J3, and the any stamped papLU- which may arrive fmm 

reception of stamps, and directs "all persons England, nor othciate in any way in the distri- 

authorized to distribute stamps to apply to bution of stamps in the Province of ]S"orth 

the conimandei'." Carolina." 

But other eyes than Tryon's wei-e watching. Thrt-e loud cheers ascend to Heaven, and 

Colonel Hugh Waddell forthwith sent from ring says Davis, ''through thi old market place, 

Brunswick a n:essenger to Ashe, announcing and the Stamp Act is dead in Xorth Carolina." 

the arri\-al of tlie " Diligence " with stamps; This was more than ten years before the 

he immediiifely I'cpairs to Bru)iswick. ISTow Declaration of Independence, and more thin 

comes the tug of war. Will tlie arrogant nine before the battle of Lexington, and neai'ly 

Tij'on, with his armed men, triumph; or will eight years bef.ii'e the Boston Tea Pai't}-, 

the dai'iiig Ashe which was in the uight, a!i<l by men in dis- 

,, -, ,, , , . ,. ,, „ ' guise, and noon the Imrndess carriers of freight, 

lieard tlie iJoualas ni his castle? t- ' i ^ 

History' has blazoned this act of Boston to 

AVill he and Wa.blell Ciunmit acts that are the world, but the act of the people of the 

treason, and will send them to prison and Cape Feir was far more daring; done in oi^en 

*'^'^' ■ day by men of character, with ai'ms in their 

They felt the importance and tlie peril of h.^^^g^ „n^ier the King's flag; and who has 

the occasion. Like the ancient Pvomans they heard of it ? Who remembers it ? Who tells it ? 

**" '^ ^ , , , •■' When," concludes the eloquent address of 

God?! can a Koman Senate long debate 

AVliich of the two to clioose, liberty or death? Mr. Davis, from which I am ■ pu'oud to copy, 

iS'o, let us rise at once, and at the iiead ,, -n i ,. ^ • ^- ^ \t ii n i- 'o 

Of our remaming legions, gird on our swords " will history do justice to .North Carolina.' 

And charge home upon hiui. Never until some faithful and loving son of 

They with foi'ce prevent the landing of any her own shall gird up his loins to the task, 

one from the ship; and intimidating the com- and with unwearied industry and unflinching 

mander, seizing the ship's boat, brought it on devotion to the honor of his dear old mother, 

shore, mounted it on a oart, raised on it a flag, narrate the virtues and valor of her sous. 



This decided conduct on the part of the 
people, as was to be expected, infuriated 
Tryon; and he fulminates in his dispatches to 
the Earl of. Hillsltoro his threats of vengeance. 
He onch)sed « copy of the pledge extorted 
from his Stamp-master, which is filed in the 
Uolls Office, and which, for future historians, I 
■copy and here record. 

From Rolls Office, London; extract from 
Governor Tryon's dispatch; dated 26th De- 
.«ember, 1765; a .pledge extorted from Wil- 
liam Houston by John Asho and others. 

" I do hereb}' jiromise that I never will re- 
•ceive any staniji paper which may arrive from 
Europe in consequence of any act lately passed 
;in the Parliament of Great Britain,. nor offi- 
ciate in any manner as Stamp-master in the 
■distribution of stamps within tthe Province of 
jS'orth Carolina, either directlj or indirectly. 

'■Ido hereby notify all the inhabitants of 
His Majesty's Province of North Carolina that 
notwithstanding my having i-eceive.d informa- 
Ttion of aiy being appointed to said office of 
Stamp-niastei', I will not applj' hereafter for 
any stamp paper, or to distribute the same, 
until such time as it shall be agreeable to the 
inhabitanis of this Province. 

"Hereby declaring that I do execute these 
presents of my own free will and accord, with- 
out any equivocation or mental reservation 

"In witness hereof I have hereunto set my 
hand this 16th November, 1765. 

"William Houstost." 

There are deeds wliioli should not pass away; 
And names that must not wither, tho the earth 

Forgets her empire with a just decay. 
The enslavers and ensUived, their death and birth. 

Among the records I find a letter from 
Houston to Tryon, in which he states, " I am 
hated, abhorred and detested, and have no 
friend," that he thinks John Moses DeRosset 
would not refuse a copy of his bond lodged in 
his hands, dated at Socrate, 21st April, 1766. 

Sucli was the enthusiasm and spirit of the 
aroused people, that fears for the personal 
safety of Governor Tryon were excited, and 
required all the efforts and popularity of Ashe 
to allay them. 

I find among the public records in London, 
never before jiublished, the following letter: 

To Governor Tryon: 

'' February 19, 1766. 

" Sir: The inhabitants, dissatisfied with the 
particular restrictions laid upon the trade of 
this River ou\y, have determined to ujarch to 
Bruns-wick, in hopes of obtaining, in a peaceful 
manner, a redress of their grievances from the 
Commanding Officers of His Majesty's ships, 
and ha\e com}>elled us to con-duct them. We, 
therefore, think it our duty to acquaint Your 
Excellency that we are fully determined to 
protect from insult your person and pr()perty, 
and that if it will be agreeable to your Ex- 
cellency, a guard of gentlemen shall be imme- 
diat-el}- detached for that purpose. 

" We have the honor to be, with the great- 
est respect, sir, 

" Your Excellency's most 

" Obedient, humble servants, 
" John Ashe, 
" Thomas Lloyd, 
" Alexander Lillington." 

This shows the well balanced temper of 
Ashe and his associates. He had raised a 
tempest, fierce and furious, in tlie cause of 
right and opposed to illegality and oppression. 
But he was a sufficiently potent Prospero to 
allay its excess. 

The position of the Governor was humili- 
ating and galling to his pride. As a soldie-r 
he had been trained to arms. His temper was 
imperious, daring and desperate, as he after- 
wards evinced at Alamance. But he saw that 
he was no match before the people with the 
popular and fearless Ashe, 

His political sagacity induced him to change 
his course, for he knew well wh^ii to brag and 
bully and when to fiatter and fawn. " He 
began," says Davis, " to coui't the people and 
tiatter them with shows ami spiorts." " In 
February, of that same year, 1766, tliere was 
a muster of militia in Wilmington. The 
Governor prepared, at considerable expense, 
a fine repast for the people. But when the 
feast was ready the people rushed to the spot, 
poured the liquor in the street, and threw the 



viands, untasted, into the river. He forsi'ot 
tliat he was in the hdiiie of John Ashe, and 
he had seen that neither he nor the people 
could he intimidated or cajoled." 

I am indebted tothe able address of Hon. 
George Davis for much of the eloquent st^'le 
in which these events have been recorded, and 
use bis language, so forcible and coriect,and so 
much better than any I could employ. 

After the battle of Alamance, Trj'on was 
transferred to the Governorship of New York, 
and he left North Carolina to the mutual sat- 
isfaction of himself and the people. He de- 
clared in a disi^atch to his Government, that 
"not all the wealth of the Indies could in- 
duce him to remain among such a daring and 
rebellious people." 

His successor. Governor Martin, found bis 
place no bed of roses, notwithstanding he 
used every means to reconcile the people to 
the mother country. He early experienced 
the restive spirit of the age, and as already 
stated, found it convenient to take refuge (on 
10th July, 1775) on board of His Majesty's 
ship of war, lying in the Cape Fear river. 
-In a dispatch -dated 20th July, 1775, from 
on board the "Cruiser," he informs his 
Government that " Fort Johnson had 
been burnt, and that Mr. John Ashe 
and Mr. Cornelius Harnett were the 
ringleaders of the savage and audacious 
mob;" Governor Martin found as little pleas- 
ure in association with such daring men as 
had Governoi- Tr^'on, and with English squad- 
ron left the Cape Fear country for Charles- 
ton. Thus was the State free from any for- 
eign ruler. This same 3'ear, 20th of May, 
1775, the Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was proclaimed, and the year follow- 
ing (18th November, 1776,) a State Constitu- 
tion was formed at Halifax. 

These were the. men that formed our State; 
these — 

Like Romans in Home's qiinrrel. 

Sparer! ueitlier lamt nor gold. 
Nor son nor wife, nor limb nur life, 

In the brave days of old. 
Then none was for a party; 

Then all were for the State; 
Tlien the great man helped the poor. 

And the poor man loved the great. 

It has been the subject of frequent remark 
and admiration, that North Carolina should 
haved formed, under such circumstances, so 
perfect a Constitution that it carried the State 
through the long and bloody revolution in 
safety, and for nearly sixty 3'ears, m honor and 
happiness. For any people, long inured to aris- 
tocratic forms and monarchial i-ule, should, 
bursting from the gloom of monarchy into the 
light of lii)erty, to have created so perfect a 
form of Government, was indeed a subject 
full of wonder. It has been amended several 
times; but to the minds of many it has not 
been inqu\)ved. It was the work of men who 
knew the great principles of liberty, truth and 
justice, and many of them afterwards fought 
and died to secure them. 

It was adopted on the 18th December 
1776, as reported by a committee, among 
whom were W. Avery, John and Samuel 
Ashe, Thomas Burke, Eich'd Caswell, Corne- 
lius Harnett, Joseph Hews, Robert Howe, 
Willie Jones, Thomas Jones, and others. 

It is recorded that it was chiefly the pro- 
duction of Caswell, Bui'ke and Thomas Jones. 
But whoever they were, they proved them- 
selves master workmen in their craft. 

Thou, too, sail on, oh Ship of State, 
Sail on thy course, both strong and grejxt, 

Ilumanity with all its fe.irs, 

With all the hopes of future yeivrs, 
Is hanging breatliless on thy fate. 

By man}' it is stated our Constitution 
was the earliest formed. But this is error. 
When the power of the mother country over 
the colonies was gone, and some Government 
other than England was necessary, the Conti- 
nental Congi-ess, by a resolution adopted 3d 
November, 1775, recommended the Colonies 
to adijpt such Government as should best 



conduce to their safet}'. In accordance with 
this resolution — 

I. New Hampshire formed a State Consti- 
tution 28th December, 1775. 

II. South Carolina, on 26th iVlarch, 1776. 

III. Virginia, Jtine 29, 1776. 

IV. New Jersey, July 3, 177.6. 

V. Delaware, September 12, 1776'. 

VI. Pennsylvania, September 21, 1776. 

VII. North Carolina, 12th November, 1776. 

VIII. Georgia, 5th February, 1777. 

IX. New York, April 20, 1777. 

(See Ben: i'erley Poure on Charters and 

I. The Convention which formed the first 
Constitution for North Cnrolina met at Hali- 
fax, 12th November, 1776, as above alluded to. 

II. The Convention which revised and 
amended the Constitution, met at lialeigh on 
4th June, 1835, (Nath'l Macon, President.) 

III. The Convention (secession) met at Ra- 
leigh 20th May, 1861, (Weldon N Edwards, 

IV. The Convention, under orders of the 
President of the United States, (Johnson,) 
met at Raleigh 2d October, 1865, formed a 
Constitution which was not ratified by the 
people, (Edwin G. Reade, President. } 

V. The Convention, under ordei's of General 
Canby, of the United States Army, met at 
Raleigh 11th January, 1868, formed a Constitu- 
tion, (Calvin J. Cowles, Pi'esident.) 

VI. The Convention to amend tlfe Consti- 
tution, met at Raleigh on 6th September, 
1875, which was ratified by the people by a 
majority in November, 1876, (Dr. Ew'd Ran- 
som, President.) 

Lists of the persons who were members of 
the Conventions of 1776, 1835, 1861, 1865, 
1868 and 1875, are to be found in the admirable 
hand-book of L. L. I'olk, Commissioner of 
Agriculture, published at Raleigh, 1879. 

Brunswick County presented many' patri- 
otic sons to the cause of Independence, but 
none more worthy of our memories than Rob- 
ert Howe, (born 1732; died 1785.) So little- 
has been preserved and presented to the county 
of this distinguished man tliat the indefatig-- 
able and accurate historian* has been com- 
pelled to state that history bears no reciM'd of 
his private life: 

The repi'oach has been removed, in some 
measure, by an abridgement of the memories 
of General Howe, compiled^ by Archibald 
Maclaine Hooper.t 

Had his services and saeritices lieen rendered 
in any other State than North Carolina, he' 
would have been lauded among the statesmen 
and patrif)ts of the' nation. Let us trj^ to sup- 
ply this omission, and endea\'or to present ttie 
cliaracter and services of General Howe as 
they deserve. 

His naure and fame belong to Brunswick; 
for it was in this county he was born, lived 
and died. 

He w:!S born in 1732. His father's faiuily 
was a Id'anch of the noble iiouse of Howe, in 
England. Pie had the misfortune to lose both 
of his parents at smy early age; and the guid- 
ance of his boylio-.xl was entrusted to a kind 
grandmother, v/ho, like all gi'andmothers, 
so comjiletely indulged him that his edu- 
cation and training was much neglected. 
He was, however, of an active, inquisitive 
mind, and by even desultory reading, 
and conversation of literary men, he- 
acquired much anel varied information. He 
married at an early age a young Lidj' of the 
Grange family, much against the will of her 
parents. With his bride he visited his rela- 
ti\-es in England, where he remained about 
two years, enjoying the noble and munificent 
hospitality of his frie;ids and family. 

*LossingII., 729. 

tUniversity Magazine, vol. II., .June, 1853. No. 5. 


On his return he cominence<l his public Howe was elected a iiienil.ier of the AssemMy. 

career. I coji}' from the K;)lls Office in Loiulon He was also elected a delegate to the Colonial 

the followinii;: Congress which met at Xew Berne on 2-5th 

"3cT Nov. 1766. An_<i;ust, 1774. This was the first assemhlage of 

"At a meeting of the council at Newbuni, the representatives of the people in alcgi.lative 

Robert Howe, Esq.,, produced the Governor's capacity in the Colony in direct opposition to 

(Tryon's) commission appointing him captiu'n ^^^ ^-Joyal authority. It was violently de- 

of Fort Johnston, and he took the oath and nonnced by Governor ^[nrtin. Howe was ap- 

subscribed the test " pointed chairman of a conmiittee to whom 

the speech of Martin was referred, and wrote 

In a dispatch of Gov. Martin to Earl of „„ ,^i,ie and eloquent replv. On the 8th Aug- 

Dartmouth dated December 24th, 1772, " the ^^^^^ -^.^^g^ ^j_^,.^i,^ ,,_ ^,,oelamation dated Sth 

Governor complains that the Colonial Assem- ^^^^^g^, 1775, on hoard the British ship 

bly had passed a resolution requesting Cover- ,, Ci'uiser." denounced Howe for bavin- taken 

nor Tryon to forward their petition to the ^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^j- ,olonel, and for summoning and 

King and thus overlooking him." training the militia, etc. 

-This," he adds, "was done by the influ- This closed Howe's kgislative career. Bv 

ence of Robert Howe and Isaac Edwards." ^^^^ Colonial Congress that met at llillshoro on 

"Of Mr.- Howe," the Governor says, in the 21st August, 1775, he was appointed colonel 

same dispatch, " when he came to North Cam- of tho 2d Regiment, then about to be raised oa 

lina. Mr. ll(!we was the captain of Fort John- the Coiitinental estahlishrnent. 
son, and Baron of the Exchequer; but believ- r^.^^^ ^^^^^^ app<m.ted to this rc-iment were 

ing the two offices incongruous, h« appointed j^,,,^,,,.^ jj^^^^.^^ colonel; John Batton, major, 

Mr. Ilasell Baron of the Exchequer; by the („,aternal grandfather of thoJlon. C. C. Camb- 

King's appointn.ent Captain Collet was made ,.^^|j„^^ ^^j^,^.^^,,^. .uindedto;) Alexander .Martin, 

captain of the f.,rt. which deprived Mr. Howe Henteuant colonel, afteru-ards Governor of tl 

of a post of contemiitilile protit to a man of 

State. Among the captains were James Blount, 
honoi; but he, by extraordinary management jj^^,.^^^, MurtVee, Henry Irwin Toole, .Michael 
of moneys that came into his ha.„ls to sup- p^^^^,^^,^ .„^^^ ^^^^^^.^ j„ ^.,1, .,,]|,,„t ,egun.'nt 

po:t the garrison, made it very Inci-ative, and 
served to keep together the wreck of his for- 

Ilertf.ird County ontrihiited h.-r first quota 

of tr(jops enlisted for the war. Thev consti- 

tnne. Mr. Howe is a man of .lively parts and ^^^g^i Company D, and were commanded by 

good understanding, hut, in ti:e present state 
of his affairs, of no account or consideration 

Hardy Murfree. Colonel Benjamin Wynns 
commanded the Hertford Battalitm. Their 

and is trying to establish a reimtatiou for ji,st march under Howe was to Norfolk, and 

patriotism." reached the Great Bridge o:ily two days after 

"The Legi-iiture resolved to continue the the battle. Thence they went south un- 

establishnient of Fort Johnston only to the der Lee. One of the best and truest of Hert- 

next session, which, I fea.-, is owing to the ford's sons was aide-do-camp to General Howe, 

command being held by an (jfficer nominated This was young Godwin Cotten, of Mulberry 

by His .Majesty, instead of Mr. Howe, a native Grove. Like his young kinsman, Colonel 

of tliiscountry." (Colonial Records, London.) James Cotten, of x\nson, he was the surveyor 

This year and in the next, 1772 and 1773, of the county. He was the youngest son of 



Captain Arthur Cotten, and lived at the old 
■homestead 'near St. Johns. lie was as amiaible 
as he was brave, and universally beloved. He 
lived long after the war, and many now alive 
may recollect his exemplary and pious char- 
acter. He was the last of his name in Hert- 
ford, for be left no sons; but he left two 
daughters, who were the belles and beauties df 
their day. One of them was the lovely 
mofherof Dr. Godwin Cotten Moore, of whom 
we shall write when we come to Hertford. — 

General Howe for compelling Sir Henr3'''s 
friend, Lord Dunmore, to leave Virginia foi- 

General Howe was placed in command of 
the North Carolina troops in defence of 
Charleston and Savannah; an-d the latter end 
of July Genera! Lee undertook an exfiedrtion 
against Florida. But by an expret^s he 
was ordered North, and General James 
Moore succeeded him. Soon after General 
Moore was ordered to join the Arm}' of 

(Moore's Hist., Sketches of Hertford, IX, the North, and Howe was appointed to 

XVI, 656 ) succeed him in the command of the Southern 

In December, 1775, Howe was ordered to Department, 

take command of the troops raised in North Qn the 2d of October, 1777, Howe was ap- 

Carolina, and march to aid Virginia. Unavoid- pointed by Congress major general; and in 

able circumstances prevented him from reach- the Spring of the next year he made an un- 

ing the Great Bridge until two days after the 
brilliant battle, [9 Dec. 1775] but he took post 
at Norfolk, and rendered good service in driv- 
ing the Ro^al Governor '(Lord Dunmore) and 
bis forces out of this section of the State; 'For 
this he received tiie thanks of the Convention 
•of Virginia, and of the General Congress at 
Philadelphia, and was promoted to the rank of 
brigadier general. 

When General Lee, in March, 1776, arrived 
in Virginia, Howe joined him with his regi- 
ment and went south. As he passed through 
North Carolina he received the thanks of the 
Convention at Halifax and at New Berne for 
his services, and he was received with public 

As an additional evidence of appreciation of 
his patriotic etforts, he was especially excepted 
from the otier of pardon proclaimed by Sir 
Henry Clinton to all who should down their 
arms, and his estates on the Cape Fear were 
ravaged by the English troops. This was the 
second time that Howe had been the honored 
subject of Royal indignation and marked 

successful expedition against Florida. From 
want of proper supplies, insubordination 
of some of the otiicials of Georgia and 
South Carolina and the health of his 
troops, he was compelled to retreat 
to Savannah. The retreat was com- 
menced in July, 1778; the conduct of 
General Howe was severely commented upon 
in various publications. Among these was a 
letter of General Gadsden, which was highly 
offensive to General Howe, and led to a duel 
near Charleston. Howe's second was C. C. 
Pinckney, and Gadsden was accompanied by 
Colonel Barnard Elliot. They fought, 13th 
August, 1778. Howe's ball grazed his oppo- 
nent's ear, on which Gadsden tired his pistol 
in the air. The parties then shook hands, 
and became reconciled. 

He was attacked at Savannah by the British 
in force, and defeated. 

From the commencement of Howe's ad- 
ministration. South Carolina and Georgia had 
been urgent in memorials to Coiiffress to re- 

enmity. This second proclamation of Sir Henry call him and to replace him by an officer of 
Clinton was a grateful acknowledgment to ™o''s experience. 



Tn compliance with these solicitations, • in 
September, 1778, Howe was oi'dered to the 
headquarters of General Washington, and 
General Lincoln appointed to succeed him, 
and to repair immediately to Charleston. 
Howe was stationed on tie Hudson river, and 
in 1780, was in commaud at \Yest Point, 
where he rendered acceptable services, and 
for his energy and activity at this and other 
important commands he received the thanks 
of Washington. 

In January, 1780, a committee of the 
Georgia Legislature, appointed to consider the 
situation of the State since 29th of Decem- 
ber, 1778, and extracts from the minutes of 
the assembly respecting the conduct of Gen- 
eral Howe, were transmitted to the Com- 
mander in Chief, " with a request that he be 
directed to cause inquiry to be made into 
matters therein alleged, in such manner as he 
should judge proper." 

In pursuance of this order General Wash- 
ington sunmioned a Court Martial of thirteen 
officers — Baron DeKalb presided as President. 
After a rigid examination of six weeks he 
was acquitted " with the highest honors." 

Extract from Journals of Congress, 24th 
January, 1782: "The acquittal of General 
Howe by Court Martial with the highest 
honors is approved by Congress." (Journal 
1782, page 271. ) Although the war was over 
General Howe continued active in service. 

In 1781, Howe was sent bj' Washington to 
suppress a revolt of the New Jersey troops. 
Hildreth, HI, 359. 

Extract from Journals of Congress, Monday, 
1st July, 1783, page 64, ordered by Mr. Hamil- 
ton, and reported from a committee of which 
he was the chairman, that " Major General 
Howe shall be directed tomarch such part of his 
force as he shall judge necessary to the State 
of Pennsylvania, in order that immediate 
measures may be taken to confine and bring to 
trial such persons belonging to the army as 

have been principally active in the late mu- 
tiny; to disarm the remainder^ and to exam- 
ine into all the circumstances relating 

In May, 1785, he was appointed by Congress 
to treat with the AVestern Indians. 

He remained at the North for some time 
awaiting the adjustment of his claims for losses 
to his estates in North Carolina, ravaged by the 
enemy, and which were rendered useless and 
unproductive, and, from the depreciation of 
the currency-, Le was reduced to want. 

From the Journals of Congress, page 65: 

April V2th, 1785. 

" Mr, Plawkins introduced a resolution, pay- 
ing ' for depreciation, to Major General Howe, 
on account of monies ($7,000) advanced.' " 

In the spring of 1785 he returned to North 
Carolina, and was welcomed by public honors 
at Fayetteville and by kind friends at home 
He was induced to allow his name to be used 
as a candidate as a member from Brunswick 
of the General Assembly. He was triumpih- 
antly elected. But exposure during the sum- 
mer produced a severe bilious fever, from 
which he partially recovered, and in October 
started for the seat of Government. His first 
day's ride brought him to the house of his 
friend, General Clarke, about thirteen miles 
above Wilmington. Here he relapsed, and 
after two weeks' illness died in November, 

He had served his country from the first 
dawn of the Revolution till the end of the 
war, with fidelity and valor, and his services 
demand the remembrance and regard of his 
country. One whose opinion is valuable, 
styles him "The wit, the scholar, and the 

Drake describes General Howe as an officer 
of approved courage, well versed in military 
tactics, a skilful engineer, and a rigid discipli- 
narian, and a man of cultivated mind. 



After all the toils of war and the vicissi- 
tudes of fortune, he returns to his home, 

Life's long vexations passed, 

Here to return and die at home at last, 

Cornelius Harnett,* born 20th April, 1723; 
died 20th April, 1781. 

Associated with Robert Howe in the cause 
of Liberty and Independence was Cornelius 

Both of these distinguished men, by the 
proclamation of Sir Henry Clinton, were ex- 
cluded from all pardon from the Royal Gov- 
ernment. Although not, like Howe, a soldier, 
it was not the fortune of Harnett to figure in 
"feats of broil and battle," yet he did equal 
deeds of daring and courage in the great drama 
of life, in which men and arms are only sub- 
ordinate parts, and " the value of whose ser- 
vices," says Mr. Davis, " was only equalled by 
the extent of his sutierings and his sacrifices." 
We regret that so little has been accurately 
known of Mr, Harnett that even his birthplace 
is conjecture, Mr. Drake states, as does Loss- 
ing, " he was born in England," but gives no 
authority. Unquestionably there were two 
persons of the same name, both distinguished 
in the annals of ISIorth Carolina, 

The father, whose name the subject of our 
sketch bore, was not an obscure man, from the 
fact that he was the abettor and friend of 
Gov. Burringtou in his quarrel with Everhard, 
and one of the Governor's councillors, 1730. 
It may be inferred that be was a man of dis- 
tinction in North Carolina as earl}' as 1725. 
But, as will be seen, he and Burringtou did 
not remain friends very long. 

From the Rolls Office in London, in a dis- 
patch dated Feb. 20th, 1732, of George Bur- 
ringtou, Governor of the Province of North 
Carolina, to His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, 

one of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of 
State, I extract the following: 

''Mr. Cornelias Harnett, another of the 
Council, was bred a merchant in Dublin and 
settled at Cape Fear in this Colony. I was 
assured by a letter I received in England that 
Harnett was worth six thousand pounds ster- 
ling, which induced me to place his name on 
the list of persons to be Councillors; when I 
came to this country he was reputed to be 
worth £7,000; but now he is known to have 
traded with other men's goods; and is not 
worth anything, and so reduced as to be com- 
pelled to keep a public house." 

There are other records that aid us. " At 
the General Court, sitting at Edenton, the 
26th March, 1726, George Burringtou, the 
Governor, was indicted, for that about the 2d 
of December, 1725,M-ith Cornelius Hurnett 


of Chowan County, and others, he assaulted 
the house of Sir Richard Everhard." * 

In the Register's office in New Hanover 
County I there is a record of a bond from 
Colonel Maurice Moore, of New Hanover Pre- 
cinct, to Cornelius Harnett, " of the same 
place," dated 30th June, 1726, &c. 

Since we know from the inscription on the 
headstone of Cornelius Harnett, of Cape Fear, 
that he was born in 1723, it is clear that the 
Cornelius Harnett, of Chowan, was another 
person, probably the father, and that he was 
not of English birth, but of Irish descent. 
But we are led to believe that his son was 
born in North Carolina, and there was no 
movement from 1765 to 1780 in the cause of 
independence in which he was not ready and 
active; "The Samuel Adams of North Caro- 
lina," as he was styled by Josiah Quincy, wlio- 
visited the South in 1773. 

"With Colonel John Ashe, he was denounced 
by Governor Martin in 1775,- for the burning 
of Fort Johnson, He was Chairman of the 
Wilmington Committee of Safety, and after 
Governor Martin's retreat the State was ifov- 

*Drake's Biograpliical Dictionary; Lossing's Field 
Book, II, 582. 

* Williamson II, 229. 
t Book, page 71. 

Davis at Chapel Hill, 1825, 



erned by a Provincial Council, of which Har- 
nett was chairman, and de facto the Governor 
of the State, at a period when the affairs of 
the Government demanded the utmost pru- 
dence and sagacity. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Colonial Congress that met at Hali- 
fax on the 4th April, 1776; Chairman of the 
Committee to Consider the Usurpations of the 
English King and Parliament. He presented 
resolutions directing the delegates from North 
Carolina in the Continental Congress to imite 
in declarmg independence. This was unanimously 
adopted on 12th April, 1776, more than a 
month before the celebrated resolutions of 
Virginia. No one has ever heard of this for- 
ward step of " poor, pensive North Carolina," 
while the act of Virginia has been sounded by 
every tongue, and recorded on every page of 
her history. 

Mr. Harnett was of the Colonial Congress 
that met at Halifax on 12th November, 1776, 
which formed the Constitution of the State, 
and with Samuel Ashe, Waightstill Avery, 
Thomas Burke, Richard Caswell, Hews, Willie 
and Thomas Jones, and others, was a commit- 
tee on this important subject. 

In 1777, 1778 and 1779, Mr. Harnett was a 
member of the Continental Congress at Phila- 
delphia. His letters which are extant breathe 
the spirit of a patriot, and prove him to have 
been a faithful and devoted public servant. * 
These letters also reflect much light on the 
condition of the country and the proceedings 
of the Continental Congress during this event- 
ful period. 

He returned home to North Carolina, and 
when, in 1781, the British forces, under Sir 
James Craig, occupied Wilmington, he was 
taken prisoner at the house of his friend 
Colonel Spicer. 

* Life and Letters of Cornelius Harnett, compiled by 
Gov. Swain; Uni. Mag., Feb., 1861. 

Notes relative to Cornelius Harnett; by Archibald 
McLaine Hooper. 

From his delicate health and bis distin- 
guished character, he was admitted to parole. 
He submitted to the inevitable with dignity 
and philosophy. But broken in spirits, health 
and fortune, he died in captivity on his birth- 
day, 20th April, 1781. 

He lies buried in the nortlieast corner of the 
grave yard of St. James Cliurch, Wilmington, 
with this inscription: 

Conielius Harnett, 
Died 20th April, 1781. 
Aged 58. 
Slave to nn sect, he tool? no private road. 
But looked through nature up to nature's God. 

A worthy name of a worthy community. 

He is described by his biographer, Mr. 
Hooper, as being delicate rather than stout in 
person; about 5 feet 9 inches high; hazel eyes 
and light brown hair; small but symmetrical 
features, and graceful figure. Easy in his man- 
ners; affable and courteous; with a fine taste 
for letters, and a genius for music, he was at 
times a fascinating and always an agreeable 

The capital of Harnett presents the honored 
name of Lillington. 

John Alexander Lillington was the son of 
Colonel George Lillington, who settled on the 
Island of Barbadoes, and was a member of the 
Royal Council in 1698. 

His grandfather. Major Alexander Lilling- 
ton, emigrated from Barbadoes to the county 
of Albemarle, with his family. 

On the nortb side of the tomb of Governor 
Henderson Walker, five miles below Edenton,* 
is inscribed the following: 

Here lyes ye body of 

George Lillington, 

Son of Major Alexander Lillington, 

who died in ye 15 year of his age 

Anno 1706. 

The oldest public record in the State is a 
commission Tssued to George Durant, Alex- 
ander Lillington, and others, to hold the pre- 
cinct Courts in Berkeley Pi-ecinct.f 

*Lossing's Field Book, II, 586. 
tDavis, IV; Wheeler, I, 34. 



Upon the departure of Gov. Ludvvell in 1C93, 
the administrati<in of the Province devolved 
upon hiiu as Deputy Governor.* His gi'and- 
son, the subject of our sketch, was left early 
an orphan, and when Edward Moseley, who 
had married Ann, daughter of Major Alexan- 
der Lillington and the widow of Gov. Walker, 
(died 1712,) emigrated to the Cape E'ear, 
young Lillnigton came with him, in 1734. 
A fine mansion, known as Lillington Hall, 
about 40 miles above Wilmington, on the New 
Berne road, is still standing, and an engraving 
of it is delineated in Lossing. 

When the notes of preparation for the war 
with the mother country were heard, Lilling- 
ton responded gladly to the call. 

He was early known as an active and decided 
Whig, and co-operated with Ashe in opposi- 
tion to Gov. Ti'yon. We have seen his letter, 
offering, with Ashe and Thomas Llo^'d (see 
ante, page 40,) to protect from insult the 
person and property of the Governor. 

By the State Congress, which met on 21st 
August, 1775, at Hillsboro, to put the State in 
military order, he was appointed colonel of 
the Wilmington district, and Caswell for the 
New Berne district. Together, these gallant 
otticers, with their forces, fought (February 27, 
1776,J and won the battle at Moore's Creek 
Bridge^ over the Scotch Tories, which has 
been fully described, with its important cou- 
-seiiiiences.t The State deepl^^ appreciated his 
services, for the Provincial Congress that met 
.at Halifax on 4th of April following, appointed 
him colonel of the t!th Begiment of North 
Carolina troops on the Continental establish- 
ment. He served under General Gates at the 
ill-fated battle of Camden August 15, 1780. 
Though he served through the war with dis- 
tinguished honor, and was promoted to rank 
of brigadier general, his military fame rests 
chiefly upon the battle of Moore's Creek. 

General Lillington remained in service to 
the close of the war, when he retired to his 
estate at Lillington Hall, where he died; near 
his mansion rest the remains of General Lil- 
lington and his son John, who did good ser- 
vice in the whole Revolutionary war as col- 

■" General Lillington," writes one of his 
descendants to Lossing,* " was a man of Her- 
culean frame and strength. He possessed 
intellectual powers of a high order, undaunted 
courage and of incorruptible integrity. He 
has left, 

-on the footprints of Time, 

On of those names that never die. 

General Lillington was the grandson of 
Major Alexander Lillington who was Presi- 
dent of the Council, and ex officio Governor of 
North Carolina, in 1673. His grandmother 
was an Adams, from Massachusetts. One of her 
daughters married Governor Walker, and 
afterwards Edwani jMosely. Another was 
the wife of the first Samuel Swann. General 
Lillington left issue at his death in 1786, one 
daughter, who married her cousin, Sampson 
Mosel}', and a son George, who left a son, 
John Alexander, (who represented Davie 
County in the Senate, in 1848,-'50,-'52,) who 
was the last of his name, a gentleman of tine 
personal appearance, and talents. 

Mrs. Harden of Hickory, and Mrs. Dr. 
Anderson, of Wilmington, are the present 
representatives of the family. — (Moore, 
Letter of Hon. George Davis.) 

The Moores of Brunswick. 

It is now just about fifty years ago when I 
first entered the House of Commons (as it was 
then called,) as a member from my native 
County of Hertford, and my attention was 
drawn on the first day of the session to one of 
the best expressed and best delivered speeches 
that I ever heard, and which made an indeli- 

*Martin, I, 134. 
t See Wheeler, I, ^6. 

* Lossing, II, 385. 



lile impression on my own mind, and carried 
conviction to all who heard it. 

The simple facts of the case were: One 
of the members from the Cape Fear country 
had lost or mislaid the certificate of his elec- 
tion; the question arose in the minds of 
many, could a member take a seat without the 
evidence that he was dulj' elected ? Alfred 
Moore then arose and addressed the House. 

His manner of speaking, the melody of his 
-voice, the polished periods of his sentences, 
commanded the attention of all, while his 
argument and reasoning influenced their judg- 

There was no question of the fact that the 
member had been elected, and that he had 
lost or mislaid the certificate of the sheriff 
"holding the election. 

Mr. Moore traced the history of the mode 
of elections, as had existed from the founda- 
tion of the State, and also the mode in 
the Colonial period, that whenever the 
Governor called the Legislature, which body 
was composed of a Council, who were ap- 
pointed by the Crown to advise with the 
Governor, and the House, which was composed 
of members elected by the people from each 
county; he directed the Clerk of the Ci-OAvn or 
the Secretary to issue writs of election to each 
sherif}", to call together the people and to elect 
such number of names as the county was enti- 
tled to as members, and when executed and 
the election made, to endorse on said writ the 
names of the persons elected, and to transmit 
the said writ to the Clerk of the House or 
Crown or Secretary, as the case might be. 
This returii was filed and recorded. On the 
day appointed for the meeting of the Assem- 
bly, the endorsement was read by him, and 
the persons called and qualified. 

He further argued the person elected had no 
right to the custody of the certificate, no more 
than a party who sues out a writ. It was a 

part of the records of the court, and the party 
elected had no right to its possession. 

This able argument was more effective by 
the ornate and elegant manner with which it 
was delivered. 

No reply was attempted, and the member 
was unanimously admitted. 

This question, we are aware, has been since 
decided differently; (Ennet's Case, 1842,) but 
it was when party arose superior to patriot- 

It has been often my good fortune to hear 
Clay in his happiest moods, and Calhoun's 
powerful logic, and Webster in his massive 
eloquence, but neither of these excelled this 
extempore effort of Mr. Moore, whose powers 
as a speaker were only excelled by courtly 
elegance of manners and simplicity and mod- 
esty of demeanor. 

Mr. Moore was of a family long and well 
known for their integrity, their intellectual 
powers, and their devotion to the cause of 
liberty and law. 

This family is of Irish descent, and claim to 
belong to the Chiefs O'More. The ancestor 
in America was James, who came to Charles- 
ton and married, in 1665, a daughter of Gov. 
Yeamans, who was Governor of Carolina in 

He became Governor of Carolina in 1700, 
upon the death of Joseph Blake. He was 
supposed to be the grandson of Roger Moore, 
the leader of the Irish rebellion of 1641, and 
inherited the rebellious blood of his sire.* By 
his marriage with Miss Yeamans he had ten 

The eldest son, of the same name, was worthy 
of his father. He acquired military renown 
in his campaigns against the Indians. 

He, in 1703, marched to North Carolina to 

*See Hume's England. 
Money's Hist, of Ireland. 
Drake's Biograviliical Diet. 
Carrol's Collections of S. C. 
Davis at C. Hill, 26. 


subdue the Appalachian Indians, who had other than patriots, or to shrinic from any sac- 
done great mischief and murder in tliis (the rifice at tlie call of their country." In a dis- 
Cape Fear) section, and he completely sub- patch from Governor Bm-ringtou as early as 
dued them. February, 1735, he shows his instinctive dread 

He also commanded the forces sent by Gov. of such patriotic and pure-hearted men, and 

Charles Craven to succor the inhabitants, thus describes tliem: 

whose borders were ravaged by the Tuscaroras "About twenty men are settled at Cape 

in 1713, and many of theinhabitants massacred, Fear from South Carolina. Among these are- 

among them John Lawson, the first historian three brothers of a noted family, by the name 

of North Carolina. He was accompanied by of Moore. They are all of the set known by 

a strong force, and completely routed the sav- the name of 'the Goose Creel-: faction.' These- 

ages. A severe engagement near Snow Hill people were always \'ery troublesome in that 

in Greene County.* Government, and will be so, without doubt^ 

He remained in Xorth Carolina abcnit seven in this. Already I have been told they will 
months, when he returned home. Until 1693 spend a good deal of money to get me turned 
the two Provinces were together, and under out. Messengers are continually going to- 
one Governor. The renown gained in the Mosely and his crew, to and from them." Such 
Indian wars was well calculated to render Col. was the repulsion of the representative of 
Moore a favorite with the people. In 1719, royalty to the advocates of popular rights and 
when the quarrel between the people and the equal justice. 

Government occurred, true to the instincts of Colonel Maurice Moore, to whom we have 

his race, he was with the people, and was well already alluded as the younger brother 

qualified to be a leader in perilous and troubled of Governor James Moore, the second, was 

times. Robert Johnson was at this time the a soldier, brave, energetic and succesaful.- 

Royal Governor. The people proclaimed He had accompanied his brother in. his expedi- 

against him and deposed him 28th IStovember, tions to Northern Carolina, and was impressed 

1719, and with this proclamation went up the with tlie character of the country. He had 

expiring sighs of the Pi-oprietory Government, two years later commanded a troop of horse- 

and James Moore was elected by the peopile in the service of Eden, (Governor of North 

Governor. He was succeeded the same year, Carolina in 1713,) and marched to the Cape 

(1719) by Arthur Middleton, and as he dis- Fear to subdue the Indians, who \\-ere fierce- 

appears from South Carolina history it is prc^b- ami trouble.-iome in that section. As Governor 

able he came to Cape Fear.f Eden resided in Chov>'an, it is inferred that 

He never married. His younger brother, he first went there. Three years after his ex- 
Maurice, accompanied him in his campaigns pedition he vv'as co;icerned with Edward 
against the Indians. Mosel}- in sinne ni-atters of importance. He 

Such was the inviting character of this sec- is supposed by Martin to have settled upon 

tion, its genial soil and mild climate, that the Cape Fear about 1723. The dispatch al- 

many of the family settled on the Cape Fear, ready quoted of Governor Eurrington shows- 

Of these Mr. Davis was correct when he said " that three brothers liy the name of Moore 

" they inherited the rebellious stock of their were located, in 173-S, on the Cape Fear."" 

race; it was not in their luuue or blood to be These three brothers were Colonel Maurice 

Moore, Roger and Nathaniel. To these three 

*Johnson Traditions, 230; Davis's Address, 12. . , " , , , . , 

tMartin I 261. men is due the permanent settlement oi the 


Cape Fear. With these came others who ing tlie great riots at Hillsboro, in 1770, 

"Were distin.t^nished for their virtues and their when Judge Henderson fled, Jn.lo'e Howard 

valor, and were the germs of a no!)le colony, u'as driven from the Ijcnch, the iiouse of Colo- 

" They were," says Mr. Davis, "No needy ad- uel Fanning burned, and his person severely 

venturers, driven b}' necessity to seek a preca- chastised. Judge Moore was unnioiested. 

rions living in a wild and savage country, but He was chosen a memlier of the Provincial 

gentlemen of birth and education, bred to tlij Congress, at HilUboro, in 1778, and of the 

refinement of society, and bringiiigwitii them same at Halifax, in 1776, and materially aided 

ample fortunes, polished manners, and culti- in forming the State Constitutiiin. 

vated minds. He married Anne Grange, by whom he had 

Colonel Maurice Moore, the founder of the two cliildren, Alfred, born in 1755, of whom 

family, was the son of Governor James Moore v^-e shall write directly, and Sally, who mar- 

and Miss Yeamana, and left a family of several ried General Francis Nash, who fell at Ger- 

children. Among these were his eldest son, mantown, 1777. 

Judge Maurice Moore, judge under the Colo- He died the next year, on the loth of Janu- 

nial Government, a devoted advocate for pop- ary, 1777, at home, and by a wonderful coin- 

ular rights, and decided opponent of wrong cidence, at the sanie time, same hour iKarlv, 

and oppression. and at the same place in an adjoining room, 

He was a lawyer^and was so much esteemed died his distinguished brother, General James 

that he, with Richard Henderson and Martin Mooie. He was the son of Colonel Maurice 

Howard, constituted the judiciary of the Pro- Moore and Miss Porter. A soldier b}- his 

vince. He was appointed 1st of March, 1768, taste, by education and profession. He was 

associate justice. . devoted to the cause of his country, and con- 

This was no empty compliment or idle ser- sidered the fiirst military genius of his duv. 

vice. There wcvq five circuits at remote and He was carl}' trained to arms, and when 

almost inaccessible points; through bad roads Tr^-on met the Regulators at Alamance, in 

and worse accommodations, the judge had to 1771, Moore w;is one of his officers. 

travel eleven hundred miles to malce the cir- On the organization of the military forces 

cuit of these courts. of the St.ite, he was appointed colonel of the 

But, although he was apiiointed and dis- First Regiment of North Carolina on the Con- 

eharged judicial duties under the Crown, he tincntal establishment, by the State Congress 

was by no means the advocate of oppression, that met at liillsboro 'on August 21, 1775. 

He sympathized with the Regulators in their This was a high honor — to be preferred to 

sufferings, but did not sanction their violence. Colonel John Ashe and others to the com- 

He denounced the high-handed measures of maijd of the first regiment laised l>y the State. 

Governor Tryon, in a series of I ettei's signed He was employed in watching the enemy 

" Atticus," and showed the character of the on the Cape Fear, to prevent any junction of 

Governor in despicable colors. This so in- the forces of Clinton and Martin. When Cliu- 

censed the Governor, that in a dispatch, ton appeared in the river, the clans of Scotland 

dated 1766, he recommends " the removal of gatheied together to connect and co-operate- 

Judge Moore, and the appointment of Ed- with the forces of Clinton. Moore marched 

mund Fanning." But he continued on the his regiment to Cumberland County to pre- 

bench until the Revolution closeil tlie courts, vent this, and give them battle; but tliey 

He was a favorite with the people. i)ur- avoided the offer, only to meet another force. 



and experience a disastrous defeat at Moore's Nash,his brother-in-law, killed in battle. These 

Creek Bridge from Caswell and LiUlogton. calamities left a helpless family on his hands, 

On the departure of G-eneral Lee to the and he was forced by these untoward events 

north from Charleston, March, 1776, the Con- to resign. 

■tiiiental Congress promoted Moore to the His patriotism and his martial spirit, how- 
rank of brigadier general and commander in ever, did not allow him to be idle or inactive. 
chief of the Southern Department. He raised a troop of volunteers, and so greatly 

lie endeavored to discharge the duties of annoyed the enemy that Major Craig (after- 

this important station with fidelity, but his wards Sir James Craig, Governor-General of 

feeble health sunk under the duty, and he 
returned home, there to die. 

General James Moore married Anna Ivey, 
by whom he had four children, Duncan 
Moore, Janies Moore, Mrs. Swann, Mrs. 

Judge Alfred Moore (born 21st May, 1755; 
'died 10th October, 1810,) was the son of Judge 
Maurice Moore. He was sent to Boston to 
■acquire his education. While there he made 
hj his genial disposition many friends, and 
was offered a commission in the Royal Army. 
This was not accepted, but the presence of a 
large military- garrison and the friendship of 
one of its ottlcers, added to an inherited taste 
for the profession of arms, led him to acquire 
accurate knowledge of military tactics, which 
s ion was to be calleil into requisition in 
defense of his native laud. He returned home, 
and when all hopes of reconciliation were lost 
and contest commenced, the State Congress 
at Ilillsboro, in August, 1775, organized two 
regiments for the Continental establishment, 
he was commissioned as captain in the First 
Regiment, of which his uncle, James Moore, 
was the colonel. He marched with his com- 
mand to Charle.ston and was on duty there at 
the brilliant affair of Fort Moultrie, and 
evinced traits of cliaracter that ranked liim 
among the first captains of his day. 

But circumstances unforeseen and disastrous 
crowded heavily upon him. His father. Judge 
Maurice Moore, and his uncle both died the 
same daj'. His brother Maurice was killed 
by mischance at Brunswick. General Fi'ancis 

Canada,) when in possession of Wilmington, 
sent troops to Captain Moore's house, who 
plundered everything that was valuable, and 
destroyed the remainder. While the British 
were at Wilmington, his condition was de- 
plorable — without means, or even decent 
clothes, driven from his home and family, his 
property destroyed, yet no murmur of com- 
plaint was uttered by him; no abatement of 

Dear must that independence be, purchased 
at such a terrible price. After the battle of 
Guilford Court-house (15th March, 1781,) 
Captain Moore with others did good service 
in harrassing Lord Cornwallis in his march 
from Guilford to Wilmington. 

But the Vv'ar was soon to close. The Eng- 
lish were then on iheir march to Yorktown, 
which proved to be the Waterloo of the con- 

But it was not in the field, although he had 
done a soldier's duty with credit and gallantry, 
that Judge Moore's reputation was won, and 
which preserves his name to a grateful pos- 
terity. The General Assemblj' in 1782 elected 
him Attorney-General of the State, when it 
was known that he had never read a law book. 
This was done to alleviate, in a delicate man- 
ner, his immediate wants, and as some slight 
acknowledgment of gratitude forliis sacrifices 
and sufi'erings. His habits of industry and 
acute penetration soon supplied any deficiency. 
In the opinion. of the Supreme Court, in case 
of State vs. Geruigan,* he " discharged the 

*Judge Taylor's opinion in 3d Murphy Eep., 12. 


■arduous duties of the office for a series of years documents, by aid of Mrs. Harvey, one of the 

in a manner that commanded the admiration descendants. 

and gratitude of his contemporaries." A The capital towii of Brunswick County pre- 

clear perspicuity of niind, methodical accu- servos the name of Benjamin Smith, wlio was 

racy and pertinency of argument, a pleasing, im- governor of the State in 1810, and a sketch 

pi'essive and natural eloquence, distinguished of whom may be found in the history of 

his legal etforts. He soon arose to eminence. Xorth Carolina, vol. II, p. 49. 

In 1798 was called to the l>ench of Xorth Governor Smith was at one time immensely 

Carolina; the next year he was apipointed by wealthy, having large possessions on the Cape 

the President one of the Associate Justices of Fear river. His liberal donation to the Uni- 

the Supreme Court of the United States. He vei'sity in 1789, of 20,000 acres of land, proves 

held the elevated position for si.K years, with his friendship for learning. 

credit to himself and satisfaction to his col- His temper, "sadden and quick in quarrel," 

leagues and the nation. His health failing involved him in several duels. In on^^ of 

he resigned. He died in 183 at the house of them, with a man by the name ol' Leonard, 

Major VVaddell, in Bladen County, aged 55. he received the ball of his adversary in his hip. 

His private life was equally as interesting as which he carried to his grave, 

his brilliant public career. His manners grace- lie died in Smithville in February, 1829, 

ful and winning, threw a charm over his entirely penniless, and was buried the same 

domestic circle. His brilliant wit and his night he died by Major Wilson and Captain 

varied accomplishments, his gentle courtesy Frazier, of the United States army, under 

and unstinted hospitality, has, in the language the cover of the night, to prevent the sheriff 

of Mr. Davis, " handed his memory down to from levj-ing upon the dead body for debt, 

posterity as a finished model of a Xorth which was allowable in those days, that when 

Carolina gentleman." a c/t. sa. was levied, once levied on the body 

Judge Moore married Susan Eagles, and it could be kept out of the gi'ave in order to 

left four children; Maurice, colonel in war of force the friends to redeem it by satisfying 

1812; Alfred, with whom we opened this the claim in hands of the sheriif.* 

sketch of Brunswick County; Anna, who There are many other names connected 

married Hugh Waddell, senior, son of General with the earlj' history of this county, as 

Hugh Waddell, of the Kegulation war; Sally, Thomas Allen, Archibald McLaine, Roger 

unmarried. Moore, William Lord, Thos. Leonard, Wil- 

The best evidence of the high apprecia- liam R. Hall, Parker Quince, John Rowan, 

tion of the name and fame of Judge Alfred and others, well deserving of our remem- 

Moore, by the people of the State, is at this brance and record. 

time, 1878, there are two members of Con- It is hoped that some son of Brunswick 

grass, and hundreds of others in Xorth Caro- will gather together the rich materials before 

lina, who proudly bear his name as their they are forever lost, and present their lives 

patronomic, and who reverence his memory and services to posterity. A recent and 

and virtues. graphic sketch of Gov. Smith, from the pol- 

The genealogical diagram printed in the ished pen of President Battle, is well worth 

Appendix will explain the branches and de- preserving. 

scent of this distinguished family, and has 

, -1 1 -ii r 1 • , . . ^Letter from Wooclsides hotel, Smithville, to the 

been compiled with some care from historical "Observer," lialeigh, October 4, 1878. 



Benjamin Smith, Soldier, Statesman, Phi- 

'Near the mouth of the heautifnl Cape Fear 
river, on its right bank, is a pleasant little 
town. It is fanned by the delicious sea 
breezes; huge live oaks gratefully shade its 
streets. In its sombre cemeteiy repose the 
bodies of many excellent people. Its liarbor 
is good. It is on the niain channel of the 
river. From its wharves can be seen not far 
away the thin white line of waves as the}' 
break on the sandy beach. But the ships to 
and from its neighbor, Wilmington, pay lit- 
tle tribute as they pass and repass. Its chief 
fame is that it contains the court-house of the 
county of Brunswick. Its name is Smithville. 

Opposite this good old town is a desert 
island composed of undulating sand hills, with 
here and there occasional green fiats and 
dwarfed pines to relieve the general mon- 
otonj'. It is exposed to the full fur}' of the 
Atlantic storms. iNew Inlet once poured a 
rapid stream between the island and the 
mainland. But daring and industrious man 
seeks to force by walls of stone the impetuous 
floods through the river channel to the west, 
and thus float larger ships uji the river to the 
port of Wilmington. Its southern end forms 
the dangerous cape which Mr. George Davis 
so eloquently describes: 

"A naked, bleak elbow of sand jutting far 
out into the ocean. Immediately in its front 
are the Frj'ing Pan Shoals, pushing out still 
further twenty miles to sea. Together they 
stand for warning and for woe; and together 
they catch the hmg majestic roll of the At- 
lantic as it sweeps through a thousand miles 
of grandeur and power, from the Arctic toward 
the Gulf. It is the play-ground of billows 
and tempests, the kingdom of silence and 
awe, disturbed by no sound save the sea-gull's 
shriek, and the bi'eakers' roar. * * 

* There it stands, bleak and threaten- 
ing and pitiless, as it stood three Inindred 
years ago, when Greenville and Yv^hite came 
nigh unto death upon its sands. And there 
it will stand, bleak and threatening and piti- 

less, until the earth and sea shall give up their 
dead. And as its nature, so its name, is 
* * * the Cape of Fear." 

The name of the sandy reach which I have' 
described, so desolate, j'et so full of interest, 
is Smith Island. 

The University of North Carolina has amid 
its group of buildings, one, in its shape and 
portico and columns, imitating a Greek tem- 
ple. Its basement was until recently the 
home of the State Agricultural Experiment 
Station, which has done so much to protect 
our farmers from frauds, but now is the- 
laboratory of the professor of chemistrj', 
Aljove is a h)ng and lofty room containing 
the libraiy of the University. 

On its shelves are many ancient books of 
great value, but vacant spaces plead piteous!}' 
for new books in all the departments of lit- 
erature and science. The names of this build- 
ing is "Smith Hall." 

What member of the widely-spread family 
of Smiths has thus given his familiar name to- 
a county town, an island, and a University 
Hall? His Clii-istian name w;is Benjamin. 
He was an active oflacer of the lievolutimi 
and a Governor of our State, and the flrst 
benefactor of the University. 

Governor Smith had many vicissitudes of 
fortune. In his youth he was aide-de-camp of 
Washington in the dangerous but masterly 
retreat from Long Island after the defeat of 
the American forces. He behaved with con- 
spicuous gallantry in the brilliant action in 
which Moultrie drove the British from Port 
lioyal Island and checked for a time the in- 
vasion of South Carolina. A Charleston paper- 
of 1794 sa}'s, "he ga\-e on many oecasiona 
such various proof of activity and distin- 
guished bravery as to merit the approbation 
of his impartial country." After the strong 
Union superseded the nerveless Confederacy, 
when there was danger of war with France 
or England, he was made general of militia. 


and wlien later, on account of insults and the offering of .a generous heart ami a wise 

injuries of France, our Goverimicnt made head, which knew well that liberty could not 

preparations for active hostilities, the entire be preserved without education — that ignor- 

militia of Brunswick County, ofHcers and men, ance must be slaiu or vice will lie the ruler of 

roused to enthusiasm hj an address from him our laud. 

full of energy and fire, volunteered to follow Generation after generation grew up and 

his lead in the legionary corps raised for ser- passed away. Year- after year j-oung men. 

vice against the enemy. The confidence of their mental armor supplied and burnished 

his countrymen in his wisdom and integrity through his wisdom and liberality, went 

was shown by their fifteen times electing him from the University walls to become sources 

to the Senate of the State. From this post of good influence in all our land, from the 

lie was chosen by the General Assembly as Potomac to the Rio Grande. The institution 

our Chief E.xecutive in 1810, when war with he loved so well, after manj- vicissitudes of 

England was constantly expected, and by trials aud sufferings, had become wealthy and 

large numbers earnestl}" desired. The charter prosperous. iS^earlyfive hundred matriculates 

of the University was granted in 1789. The every j-ear entered their names on its roll to 

trustees were the great men of that day — tlie partake <if its instruction. The revered donor 

leaders in war and in peace. had drunk to its dregs the cup of bitterness. 

Of this band of eminent men, Benjamin His too generous disjiosition and misplaced 

Smith was a \\'orthy meralier. He is entitled confidence in others had dcj'rived him of his 

to the signal honor of being the first benefac- wealth. His once strong and vigoreius body 

tor of the infant institution, the leader of the had been wasted b^' disease and racked by 

small corps of liberal supporters of education pain. In poverty and in wi'etchedness he had 

in North Carolina. For that reason alone his long since sunk into his grave under the weep- 

nanie should be revered by all the long line of jng moss of the great swamp trees. Sixty 

students who call the University- their Alma years after his generous gift the trustees of 

Mater — by everyone who desires the eulight- the University honored themselves by bestow- 

ennient of our people. ing his name on a beautiful structure devoted 

The Trustees met, for organization, in Fay- to literature and to science. The sacrifices of 

etteville, on Is^oveniber loth, 1790, choosing as the old hero were not in vain. His monument 

their chairman Colonel William Lenoir, the is more enduring than marble or brass. Cen- 

Speaker of the Senate. General Smith glad- turies will come and go. Men's fortunes will 

dened these hearts by the munificent donation wax and wane. But the blessings of the gift 

of patents for twenty thousand acres of land of Benjamin Smith nearly a hundred years 

in Western Tennessee. A large portion of ago will never cease, and his name will keep 

them was a gift to him for his gallant services gxeen forever. 


during the dark hours of the Kevolutiun. Kemp P. Battle. 

They were the price of liberty. They wer« 





Buncombe worthily preserves to all time 
the name of Edward Buncombe, a patriot and 
a soldier, who served his eountrj' faithfully, 
and who gave up his life in her defence, a more 
minute account of whom is presented in the 
sketch of the men of Tyrrell County, of which 
he was a resident. 

There is perhaps no section of the State 
more familiar by name, and less known abroad. 
" Talking for Buncombe " has become as 
familiar as n household word, not only in 
our own native, but has pervaded other 
countries.* This slang phiiise had this origin. 
Some years ago the member in Con- 
gress from this district t arose to address the 
House on acpaestion of local importance; some 
of the members left the Hall, which he ob- 
serving, very naively said to those remaining, 
that the}' might go too ; as he should speak 
for some time and was only "talking for Bun- 

Ample materials for description of the lovely 
sceneiy and the genial climate, the fertile soil, 
and its gold giving ore, exist, but these are 
not germane to our object; it is of the men of 
Buncombe only we propose to write. 

Many of the earlier inhabitants and pioneers 
of this lovely region of the State we are com- 
pelled to pass over. It were a pleasing duty 
to dwell upon tlie c'lai'acter and services of the 
Alexanders; the Barnetts, (the first men that 
ever piloted a wagon over the mountains;) 
The Beards, Readon and Zebulon; Thomas 
Case, (who died in 184',1, aged 82," who lived 
longer, easier and heartier, and loft more de- 
scendants than any man of his day;") the 
Davidsons; the Ediieys; the Lovvries; the 

li'wins; the i'attons, (especially James, who 
died 1845, aged 90, the founder of the Warm 
Springs;) Rev. Humphrey Posey; James Mc- 
Smith, the first white child born in the State 
west of Blue Ridge; and many others. 

We leave these for some son of Buncombe as 
indicated b}' Hon. George Davis, " who shall 
gird up his loins to the task, with unwearied 
industry and unflinching devotion to the honor 
of his dear old mother." 

David Lowry Swain, born 4th of January, 
1801; died 27th of August, 1868. 

Few men have lived in l^orth Carolina who 
have made a deeper or more lasting impres- 
sion on her histoiy than the subject of our 
present sketch. 

Without fortune or thorough education, or 
any personal advantages, but by his own in- 
trinsic merits, his unspotted character and 
sterling virtues, he was called on to fill the 
highest offices in the State. 

If his education was, from his limited cir- 
cumstances, not complete, he was blessed with 
an unquenchable thirst for knowledge, habits 
of unremitting labor that was never satisfied 
until it exhausted a question, and a powerful 
memory. He remained a short time (1821) 
at the University, "but he did not need, (as 
Johiison says of Shakespeare,) the spectacles 
of books to study the great works of nature or 
the character of men." He was a student all 
his life. Truly— 

lie sought rich jewels 

* Attache iu England, by Judge Ilallibuvton. 

t General Felix Walker was member iu the House of 
Representatives from the Buncombe District from 
1817 to 1823. 

From the dark caves of knowledge, 
To win his ransom from from tliose twin jailors of the 
daring heart, 
Low birth and iron fortune 

and so successfully did he labor, that at the 
time of his death he had no superior iu the 


■coiantry iipou the science of Constitutional licitor of the Edenton District, and rode this 

law, moral science, or political economy.* circuit only once, when he resigned. In 1830 

His ancestors were English. His father, he was a member of the Board of Internal 

George Swain, was a native of Roxboro, Mas- Improvements, and was active in prumotiug 

sachusetts, (born 1763.) He came South and the best interests of the State. In the winter 

settled in Georgia. He was a man of mark of this year he was elected Judge of the Su- 

and influence. He was a member of the con- perior Court of Law and Equity, 

v-ention that revised the Constitution of In December, 1835, he was culled to the 

Georgia, and served in the Legislature for presidency of the University. Here was his 

five years. His health failing, he moved to proper element, and here he spent the best 

the health-giving climate of Buncombe, and 3'ears of his life, (till 1868.) 

was manj- years postmaster at Asheville. He "Xever," says his able biographer, Governor 

married Mrs. Caroline Lowry, svidow of Cap- Vance, " did a Grecian philosopher gather 

tain Lowry, (who had been killed by the In- around him his disciples with more pride and 

diaus,) and the daughter of Jesse Lane, of delight than did Governor Swain. In the 

Wake County, who was the grandfather of midst of his three or four hundred 'buys' 

General Joseph Lane, of Oregon, and Governor who annuall}- surrounded him at Chapel Hill, 

Swain; by her Mr. Swain had seven children, he was entirely at home and happy, and such 

all now dead. society was the charm of his life. His 

Governor Swain was born, as stated, in knowledge was encyclopedic in its range, es- 

1801, at Asheville. His earl^' education was pecially in English literature. So overwhelm- 

conducted by Rev. George Xewton and Rev. ing were liis stores, that the writer remembers 

E. M. J'orter. He often referred in gratitude with grateful pleasure, when forgetting alto- 

to their patient labors, and they were proud gether the subject on hand he wouhl stand up 

of their diligent pupil. His father was ambi- in front of his class, and in an outgush of elo- 

tious for him. He taught his son early to quence, poetry, history, anecdote and humor, 

choose only good society, and to aim at e.xcel- wrap us fill as with encliantment. His 

lence in whatever pursuit he followed. After most remarkable trait of mind was his power- 

his early education was completed he came (in ful memory, and the direction in which that 

1821) to Raleigh, where he entered the law faculty was notably exercised, was in biogra- 

office of Hon. John Louis Taylor, and was ad- phy and genealogy. In this particular he had 

mitted to the bar in 1823. no superior in America. A youth coming to 

On the 12th of January following, he mar- college needed no letter of introduction. Not 

ried Eleanor White, daughter of William only was it so in his own State, but from the 

White, late Secretarj- of State, and the grand- most distant Southern and Southwestern States 

daughter of Governor Caswell. He then re- it was the same. Knowing all the principal 

turned to his mountain home, and commenced families of the Southern Atlantic States, he 

the practice of law with great success. took note of their migrations westward; and 

In lS24-'25-'26-'28 and '29 he was a mem- when their sons returned East for education 

her of the Legislature from Buncombe County, he would generally tell them more of their 

During this period (1827) he was elected So- family history than they knew before. 

" Amazed at his display of this genealogical 

* These were the subjects of which he was Professor history," Governor Vance continues, he once 

in ihe University, and upon which he delivered lee- r. 11 

tures. asked him, " Don't you. Governor, know when 



every man of iS^orth Carolina cut his eye teeth?" 
'' Oh no," said he, " but I know very well 
when you, sir, had the measles." 

" Thus for a period of an ordinary lifetime 
(33 years) he devoted himself to the highest 
and noblest service to his State and country 
in training the future statesmen, jurists and 
divines of our country. Eternity alone can 
reveal the influence wliich he thus indirectly 
exerted on the intelligence and morals of 
society; not only of his native State, but of 
all that vast region known as the South and 
Southwest, where his pupils filled every pos- 
sible place of honor, trust or profit. He pre- 
ferred to tread the noiseless tenor of his way 
in the quiet paths of science and philanthropy 
than those of political ambition. The plaudits 
of statesmanship, the renown of tlie warrior, 
had no charms for him. He felt truly — 

The warrior's name 

Tho' jiealed and chimed on every tongue of fame, 
Sounds less harmonious to tlie grateful mind, 
Than he who fashions and improves mankind. 

" As an. author," continues Governor Vance, 
" with all his stores of knowledge, and his 
great capacities, he left but little for posterity 
to judge and admire. His literary reputation 
is confined to those who were his cotempo- 
raries, and such traditions as affection and 
friendship may preserve. Many fragmentary 
articles from his pen and lectures exist; some 
of which are preserved in the University 
Magazine, relating chiefly to North Carolina 
history. He had collected a considerable 
amount of historic material, and it was ex- 
pected that he would have left a work on that 
subject as a legacj^ to his countrymen. His 
age, the troubled times, and an aversion to 
continued systematic labor, doubtless pre- 
vented him." ' ' ■ ' 

A vast number of rich traditiotis of the early 
times and the men of Carolina were locked 
up in the vast stores of his memory; the 
key to which is buried with him. Yet he was 
ever forward and ready to aid other laborers 

in the historic field. As Caruthers, Wiley, 
Wheeler, and Hawks could testify'. He materi- 
ally aided me in my poor efforts in this re- 
spect, and in gratitude to him I dedicated my 
" Historjr of North Carolina." 

At his suggestion and request, with a letter 
from Governor Vance, in 1863 I visited Eng- 
land, and spent all my time in the Eolls Of- 
fice collecting material from the original re- 
cords as to the early history of North Carolina. 

But his name could not have received any 
additional lustre than it already enjoyed. 

His fame will forever rest upon the success 
with which he conducted the University of the 
State. When he went to Chapel Hill there 
were not ninety students. In 1860 there were 
nearly five humlred. He determined to make 
its influence powerful, and he succeeded. It 
was by intuitive perception of character, 
gentle l>ut firm administration of authority, 
and high consideration and gentlemanly treat- 
ment of his pupils. In the classic halls of the 
University he never assumed the commanding 
and repellant attitude of a " Jupiter Tonans,'-' 
but like the course of the Apollo, leading by 
graceful manners and gentle words his admir- 
ing votaries. 

But the unhappy internecine war came — the 
call for men and arnjs to defend the homes 
and hearths of the South was heard, and the 
gallant youths of the University obeyed the- 
call. Of the class of I860,* everyone, (with- 
perhaps a single exception,) entered the ser- 
vice, and more than a fourth of the entire 
number now fill a soldier's grave. Every ex- 
ertion was used by Governor Swain to pre- 
serve the University. It was owing to his ex-- 
ertions that the conscript law, " that robbed 
alike the cradle and the grave," was not 
rigidly enforced, and when the Federal army 
took possession of Chapel Hill in 1865, a few 
students were still there. In order to avert 

* "Last Ninety Days of the War" hy Cornelia Phil- 
lips Spencer, Mew York, 1866, 27(i. 


from the institution the fate of all others I procured for him the desired permit, and 

Ij-int? in the route of a conquering army, Gov. together we went to the Carroll Prison, where 

Swain was appointed by Gov. Vance one of we met in the same place the Governors of 

the commissioners to General Sherman to pre- three sovereign States "in durance vile," 

serve the Capital and University. Gov. Vance, Gov. Brown, of Virginia, and 

After the war he visited New York and Gov. Letcher, of Virginia. The cause of the 

Washington to interest northern capitalists as visit of Gov. Swain to Washington at this 

to the financial condition of the University, time (20th May, 1865,) was an invitation from 

and was greatly instrumental in securing the the President of the United States, Andrew 

land scrip donated by Congress for agricul- Johnson, extended also to B. F. Moore, and 

tural schools. William Eaton, to consult in regard to" Recon- 

But the election of 1868 adopted the new struction of the Union." 

Constitution, and destroyed what war had This was no idle compliment. The country 

spared. The doors of the University was had just ended a long, exhausting ami dcso- 

closed by negro troops, and with the vener- liating war. The President, Lincoln, had iieen 

able president, fell, unw ept, without a crime, murdered by an assassin; every branch of 

" This was the Unkindest cut of all." This industry was paralyzed; the commerce of 

unexpected blow completely prostrated Gov. a nation destroyed, and confusion and 

Swain ; his energies seemed subdued, and he dismay pervaded every section. Thaf. the 

seemed suddenly to grow old, losing all his President should call from their homes men 

vivacity and elasticity. who had never figui'ed in the field or the 

The able tribute to the memory of Gov. forum, but only known as pure, honorable and 

Swain by his life-long friend Gov. Vance conscientious men, was evidence of his sagacity 

evinces the deep affection of the latter, which and of tlieir high character, 

has been so liberally drawn on, and this feel- They met the President on 22d May, 1865, 

ing was fully reciprocated by "his gentle, at his office in the Treasui-y. Neither of them 

patriotic, and distinguished preceptor." personally knew the President, and I intro- 

In a letter which I received from Gov. duced them. I tlieu was about to retire when 

Swain when at West Point as one of the board the President requested me to remain and 

of visitors to the United States Military Acad- participate in the consultation. No questions 

emy at that place, dated 16th June, 1865, he of more vital importance to the South since 

writes thus: the foundation of the Government were ever 

" I have been detained here much longer than i^scussed. All of those who participated in 

I expected; I cannot leave earlier than Mon- that conference have gone. No account has 

day next, and be in Washington on Wednes- ever been published of their deliberations. 

day. I will be very anxious to see Gov. ^j, ■,. .• ..i 4. i ^ t t <. -.u t- i 

\T „ Axr;n ;+ . ^4- 1,' ; 4. 1 i. • 1 roni my diary ot that date i extract the tol- 

Vanee. Will it :;ot be m your power to obtain _ ■^ ■' 

for me permission from the War Depart- lowing: 

raent to do so, in anticipation of my arrival ? 

I have been hoping constantly to liear of his '' S'lturtl'ii/, 20th May, 1865. — Mr. A. G. 

receiving permission to I'eturn home. Please Allen, editor of the National Intelliyencer, met 

write to me immediately to New York. I me on the street and informed me that Gov. 

will probably have on\y a day to spend in Wash- Vance, of our State, had been brought to the 

ington, and during that day I must see Gov. city, a prisoner of war, and that I might do 

Vance good by going to see him, and that Gov. Swaiu 

" I remain very truly yours, was at the Ehbitt House and wished to see me. 

" i). L.- Swain." I went to the Ebbitt House and found Got. 



S. and William Eaton, jr. Gov. S. aceompa- 
iiiecl nie home. I sent foi- his liaggage, as he 
wishes to be more quiet than at the hotel. 
He, with Messrs. Eaton and Moore, are here, 
invited by tlie President to advise measures to 
restore Korth Carolina to the [Jnion. 

" Sundio/, 21si M'l)/. — Gov. S. accompanied 
me to chui'c. Di'. J.'inckuey preached. 

" In evening, at request of Gov. S. and Mr. 
Moore, I called on the Piesident and made 
.arrangements for their meeting at 2. p. m. 

^'Moriiliy, 'I'M May. — Gov. Swain engaged 
in writing, preparing for tlie conference with 
the President. 

"At 2 I we:it with him and Messrs. Moore ■ 
and E;iton to the President's office and intro- 
duced them. Mr. Thomas and General Mussey, 
of Lewisbur.;-, were with him. 

"After introducing them I arose ti) retire, 
when the President again desired me to remain. 
A conference deeply interesting in all its de- 
' tails occurred. 

"The President directed his Secretary to 
read a proclamation which he proposed to 
issue, and an amnesty to certain classes by 
which Is orth Carolina was to be restored to the 
Union. He invited a frank, free, and open 

"Mr. Moore, with much decision, earnestness, 
and courage, denounced the plan, especially as 
to the classes wlio were to be exempted from 
pardon. The plan, he alleged, was illegal, and 
he denied the power of the President to issue 
it. Pie deinauded of him where in the C.)n- 
stitution or Laws he found such power. The 
President replied 'that by IV' Art., 4 Sec, the 
United States shall gitarantee to every State 
a Republican form of Government, &c. ' 
'True,' replied Mr. Moore, 'but the Presi- 
dent is not the United States.' 

"As to exempting from all pardon, or requir- 
ing all perdons owning a certain umouiit of 
property to be pardoned, was simply ridicu- 
lous. You might as well s ly that every man 
who had bread and meat enough to feed his 
family was a traitor, and must be pardoned.' 
Mr. Moore continued in that same caustic 
manner, to examine other points of the pro- 
clamation, and specially the appointment of a 
Governor by the President, averring that the 
President had no such power. He tiually sug- 
gested to the President to meddle as little as 
possible with the State, that she was able to 
take care of herself by aid of her own citi- 
zens; that his plan was to let the Legislature 
be called, which, as the Governor was a pris- 

oner, tlie Speakers of the Legislature could 
do; then the Legislature would authorize the 
people to call a Convention, who could repeal 
the Secession Ordinance of the 20th of .Nlay, 
1861, and thus restore good correspondence 
with the Union, with the riglitsof the State un- 
impaired and her dignity respected. The 
President listened with much attention, and 
bore with great dignity the fiery phillipics 
of Mr. Moore. 

" Governor Swain, in a long and temperate 
speech, but with much earnestness, advocaced 
the plan of Mr. Moore, lie detailed circum- 
stances of much interest before unknown, 
illustrative of his course, and that of Gov- 
ernoi's Graham and Vance. He read several 
letters from Governor Graham. 

" The President stated ' that he appreciated 
the able views and the frank enunciations of his 
friends, but still thought that the Provisional 
Governor should be appointed by the United 
States; that the Pi'esident was the Executive 
Officer of the United States, and therefore, 
the Governor, he thought, should be appointed 
by him. He did not seem much inclined to 
give any ground. As it was then half-past six 
o'clock he adjourned the Conference to meet 
again on Thursday next at 2 p. m.' " 

" Thursdai/, 2bth May, 1865. * * * 

" At 2 o'clock I went with Governor Swain 
to the President's house,; we found Messrs. 
Moore and Eaton, and also W. W. Holden. 
R. P. Dick, Richard Mason, J. P. H. Rnssi 
Richardson, Rev. Mr. Skinner, l)r. Robt. J. 
Powell, and Colonel Jones. The President 
laid before us the Amuestj^ Proclamation, by 
which he proposed to restore the State of 
Xorth Carolina to the Union, a Military Gov- 
ernor to be appointed by the President, who 
should proceed forthwith to organize the 
State Government; direct the people to call a 
Convention, appoint Judges, officers, &c. 

" The President further stated that the 
name of the person as Governor was [mrposely 
left blank in the proclamation, and requested 
that we should select some name, and that 
whoever we selected he would appoint. The 
President then retired. 

." Governor Swain stated that it was a pre- 
ferable mode to him, and more in accordance 
with the laws of Xorth Carolina, that the Con- 
vention should be called by the Legislature., 
which could be summoned by the Speaker of 
the Senate, or they miglit meet of their own 
accord. But the President was unwilling to 
trust that body. 

" Mr. Eaton declared himself opposed to the 



appointment of Governor by the President; 
that he was onl^Mnvited for advice and con- 
ference, and not for making ofnces, and that 
he would not unite in any recommendation of 
any one for this, or anj' other office. 

"It was then proposed to organize the 
meeting, and on motion of Dr. Powell, Mr. 
Moore was called to the chair. 

" Mr. Moore said he concurred in the saga- 
cious views of Mr. Eaton, and declined to take 
the chair. He, with Grovernor Swain and 
Eaton, retired to another room." 

" Dr. Powell then moved that Colonel J. P. 
li. Euss be appointed chairman, which was 
carried, and on motion of Dr. Powell, the 
name of W. W. Holden was inserted as Gov- 

" The President was then sent-for, who came 
in and seemed gratified at the salection. 

" The part}^ then dispersed. 

" The i-'resident gave Governor Swain and 
myself permits to visit Governor Vance in 

" Friday, 2Qih May, 1865. "' * * 

" * * Governor Swain and myself rode 
to Carrol Prison where we saw Govei-nor 
Vance, Governor LetcVier, and Governor 
• Brown confined in the same place. Governor 
Vanes was in good spirits and liealth. 

" Governor Corwin, of Ohio, also called to 
see Governor Vance, and denounced the out- 
rage of imprisoning hi.m without process of 
law and without crime, three Governors of 
sovereign States confined together, and he 
promised Vance that he should use every etfort 
to get him out. Which pledge he nobly re- 

" He asked Vance, 'for what crime was he 
imprisoned ?' 

" Vance replied, ' he did not know,' 'un- 
less that Governor Holden, who had voted for 
the Ordinance of Secession in Couventioi),and 
had pledged the last man and the last dollar, 
and failed to redeem his pledge, and now he, 
Vance, was his securit}', and had to suffer.' 

" We remained with Gov. Vance more than 
an hour, when we returned to m^^ house. 

"As weather was rainy and disa.greeable, 
Gov. Swaiu remained within doors, and we 
conversed on historical matters, andthe stirring- 
events of the last few days, of which he fore- 
bodes much evil. 

" I read, at his request, my diary," (as above 

" He asked for a copy, as he thought it con- 
cise and correct, to send to Mrs. S." 

The memories of these times cannot but be 
interesting, as showing the prominent part 
that Gov. Swain bore in these eventful scenes, 
and the sad condition of affairs. They have 
never been published. 

Gov. Swain, after visiting New York, re- 
turned home with feelings of depression and 

Hoping to restore tone to his mind and body, 
before taking a final leave of Chapel Hill, he 
was preparing for a visit to his native moun- 
tains of Buncombe. On the 11th August, 
l'?6S, riding in an open bugg}', his horse took 
fright, ran away, and threw him with violence 
to the ground. He was carried home in a 
bruised coudiiion. No one thought iiim seri- 
ously injured; I)ut his hour had come. On 
27th August he fainted away, and without a 
struggle or groan passed from time to eter- 

Gov. S. married, 12th January, 182-1, as 
previously stated, Eleanor, daughter of Wil- 
liam White, Secretary of State, (1778 to 1811 ,) 
and granddaughter of Gov. Richard (yaswell. 
His widow now resides in Raleigh. A daugh- 
ter, who married General Aiken (in 1865,) of 
Illinois, where she now resides. Gov. S.'s re- 
mains are interred at Raleigh. 

We have now finished, from authentic 
sources, an account of the sei'vices of David 
L. Swain, of which his State may well be 
proud. In his public as well as his private 
character, there was much to admire atid to 

As a statesman and politician he was pat- 
liotic, yet conservative and cautious. Rather 
a believer in St. Paul's advice, if it be possi- 
ble, live in peace with all men — almost verg- 
ing on the practice of the good saint of — 

Being all things to all men. 

He certainly never was intolerant or vindic- 
tive. In the early days of the Republic he 
would have been a Federalist; in the log cabin 



age, he was a "Whig; and to his last daA^s a 
Union man. 

As a Christian he was the admirer of piety 
and virtue in any sect. He would say " my 
father was a Presbyterian elder and my mother 
a Methodist; Bishop Asbury blessed me when 
a child, the Presbyterians taught me, and 
Humphrey Posey, a Baptist, pra^'ed for me. I 
was brought up to love all good Christians." 

He was for years a conmmnicant of the 
Presbyterian church, and gave largely to its 
support. He was careful of money; economi- 
cal in his ex}jenses, punctual and iirecise, and 
faitliful to his promises; simple in his habits 
and dress. He was little blessed b}' nature in 
personal appearance. " Certainly," saj'S Gov- 
ernor Vance, " no man owed less to adventi- 
tious aids. His voice was peculiar and harsh; 
in person he was exceedingly- ill formed and 
uncouth; his knees smote together in a most 
nnmilitarj' manner." 

But his countenance redeemed his pei'son, 
and one may say as did Hamlet of his father — 

See what grace was seated on this brow ! 

A combiniitiou and a form indeed. 
Where every God did seem to set liis seal 
To give the world assurance of a Man. 

A recent writer (Dalton ) on a "Few Hours 
at Poplar Mount," has recorded of Governor 
Swain some appropriate remarks from his life 
long friend; Hon. Weldon N. Edwards, that 
should be more permanently preserved: 

" With Gov. Swain a vast store of historical 
and other information was bui-ied, perhaps 
beyond the possibility of resurrection. 

"There is no one left to us who can fill his 

"He was wrapped up in the University, and 
it was a serious blow to the State when the 
practised and learned faculty was broken up 
bj' political interference and partisan malice. 
It was a grievous fault :\Jid a blunder not to 
be tolerated in any party. 

"I have heard many of the friends of Gov. 
Swain state that he became melancholj' and 
began to droop away on the termination of 
his duties as President of the University, and 
they believed a broken heart was as much the 

real cause of his death as the fall from his car-- 
riage. He felt 'the last link was broken' that 
united his heart and hopes to all earthly 
objects. The whole manner of the man was 

"His step was tottering and slow; his mas- 
sive frame was bowed down in grief. His 
countenance, so wonted to be lifted up in 
smiles and playful wit, had already settled 
into the stern realit}' of the impending gloom- 
and of perpetual silence. 

"It was thus I met for the last time this 
distinguished man. He said: 'My friend, since 
I last saw j'ou my connection with the Uni- 
versity has been brought to a close; it was a 
trial I dreaded.' 

"What he suffered can only be known to the 
Great Searcher of all human hearts. There has 
never been a parallel case of injustice, prejudice 
and folly. It was a blow aimed at education, 
science, and civilization, and society; to Gov- 
ernor Swain it M'as malignant parricide, and 
its baleful effects were felt throughout the 
Commonwealth. Col. Venable, tire distin- 
guished and learned head of the University of 
Virginia, when this 8ul)ject was, soon after its 
occurrence, discussed, declared that there was 
no Governor of Virginia, not excepting Pier- 
point, who would exhibit a control similar to 
that of our Governor over the University of 
North Carolina." 

But another era has dawned on this vener- 
able institution, and we trust that it will soon 
regain its pristine prosperity. 

Connected with Gov. Swain and Professor 
Mitchell of the University was Rev. James 
Phillips, D. D. He was a native of England, 
born at Nevenden, Essex County, in 1792. His 
father was a Minister of the Church of Eng- 

He came to America in 1818 with an elder 
brother, Samuel A. Phillips, and engaged in 
the profession of teaching at Harlem, where 
he had a flourishing school. In 1826 he was 
appointed Professor of Mathematics and Nat- 
ural Philosophy in the University of North 
Carolina, then in his 34th year. For forty 
years he labored to impress broad and deep 
the elements of science and knowledge; how 
faithfully that duty was performed many now 
alive can testify. As his life was useful so 



his death waa sudden and unexpected. On 
the morning of the 14th of March, 1867, he 
set out to the chapel to officiate at morning 
prayers. The weather was tempestuous ; 
he ventured forth and took his seat behind 
the reading desk. The first student who en- 
tered the chapel after the bell commenced 
ringing bowed and spoke to him. The salu- 
tation not being returned, as was hie wont, the 
student advanced toward him and saw him 
falling from his seat, and soon he was ex- 
tended on the iioorin an apoplectic fit. Doctor 
Mallet was sent for, but in a few moments life 
was extinct. Such was the end of this excel- 
lent and useful man. lie k4t three children: 
Rev. Charles Phillips, D. D., Professor in Uni- 
versity; Hon. Samuel F, Phillips, Solicitor 
General of the United States; Mrs. Cornelia 
I'hillips Spencer. 

Hon. Samuel Field Phillifis, LL. D., son of 
Professor James Phillips, a sketch of whom we 
have just presented,was born at Harlem, X. Y., 
February 18, 1824. He was carefully educated, 
and graduated at the University in 1841, one 
of a distinguished class of which he took the 
first honors, and iu which was Governor John 
W. Ellis, Judge Wm. J. Clarke, Professor 
Charles Phillips, John F. Hoke, Robert 
Strange, and others. 

He i cad law with Governor Swain and en- 
tered the profession with ni(.ist flattering pros- 

He was elected a member of the House of 
Commons from Orange in 18o2, with John 
Berry, Senator Josiah Turner, B. A. Durham 
and J. F. Lyon — and this comjiliment was 
more appreciable, as the county had presented 
a formidable majority against the Whig party, 
to which he belonged. He was again elected 
in 1854, 1864, and 1865, at which latter ses- 
sion he was chosen Speaker of the House.* 

* He was a member of the Constitutional Convention 
of IbO's and the lieporter of the Keports of the 
Supreme Court from 1866 to 1S71. 

But politics was not his appropriate sphere, 
and he retired from its exciting arena to the 
more germane pursuits of his profession. He 
removed to Raleigh and formed a law part- 
nership with Hon. A. S. Merrimon. This able 
firm enjoyed a full share of practice. He was 
unexpectedly to himself and others, in 1870, 
nominated by the Republican Convention as 
Attorney General of the State. Hon. Wm. 
M. Shipp was elected; this was the subject of 
no regret to Mr. Phillips, for it left him oppor- 
tunity to pursue unintei'ruptedly the practice 
of his profession. When Judge Settle resigned 
on the Supi'eme Court Bench, Mr. Phillips 
was tendered and declined this high position. 
In December, 1871. he was confirmed b}- 
the Senate as Solicitor General of the United 
States, which position he now holds, with 
credit to himself and confidence to the 

Pie married Fanny, the granddaughter of 
Governor David Stone, by whom he has an 
interesting family. 

Connected with the favorite and laborious 
portions of the life of Governor Swain, as 
President of the University, it is but proper 
to notice Elisha Mitchell, D. D., Professor of 
Chemistry, ]\Iineraliigy and Geology. He was 
a native of Connecticut, born in 1793. He 
graduated at Tale college in 1803, in the same 
class with George E. Badger and Thomas P. 
Devereux. In 1818, by the influence of Judge 
Gaston, he was appointed to a Professorship 
in the University with Professor Olnistead, 
also a graduate of Yale. 

For more than an ordinary lifetime, he 
served the institution with fidelity and zeal, 
and his pupils acknowledge to this day his 
learning and patience. He waa not idle in va- 
cations, but extended his surveys and re- 
searches in every direction. No stream or 
mountain, no coal field, or g(dd, or other min- 
eral mine, escaped his acumen. He was the 
first to determine by barometic measurement 



that the Bhicl^: mountains were higher than 
the White nionntains in ITew Hampshire, and 
his name is borne by its loftiest summit. A 
eontroversy arose betweeii Dr. Mitchell and 
Mr. Clingman, in regard to this highest peak, 
and in 1857, Dr. Mitchell again visited that 
niontitain for the pui-pose of verifying his 
former measurement. On the 27th June, he 
dismissed his son Charles, who was his only 
assistant, and requested him to return on 
Mondiiy and renew this survey; he said that 
he would cro:i? the great range and descend 
into the valley on the other side. He never 
was seen again alive. His body was found 
below a pre, i pice in a pool of water about 14 
feet deep, over which he had fallen and in 
which he had perished. 

Following the imperfect sketch of Governor 
Swain, we take up that of his pupil and his 
lite long friend, Zebulon Baird Vance. 

The family is of Irish origin. From " An 
Account of the Famih/ of Vance in Ireland," 
by Wm. Balburuie, printed at Cork, 18(30, we 
extract the following: 

" The next of the family proceeding from 
Dougal, is named William, who was located 
at Aughavid, Bally dug, Tyrone. His will is 
dated 19th April, 1713. He left four sons. 
One of these, David, went to America, and 
fon.ght under Washington. ( P;ige 31.) 

" I now return to the eldest son, John. ' He 
married and had four sons and three daughters. 
One of the<e daughters married Andrew 
Jackson, of Mahrai'elt, who emigrated to 
America, and there g;i,ve birth to Andrew 
Jackson, late President of the United States, 
of whom it is written 'that he v\'as the brav- 
est soldier, the wisest statesman that ancient 
01' modern history- has ever recorded.' 

" Another son was in the Aaiei'ican war, 
and was killed in battle. A descendant of 
his w;is a meoil)er of Congress from North 
Carolina in 1824."* ( Page 35. ) 

Wijatever credit may be given to this state- 
ment, (and there could be no object in the 
writer to violate the truth,) our own records 

show that the grandfV.ther, David Vance, was 
born near Winchester, Va., and came to North 
Carolina before the Revolutionary war, and first 
settled on the French Broad river; that when 
Lord Cornwallis sent a strong force under Colo- 
nel (or Major) Patrick Ferguson, and endeav- 
ored to win by force of arms or blandishments 
of art the people of Western Carolina to the 
Royal cause, that Vance joined McDowell, who 
led the Burke and Rutherford boys to battle, 
and under the gallant lead of Cleavelaud, 
Sheliij'', and others, who attacked Ferguson on 
King's Mountain, kilted him, and completel}^ 
routed his army. We shall speak more of this 
battle when we retich Cleavelaud County; of 
its gallant aciiievement and important results. 
It was the turning point of the Revolution, 
and was the cause of American success. 

At this time the whole South lay prostrate 
before the arms of the British; Georgia had 
surrendered, so had South Carolina. Lord 
CornWidlis, defeating Gates at Camden, had 
unmolested possession of Charlotte. This bat- 
tle turned the tide of war, for soon followed 
the victory of Cowpens, then the drawn bat- 
tle of Guilfoi'd, and the fin.iie at York- 

After the war was over, Mi". Vance returned 
to his home on the French Broad river, where 
he spout tlie remainder of his days,- univer- 
salh^ esteemed f;r his integrity and ability. 
Colonel Joseph McDowell, of Burke County, 
David Vance, of Buncoml)e, and Musentine 
Matthews, of Iredell Countj', (Speaker that 
year of the House, 1796,) were appointed to 
run the line between North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee. (Moore's History, 136.) 

He married a Miss Br;vnk, and left several 
chiMren, among them Dr. Robert B. Vance, 
who defeated for Congress ITon. Felix Wal- 
ker, in 1823.* This singular canvass resulted 
in a tie in the popular vote, and was settled 

* This was Dr. Eobert B. Vance. 

*For sketch of Feli-t Walker, see Kutherford County. 


by ^'Otes of the returning officers (slierift's.) East Tennessee. He improved these oppor- 

Ile ran again for Congress (19th Congress, tiinities. The spark kindled by the great Cal- 

1825-'27,) and was defeated by Hon. Samuel honn was fanned into an ardent tiame; and 

P. Carson. This canvass unhappil}' terminated as soon as he could command the means he 

in a duel lietween Carson and Vance, in which entered as a student at the Iiiiiversity, where 

the latter was killed. he was noted for the quickness of his mind 

David A'^ance n-iarried Margaret MyraBaird, and his "irreprcssilile impuilence," which, like 

and left two sons, Zebulou Baird Vance, and " the wind, bloweth where it listeth ; " all 

Eobert Brank Vance, jr.; Zebulon Baird yielded a willing homage to its irresistible and 

Vance was born in the county of Buncombe, magic influence. 

on the 13th day of Ma}^, 1830. Without the His humor was involuntary and spontaneous, 

restraining hand of a father to guide and cor- He could no more repress it than could the 

rect "the slippery paths of youth," he is sk^dark withhold its liquid lays from the 

reported to have been a wild and waA'ward morning light, or the mountain stream prexent 

boy, so full of fun and frolic, that he tried the its pelucid current from bul;>liling up in radi- 

verv soul of his mother and teachers to re- ance and beautj-. 

strain him. But in all his pranks there was After leaving college he studied law and was 

nothing l)nt humor and no malice. It was the admitted to practice and was chosen County 

simple outgushiiig of volatile and irrepressible Stdicitnr. 

humor; he was always able to make his peace On the resignation of Hon. Thos. L. Ciing- 

for all his mis(diie'vous capers, in the hearts of man, (who was appointed Senator in Congress, 

his superiors, by the genial kindness of his vice Asa Biggs, appointed United States 

temper, his fearless and free disposition. As Judge, ^^uy, iS'iS, which apiiointment of 

Mr. J. C. Calhoun was spending a summer in Senator Clingman was contirnied by the 

the niountains of North Carolina, when Zcb. Legislature, November, 1858,) ^Ir. Vance was 

was aliout fourteen years old, he stopped for elected to Congress ovci- W. W. Avery, 

the night whore Zeh. resided. which position he hebl until tlie State 

Attracted by the vivacity and quickness of seceded, (May, 18(11.) He then returned' 

the boy, and rather amused at the sprightliness home and raised one of the largest compan- 

of Ins manners, he invited liim to take a ies for the war ever raised in the State, 

walk, and conversed for some time with him. of which he was elected captain, and it was 

He so impressed young Vance's mind by the incorporated into the 14th Xorth Carolina 

picture that he drew of what he might be if Regiment. He was elected colonel of the 26th 

he would only cultivate his mind and apply Regimeiit and attached to the brigade com- 

himself to stud^', that the imaginative boy miinded by General L. O'B. Brancli. He was 

resolved to study in earnest, and to make his engaged in the di.sastrous battle of New 

mark "among those names which never die." Berne, and also in the seven days' battles 

Acting upon this advice, he entered Wash- around Richmond. 

ington College, Tennessee, remaining there The follo\^•ing year he was elected Governor 

two years, going thence to Newton Acad- of the State, over Colonel William .Johnston, 

emy; his funds failing, he acted for a of Charlotte, as the representative of the 

time as clerk at the Warm Springs. Here Union party, and opposed by the original se- 

he was thi'own in social contact with the first cessionists. B}' some ho was ciiarged with the 

men of Western Carolina, South Carolina and crime of deserting his party. He never de- 



serted the true interests and honor of the State. 
In a letter written by him to Governor 
Swain in January, 1864, he said: 

"Almost every argument can be answered 
but one — that is the cries of our women and 
children for bread. Of ail others that is the 
hardest for a man to meet. 

"But the historian shall not say it was the 
weakness of their Governor, or that Saul was 
consenting to their death. As God liveth 
there is nothing I would not do or dare for a 
people wliohave honored me so far beyond ray 

For this he vi^as willing to make any sacri- 
rtice, even to death. He felt as did the brave 
Horatius of Rome. 

To every man upon this earth 
Death cometli soon or late. 
And how can man die better 
Than facing fearful odds 
For the ashes of his fathers, 
xVud the temples of his Gods; 
And for the tender mother 
AVho 'landled him to rest, 
And for the wife who nurses 
His baby at lier breast. 

To him these were no idle words or empty 
professions. During his whole term as Gov- 
ernor this was fully proved by acts and deeds. 

He, at the suggestion of General Martin, pur- 
chased from the Clyde a steamship, and estab- 
lished a system of supplies by carrying cotton 
to Europe, and receiving in return arms and 
necessaries for the people, that else must have 
perished for food and raiment. 

If the troops of !N"orth Carolina were the 
best clothed and best equipiped men in the 
Southern army, it was due to the sagacity and 
energy of Governor Vance. 

On the approach of Sherman's army the 
Governor went to Statesville, where he had 
some time previously sent his wife and chil- 
dren ; there he was arrested and brought to 
Washington City and placed in Carroll prison. 

There were many ridiculous statements 
made as to the capture of Governor Vance, 
which were offensive, and drew from him the 
following correction: 

" Charlotte, ISth October, 1868. 

" To Editor of the New York World : 

" I see by the public prints that General 
Kilpatrick has decorated me with his disap- 
probation before the people of Pennsylvania. 
He informs them, substantially, that he tamed 
me by capturing me and riding me two hun- 
dred miles on a bareback mule. I will do him 
the justice to say that he knew that was a 
lie wluen he uttered it. 

" I surrendered to General Schofield at 
Greensboro, 'N. C, on the 2d May, 1865, who 
told me to go to my home and remain there, 
saj'ingif he got any orders to arrest me he 
would send there for me. Accordingly, I 
went home and there remained until I was 
arrested on 13th' a detachment of 300 
cavalry, under Major Porter of Harrisburg, 
from whom I received nothing but kindness 
and courtesy. I carae in a buggy to Salisbury, 
where we took the cars. 

" I saw no mule on the trip, yet I thought 
I saw an ass at the general's headquarters; 
this impression has since been confirmed. 

" The general remembers, among other inci- 
dents of the war, the dressing up of a strum- 
pet, wlio assisted him in piiUing down ike rebel- 
lion in the uniform of an orderly, and 
introducing her into a respectable family of 
ladies. This and other /(2((/s o/^er/ws and strat- 
egy' so creditable would no doubt have been 
quite amusing, and far more true than the mule 
story. I wonder he forgot it. 

" Respectfully yours, 

"Z. B. Vance." 

How Governor Vance employed his time 
while in prison is shown by the following 
notes received from him. He borehiscontiue- 
ment with all the patience of a patriot, and 
" submitted with philosophy to the inevita- 

" Carroll Prison, 16 Jane, 1865. 
" Col. Wheeler, 

" My Dear Sir: I desire to study French 
while in coufinement. I want a dictionary, 
grammar, and OUendorf 's method. I am quite 
well, and see no hope of getting out soon. 
" Verj'- truly yours, 

"Z. B. Vance." 

I was, of course, pleased to oblige him, and 
sent the books. 



^' July 2d, 1865. 
*■* Cox. J. H. Wheeler, 

"Dear Sir: Will you please do me the 
favor to borrow for nie the following- law 
books? I am not able to buy them: Black- 
stoii«, 2d volume only; Greenleaf on Evi- 
dence; Adams on Equity; Chitty's Pleadings, 
1st volume. 

^' I desire to refresh my law studies. I am 
getting on bravely in JFrench. 
" Tout a voiis, 

«Z. B. Vance." 

We have already described the interview of 
Governor Swain, at which Governors Browu, 
Corwin and Letcher were present, and how 
cheerful Gov. V. bore his condition. 

I could but remark how polite and consid- 
erate the officers and the employees of the 
prison were to iiim. By his genial manners 
he had won their hearts. If he had been a 
candidate for any position in their gift, he 
would have received their unanimous vote. 

He was releaseA>y the efforts of Governor 
Corwin and others, and allowed to return to 
his family, ou parole not to go beyond certain 
limits. • 

In November, 1870, the Legislature so sym- 
pathized with his sufferings and so appreciated 
his services, that he was elected Senator; but 
having been disfranchised he was refused by 
the Senate, and in January, 1872, he resigned, 
and General Alatt. W. liausoni was elected. 
From 1865 to 1867 North Carolina had no 
members in either branch of Congress. 

Gov. V. received a pardon from the Presi- 
dent, (Andrew Johnson,) settled at Charlotte, 
and entered into the practice of the law, in 
partnership with that excellent gentleman and 
accomplished jurist, C. Dowd, Esq. la enter- 
ing this firm, Gov. Vance told his partner that 
" in every firm there was one working man 
and one gentleman, and that it must be under- 
stood that he had to be the gentleman, as he 
was too lazy to be' the other." Admirably 
both filled the assigned role. But the law was 
not the natural element of Gov. V. 

In 1876, after a canvas of unexampled exer- 
tion and ability on both sides, he was elected 
governor by a majority of more than 3,000 
votes over Judge Settle, now a judge in Flor- 

He resigned on being elected b}- the Legis- 
lature Senator in Congress from 4th March, 
1879, to 3d March, 1885, sircceeding Hon. A. 
S. Merrimon. His recent speech (19th May, 
1879,) on restoration of the Union, was a 
model of eloquence, wit and statesmanship. 

Governor Vance married on 2d August, 
1858, at Morganton, Harriet Newell, the or- 
phan daughter of the late Rev. Thomas Espy, 
of the Presbyterian church. She recentlj' 
died, (at Raleigh, 3d November, 1878,) leav- 
ing several children. * 

We have now finished to this date, some 
slight memories of the career of our Governor 
Vance. t They might well have been more 
elaborate and extended did our space and plan 
allow. We have tried to do justice to his 
merits, and — 

■ Nothing exteniiate. 

Or set down aught in malice. 
Enough has been said to prove the high 
reputation of Governor Vance as a philan- 
thropist and a statesman. As a popular orator 
he has no superior, aud but few equals. His 
" infinite jests and most excellent fancy," to 
which be adds, at times, the most touching 
pathos and brilliant eloquence carry the 
minds and hearts of his audience, and makes 
him irresistible and triumphant before the 
people. In his public addresses, as in the so- 
cial circle, he often illustrates his positions by 
anecdote so pointed and piquant that the 
popular mind retains with pleasure the argu- 
ment, when a graver mode would be for- 

*He has again married to Mrs. Marten, of Ken- 
tucky, uee Steele. 

t Much ol this sketch is derived from authentic 
documents, private letters and personal recollections. 
An anonymous article from the papers of the day, in- 
serted, about 1868, afforded much aid, and which was 
freely copied. 


For the Genealogy of the Vance family, see the stirrup-leather. The act of dismounting 

Appendix. no doubt saved Colonel Vance's life. 

His brother, Robert Brank Vance, was born After the battle of Murfreesboro, Vance 

the 24th of April, 1828, and is the oldest son, was taken sick with tj^phoid fever, and sent 

and second child, of David and Mira M. home by General Bragg. In the mean time 

A'ance, of Buncombe County, N. C. he was promoted to the rank of brigadier 

His education was very limited. His father general. On his return to the army General 

dying when Robert was in his sixteenth year, Bragg sent him back to North Carolina and 

a great portion of the burden of sustaining upper East Tennessee to organize the troops, 

his mother devolved on him. On attaining such as could be got up, and take command in 

his majority he was elected Clerk of the Court that portion. During a raid he made across 

of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, which office he the Smok}- mountains into Tennessee, he was 

held for eight years, and voluntarily retired captured at Cosby Creek, where the Federals 

from in 1856. Mr. Vance's business was mer- attacked him, and he riding by mistake into 

chandising, which he followed until the war their ranks. He was kept in prison till near 

broke out in 1861. Being Union in sentiment, the close of the war, when he was paroled 

he voted against secession, but when the pro- until exchanged. 

clamation of Mr. Lincoln was received at In 1866, he was elected Grand Master of 

Asheville, N. C, he, in common with most of Masons in North Carolina, which office he held 

his neighbors, took sides with the South. All for two years. 

of the male members of the family, including In 1872, he was nominated to a seat in Con- 
his brother Zebulon, and his three brothers-in- gress from the Eighth district of North Caro- 
law, (one of whom. Rev. R. N. .Price, was a lina, and beat his competitor, W. G. Candler, 
traveling Methodist minister,) went into the a Republican, 2,555 votes, 
army at once. Robert was left in charge of Pie was re-elected in 1874, beating Plato 
the families; but, being dissatisfied, he went Durham, Independent Democrat, 4,442 votes, 
to work and raised a company, which was or- In 1876 he defeated E. R. Hampton, Republi- 
ganized as "The Buncombe Life Guards."' can, over 8,000 majority. In 1878, he was re- 
He was elected captain. The companies came elected without opposition to Congress, 
and rendezvousedat Asheville, where the 10th At the time of this writiiig General Vance 
and the 29th North Carolina Regiments wore has succeeded in Laving daily mails to every 
organized at " Camp Patton." Vance was county town in his district, and had money- 
elected colonel of these forces, receiving order offices established all over the district, 
every vote but one — his own. His principal speeches in the House of Rep- 

Tiie regiment was first ordered to Raleigh, resentatives have been on the civil rights' hill, 

and from there was sent to East Tennessee, the tariff, the internal revenue laws, the neces- 

where it formed a part of the garrison at sity of fraternal relations between the North 

Cumberland Gap, following E. Kirby Smith and South, the reinonetization of silver, etc^ 

into Kentnck3^ The regiment suffered con- which were acceptable to his people, 

.siderably in the battle of Murfreesboro, Colo- Many times, through the years since lay- 

nel Vance having his horse killed in that en- men were admitted into the councils of the 

gagement. Hehad just gotten off his horae and Southern Methodist Church, General Vance 

was holding the bridle, when a shell ex- has been elected delegate to the annual con- 

ploded near b}', a piece entering the horse by ferences and two or three times to the gen- . 



■eral conferences of said church. In 1876 he 
Tvas appointed by the Bishops of the M. E. 
Clinrch South as one of the Cape May com- 
mission which settled important matters be- 
tween the Northern and Southern Methodist 

General Vance has given many years of his 
life to the work of delivering lectures on 
temperance, and the education of children iu 
Sunday schools. 

General Vance was married to Miss Harriet 
V. AlcElroy, daughter of General John W. 
McElroy, of North Carolina. Six children — 
four sons and two daughters — were born to 
them, four of wliom are living. 

Such is a brief but accurate sketch of Gen- 
eral Vance. 

There are few public men in or out of Con- 
gress who possess that respect and regard of 
all who know him, more than General Vance. 
As a man he is true, sincere ai>d frank in all 
the relations of life. As a Eepresentative he 
isfaithful, honest, attentive and active. His 
talents and success are duly appreciated in 
Cor.g'-'ess; beicg placed chairman of the im- 
portant Committee on Patents in the 45th 
and 46th Congresses, and second on the Com- 
mittee on Coinage, Weights and Measures; 
A. H. Stephens, of Georgia, being chairman 
in the present Congress. 

As a friend he is faithfnl, obliging and sin- 
cere, and above all, as a Christian he is a " burn- 
ing and shining light," and a prominent and 
consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal 

James Love Henry, late one of the judges of 
the Superior courts of law and equity, was 
born in Buncombe County, in 1838. He 
received only such education as the schools of 
Asheville attbrded. 

His father, Robert Henry, was a patriot of 
the Revolution, and was in the battle of Kings 
Mountain, and practiced law for more than 
sixty years, with much success. 

His father died in 1862, aged 97. The 
maternal grandfather of Judge Henrj-, Robert 
Love, was one of the earliest pioneers in the 
settlement of Western Carolina, and promi- 
nent in the early history of this section. He 
figured in the rise and fail of the State of 
Franklaud, wliich Governor Sevier attempted 
to establish, out of a portion of North Caro- 
lina, now in Tennessee, ("in 1785,) and with 
General Tipton and others, arrested Sevier, 
under the charge of high treason,* and con- 
vej'cd him to jail at Morganton. Robert Love 
is progenitor of the large and influential fam- 
ily of that uame which pervades this and other 
sections of the west, and v.iio have occupied 
positions of prominence in every walk of life. 

Judge Henry presided as judge with great 
acceptability, from 1868 to 1878, having pre- 
viously acted as solicitor for this (the 8th,) 
judicial district. 

He was editor, at the early age of 19, of 
the Asheville Spectator, and served in the Con- 
federate States army as adjutant of the 1st 
North Carolina cavahy, (Genei'al Robert Ran- 
som,) and on Hampton's and Stuart's staff, 
and. as colonel of cavalry. 

He now resides at Asheville, engaged in the 
practice of his profession. 

Augustus Summerfield Merrimon, lately oue 
of the Senators in Congress from North Caro- 
lina, was born (in that part of Buncombe 
County since erected into Transylvania,) on 
the 15th of September, 1380. 

His parents were Rev. Branch Hamline 
Merrimon and Mary E., nee Paxton, whose 
father, William Paxton, was the brother of 
Hon. John Paxton, Judge of the Superior 
Courts from 1818 to 1826, and wliose mother 
(Sally,) was the dangiiter of General Charles 

The subject of this sketch was the eldest of 
a family of ten ciiildren — seven sous and three 

*See Wheeler's History of North Carolina, vol. I, 97. 



The early education of Mr. Merrinion was 
as good as the circumstances of his father 
would allow. At the period when youths of 
his age were at college, he aided his father in 
working the farm to support the family, for in 
those days Methodist ministers were not op- 
pressed with this world's goods. Yet the nn- 
concjuerable thirst for knowledge so possessed 
young Merrinion that he embraced evevy op- 
portunity for acquiring it. Often when at 
work on the farm, during the hour of rest for 
dinner, he would be found cjuietly ensconced 
in some shadj' place conning over Ids books. 
One of the appendages to liis father's place 
was a saw-mill, which it was his duty to at- 
tend, and while the saw was at work in cut- 
ting the logs into plank, he would have liis 
granjmar or some other book, and improve 
everj' moment in study. His father appreciat- 
ing this thirst for knowledge, sent him to a 
school in Asheville, then under the charge of 
Mr. ISTorwood. Such was his application and 
progress, that within the first session Mr. Nor- 
wood pronounced him "the i.iest English gram- 
marian that he ever knew." 

t[e was exceedingly anxious to be sent to 
college to complete his classical studies, but 
the res avgusii Jomi forbid. He commenced 
the stud}' of the law in the office of John W- 
Woodfiu,in whose office at the same time was 
Zebnlon B. Vance, both destined to occupy 
high positions of honor in their county and 
State, and often rivals in political contests. 
Such was his proficiencj' in his legal studies, 
with sncli inadequate preparation, that in Jan- 
uary, 1852, lie was admitted to practice in the 
Courts, and in 1858 in the Superior and Su- 
preme Courts of the State. 

By his close attention to business, his care- 
ful preparation aud management of his eases, 
he soon made his mark. He was appointed 
Solicitor to several counties in his circuit, and 
by the Judge, Solicitor for the District in 1861. 
In 1860 he was elected to the Legislatuie as a 

member from Buncombe, by a few votes over' 
Col, David Coleman. 

On the breaking out of the war, he took- 
a decided stand for the Union. 

In tlie excited state of public feeling at 
this time of frenzy, such a step demanded not 
only moral, but physical courage. Mr. Merii- 
mou's position was rudely assailed. Angry 
cards passed between him and Nicholas W. 
Woodfin, and a personal collision was immi- 
nent. On tliese occasiims, he bore himself with 
■ dignity and courage. Though not over fond of 
arms, he felt — 

-Rightly to lie greatr 

Is not to stir without great argument. 
But greatly to find quan'el in a straw 
When lienor 's at the stake. 

But in the issuing of Mr. Lincoln's procla- 
mation, calling for 75,000 men settled his 
course, and he entered in Z. B. Vance's com- 
pany as a private, and- marched to Raleigh. 
He was attached to the Commissarj' Depart- 
ment as captain for a short time, on duty at 
HatteraS; Ocrocock, Raleigh and Weldon. On 
the call of Governoi- Ellis, the Legislature re- 
assembled, and he had to attenck' 

In the fall of 1861, he was appointed by 
Judge French, Solicitor of the Eighth Circuit, 
and rhe next year was elected to that pisitiou 
by the Legislature. Just at the close of the 
war he was a candidate as delegate to the 
State Convention called under the reconstruc- 
tion acts of President Johnsim, and was de- 
feated by Rev. L. Z. Stewart, a Presbyterian 
clergj'iuan, the Republican candidate.' This 
contest was remarkable, as it was conducted in 
the presence of the United States troops and 

By the next Legislature he was elected Solic- 
itor of the Eighth Judicial Circuit. The office 
of Solicitor was no soft place at this time, but 
one of imminent peril. The Democrats and 
"Mossy Backs" were in daily collision; affrays, 
riots, robberies, and murders were dail^' occur- 
rences; deserters had to be arrested, and the 


place purified. So satisfactoi')- and firm were all that is just and lawful to establish the 

his efibrls as Solieitor, Mr. .Merrinion -won I'lght- 

,■ ., T 1 i, 1 J- ^1 •'' I am Vdurs trnlv, 

the respect 01 the Judges, the regard ot the ^ ^ \ >^" MERriMON " 

bar, and the esteem of the people. 

In 1866, he was elected a Judge of tlie The executive committee " died and gave no 

Superior Courts by the Legislature. Here his sign;" the conservative character of thepeop'e 

services were eciually acceptable. preferred to \'s-ait for that success which they 

He held the first regular Courts on this believed awaited them, and endure for a sea- 

Circuit alter the war under eireumstances of son some inconvenience and even injustice, 

great peril, so that in most of the counties, In Deceniber following. Judge ^lerrimon 

a police force had to be organized umler the was elected Senator in Congress for the term 

sheriff to preserve the place, and protect the of six years, from -1th March, 1873. 

Court. While in the faithful discharge of It is due to the integrity of history to say 

his duty the couimanding general of the this election produced much i_-.\citement, inas- 

Hnited States foices, (Canby.) issued military much as it was effected by the defeat of Gov. 

ordei's tu the C<jurts, with instrnctions to the ernor Vance, who \vas the Democratic noni- 

Judges to observe and administer them. This inee. 

gross military usurpation was resisted by This, Judge Merrimon contended, was 

Judge Meri'imon, who, seeing the Courts brought aliout by Governor Vance and his 

could not be held accoiding to law, and his friends tampering with the caucus — pledging 

oath of office, resigned his commission as and [lacking it. Several Democrats refused to 

Judye. go into the caucus uidess Governor Vance and 

In 1872, the convention at Greensboro noni- Judge Merrimon would botli withdraw their 

inatcd him for Governor against Todd li. nanu'S. This Judge Merrim ui was willing 

Cah.lwell. to do, for the sake of harmony, but Governor 

The universal opinion of the Democrats was "N'ance, insisting that he duly nominated, 

that Judge Men imon was fairly elected. The declined to withdraw. The I'alloting then 

returns were: Caldwell, 98,630; Merrimon, commenccil, and continued for two weeks 

96,731; reported majority for Caldwell, 1,899. without any choice. Both then withdrew. 

lie was im[iortuned by the press and liosts After\\'ards, the name of Governor Vance was 

of fi'iends to contest this result. In a letter to again lir(night forward by some members who 

S. A. Ashe, Estj., of 12th September, 1872, had voted for Judge Merrimon, and on the first 

Judge Merrimon says: ballot Judge Merrimon v>'as elected. He re- 

" I am satisfied l;y a variety of facts that ceived the entire Republican vote (72 votes,) 

have come to knowledge that enormous and 15 conservative votes, the remaining 

frauds were pei'petTated at the election, and ^^^,ty conservatives votiui- for Governor 

great number ot illegal votes were cast against „ ,„, , ,. ',. ,. .^ 

me and the other candidates on the Demo- ^^'^^^- Ihere was a deep feeling of mortifi- 

cratic ticket. I sincerely believe tliat we cation in se\'eral sections of the State; not so 

received a majority of Uie lawful votes. much because Judge Merrimou was elected, 

" It it so turns out, by the examination now , , , ^, - i- i n- n. 

being made through the executive committee, '^"^ '^^ *^^ ^'''^""'^' ^" '^'"'^'^ ^'"' '""''''^ '' ^'^- 

that .substantial ground for cjntesting can be brought about. 

established I will cont^l^st the electn,n, and ^y^ ^„^,,. „„ ^^^^^ ^^ ^,^1, question. AVe 
vindicate tne iiglits of tlie people. 

" I will not do ail) thing rashly, or to gratify have shown the appreciation m which we esti- 

party spiirit, or political revenge, but will do mate both of these distinguished men, and we 



believe that either would do honor to the 
State and defend to " the last gasp of lo^^alty," 
her character and her interest. Many politi- 
cians will doubtless say, like Pope, 

How liappy woiild •we be with either, 
Were the other clear charmer away. 

Gf Judge Merrimon's career in the Senate it 
is not necessary to speak. It has given him a 
uational reputation for integrity of purpose, 
for unsullied patriotism, and extensive acquire- 
ments. We may read its " lEstory in a nation 's 
eyes." To the interests of his constituents 
he has ever manifested vigilance and cantion. 
No one has ever aiiplied to him for his kind 
othces -that failed to receive prompt and 
efficient attention. Always at his post, 
vigilant in observation, he has proved himself 
a faithful sentinel of the rights of the State, 
■ of individuals, and the Nation. 

That he deserves high reputation, is not 

He must have intrinsic .merit who., in spite 
of the disadvantages of a defective education, 
has become the peer of the proudest of our 
laiid, and raised himself from the labojs of 
a saw Tnill to the liouorsof a Senate cnamber. 

He was succeeded hy Governor Vance, 
March, 1879. 

Judge Alerrimon married on 14th Septem- 
ber, 1852, Margaret J. Baird, by whom he has 
an interesting family. 

Thomas Lanier Clingman resides at Ashe- 
ville, lu this county. 

He was born in the county of Yadkeu, then 
Surry Couny. July 27, 1812, the son of Jacob 
Clingman and Jane Poindexter,* and named 
for Dr. Thomas Lanier, bis half uncle. 

*Alexander Clingman, the grandfather of General 
Cliiigiaan, came to America from (iermaDy before the 
Kevoliition. The name signifies, in German, a swords- 
man and a fighter. He was a soldier in many battles 
in the Revolutionary war, and was a prisoner taken at 
Charleston at Lincoln's surrender. He married 
Elizabeth Kaiser and had several children, among 
them was Jacob, who left four children, Thomas, 
John Patillo, Elizabeth, who married Richard 
Puryear, and Alexander. Tlie father of the 
mother of Gen 1 Clingman was of the Poindexters of 

His early editcation was conducted bj' pri- 
vate instructors. He joined the sophomore 
class at the University, and graduated in 1832, 
with a class distinguished in after life for 
usefulness and talents. Judge Thomas S. 
Ashe, now of the Supreme Court; James C, 
Dobbin, Secretaiy of the Navy, 1853-'57; John 
II. Haughton, Cad. Jones, and others, were of 
the same class. 

In a diary kept by Grovernor Swain at that 
date, I found the following: 

"June, 1832. The graduating class acquitted 
themselves with much credit, especially j'oung 
Clingman, of Surry County., who, if he lives, 
will be an ornament to the State." 

.Mr.. Clingman entered upon the study of the 
law with great energy, and was about to enter 
upon the practice when he, in 1835., was elected 
a member of the Legislature from Surry 
County, which was a field more germane to 
his tastes, where he took a decided position. 

After this service was accomplished he re- 
moved to Buncombe County, where he still 
resides. He acquired much reputation for 
boldness and ability as a speaker, especially in a 
debate with Colonel Memininger, at Columbia, 
S. C, in which Colonel Memininger found 
liimself overmatched. Mr. Clingman, in 181:0, 
was elected by a large majority to the Senate 
of the State Legislature from Buucombe 

This was an exciting epoch in political his- 
tory, and parties (Democratic and Whig) 
waged a fierce and ferocious warfare. In the 

Virginia. Her mother was the daughter of Henry 
Patillo, of Grandville ; her first liusband was Kobert 
Lanier, whose sister was the mother of Hon. Lewis 
Williams, i'oindexter is a Norman name, signifying 
spur horse, tie, Alexander, was one of the three prom- 
inent Whigs or Regulators who were compelled by 
Tryou to take the oath of allegiance every six mouths, 
at Court. 

Jane, Clingman's mother, nee Poindexter, was a 
daughter of Henry Patillo, who was a prominent Whig 
in the Revolution. 

Rev. Mr. Patillo was a Presbyterian mini.-ter, who 
did good service and whose sermons have been pub- 
lished in a volume. Two of the sons of Mr. PatUlo 
married the sisters of Robert Goodloe Harper. 



Xegislature or on the stump, Mr. Clingman led 
the cohorts of the Whites, and like Henry nf 
Navarre, his white plume was seen proudly- 
floating in the van of every contest. Such 
was his abilit}' and eloquence that he wtts 
elected a member of the 28th Congress :(1843-, 
1845,)over that veteran politician Hon. James 
Graham. He was elected to the 30th Con- 
gress, 1847-'49, and successively to 1857-'59, 
when (in May, 1858,) he succeeded Hon. Asa 
Biggs, as Senator in Congress, in which ele- 
vated position he continued until 1861, when 
tlie State seceded from the Union. 

To attempt to detail all the events in the 
political career of Mr. Clingman, and the 
prominent parts filled by him, would far ex- 
ceed the limits of our work. His political 
histor}' is so interwoven with that of the Na- 
tion, that an accurate sketch of the one would 
be a record of the other. In his long and va- 
a'ied career there were few questions that he 
did not examiae and exhaust. So acceptable 
were his views that he was, during his last 
year's service in the House, the chairman of 
one of its most important committees (For- 
eign Affairs.) 

His early career was in unison with Mr. 
Clay, (with whoni he was personally a great 
favorite,) and the Whig party; but he never 
allowed the shackles of party co bind him to 
any cause in his opinion inimical to the true 
interests of the State or the people. When 
his convictions of right were settled, he fol- 
lowed where they led regardless of conse- 
quences, political or personal. He became 
convinced that the Whig party had become 
thoroughly denationalized, and that the only 
national party with which Southern patriots 
<;ould consistently act, with any hope of good, 
was the Democratic party. His exertions and 
influence were used in promoting the election 
of Governor Reid, and of General Pierce. He 
has for years been an ab'e, decided and con- 
sistent Democrat. 

On retiring from the Senate with his distin- 
guished colleague. Governor Thomas Bragg, 
he felt his duty called him to the field, and by 
his efforts to defend his native soil. He 
joined the Confederate army and attained the 
rank of brigadier general. He was in man3- 
engagement in which he conducted his com- 
mand with military skill and undaunted 

He was distinguished for his defence of 
Goldsboro, (17th December, 1862,) which he 
saved from a superior force under Foster, 
whose retreat was so precipitate that he left 
much of his materials, as blankets, muskets, 
and •even horses. 

General Clingman"'s brigade consisted of the 

8th Regiment, Colonel Shaw. 

31st Regiment, Colonel Jordan. 

51st Regiment, Colonel McKethan. 

61st Regiment, Colonel Radclitte. 

In July, 1863, he took command at Sulli- 
van's Island, which exposed position he held 
until December following, during the most ac- 
tive part of the seige of Charleston. He was 
then ordered to Virginia, and in the attack on 
New Berne, February, 1864, led the advance 
force of General Pickett's army, in which he 
was wounded by the explosion of a shell. On 
the 16th May following, in the battle of 
Drury's Bluff, he was ordered with General 
Corse to attack General Butler. This was done 
with such spirit that the lines of Butler were 
broken, and he retreated rapidly to Bermuda 
Hundreds, where he was, to use General 
Grant's expression, " bottled uj3." 

He was then ordered to Cold Harbor, and 
on 31st May, met the advance of General 
Grant's army, and a severe engagement oc- 
curred. The next evening (1st June) one of 
the severest engagements of the war occurred, 
in which General Clingman's command re- 
ceived heavy loss, in rank and file, from its 
exposed position. Every stafl" officer, as well 
as himself, was wounded. One-third of the 



command fell on the field, including Colonel 
Murcliison and Major Hendereon, of the 8th 
Regiment. They lield the position and saved 
the day. 

On the lOth of June following, General 
Clingman rejanlsed an attack on the lines of 
Petersharg,and on the evening following, held 
his position against the attack of two army 
corps (the 9th and 18th) commanded by Gen- 
erals Burnside and Smith, numbering in the 
aggregate 43,000 men. Thr<;e brigades on his 
right gave way early in the engagement, but 
he held his position until 11 o'clock, p. m., 
when the engagemtnt ceased — and Petersburg- 
was saved. 

On the 19th of August, following, an attack 
was made on the enemjf's lines on the Weldon 
railroad, near Petersburg, by which 2,100 pris- 
oners were tarken, and many killed and 
wounded. In this affair General Clingman 
received so severe a an'ouucI that he was for 
several months k«pt out of the field, and was 
only able to join his command a few days 
prior to Johnson's surrender. 

When the war closed (8th April, 1866,*) 
General Clingman, like many others, was 
left desolate and depressed in mind, wounded 
and exhausted in body, and utterly impover- 
ished; yet he was ever ready to aid in build- 
ing up the waste places of his country, and to 
repair as. far as possible the desolations of 
internecine strife. He was elected a member 
of the Convention of 1876, and was vigilant 
and active in the cause of the people. 

These are rapid and unsatisfactory sketches 
of the public services rendered his country by 
General Clingman. 

In his private life, he is exemplary and con- 
sistent. He is a member of the Episcopal 

*The Supreme Court of the United JStates in case of 
U. B. V. Kiem in January, 1872, decided the beginning 
of the civil war was on April 19, i8Ui, date of procla- 
mation as to blockade, and tlie end was AprU S, 1S6G, 
date of President's proclamation declaring the war at 
an end. 

Church, an admirer of its tenets, and arr 
observer of its ordinances. 

Though his fame rests on his long and im- 
portant service as a statesman and his gal- 
lantry' as a soldier, yet he has not neglected 
the pursuits of literature and of science. His 
able defence of religion, and its support by 
science, gained him "golden opinions from all 
sorts of men," lioth North ar?d South; he has 
in various publications demonstrated to the 
country and to the world the capabilities and 
advantages of AVestern Carolina — its healthful 
climate and prolific soil. Maiij- have been in- 
duced by his descriptions to seek- a home with 
us, bringing wealth, talent,"" and- industry. 
He Iras made important contributions to 
the science' of geology and mineralogy. His 
articles on these suljjects have appeared 
in SilHman's and other journals, and rank 
with tho-se of ].)ana, Guyot, Shepard, and 
other savans of the age. He has presented 
much and varied infoniiation a-s to moun- 
tains of North Carolina, which he has explored 
in person, and in compliment of such exertions 
his name has been worthily bestowed on one 
of its highest peaks. 

General Clingman, as our readers may know, 
has never mari'ied. Ilis busy life and active 
services in the cause of his country have denied 
him that pleasure. But he is far from under- 
estimating female society, and is a great 
admirer of grace, beauty and intelligence. 

No one possessing his warmtb of fiiendship 
for his own sex can beindifterent to the charms 
of the other. As a friend. General Clingman 
is frank, sincere and faithful, and this is recip- 
rocated deeply by those who knew him best. 
No one that I know ever maintained such a 
hold on the attections of the people. The citi- 
zens of his district possess such unbounded 
confidence in bis judgment and integrity thLit 
they followed him in whatever course he has , 
pursued. For more than 1 5 years ( with excep- 
tion of one Congress,) he was elected by their 



BiiffVages. No matter how adroitly the district states that "he had never seen more corn- 
was adversely arrans^ed, or what principles he posure and firmness in danger than was mani- 
advocated, the people were his devoted sup- fested by Mr. Clingman on this occasion." 
porters, and never deserted him. On seeing his fi-iend covered by the dust and 
I recollect when the State was redistricted, gravel, and standing at his post unmoved he 
in 1852, a few who aspired to his place thoughthe was mortally wounded. He rushed 
arranged the district so that he would likely to him and asked him if he was hurt. " He 
be defeated. But the power and the popu- has thrown some dust on my new coat," he 
ku'ity of General Clingman disappointed their replied, quietly brushing off the dust and 
aims and hopes. . He was elected by an gravel. 

increased majorit:y. Although kind, social On other occasions, as with Hon. Edward 

and friendly in his private intercourse, his Stanley and others, General Clingman has 

character is not of that negative kind so con- evinced a proper regard for his own honor by 

cisely described by Dr. Johnson of one "who repelling the insults of others; and in all 

never had generosity enough to acquire a these public opinion has sustained the propriety 

friend, or spirit enough" to provoke an enemy." 
Whenever the rights of his State and his per- 
sonal honor were infringed, he was prompt 
and read}' to repel the assailant. He has fol- 
lowed the advice of Polonius to his son — 

lieware of entrance 

Into a qnurrel; but Ijeingin, 
l?o bear thyself tiiat thy oyposer 
\\ ill beware of thee. 

In 1845, Hon. William L. Yancey, of Ala- 
bama, well known in his day as '• a rabid fire 
eater," attempted some liberty with Genei-al 
Clingnian. A challenge ensued. Huger, of 
South Carolina; was Yancey's friend; and 
Charles Lee Jones, of Washington City, was 
the friend of Clingman. They fought at 

Mr. Jones, the second of General Clingman, 
in his graphic description of this duel, pub- 
lished in the C.ipiinl, states: 

" After the prir.ciples had been posted, Mr. 
Huger, who had won the giving of the word, 
asked, 'Are you ready ? Fire ! ' 

" Mr. Clingman, who bad remained perfectly 
cool, fired, missing his adversary, but drawing 
his tire, in the ground, considerably out of line, 
the bullet scattering dust ami gravel upon the 
person of Mr. Clingman. After this fire, the 
difficulty was adjusted." 

Hon. Kenneth Kaynor, the colleague of Mr. 
Clingman in Congress, was on the ground. 

of his conduct; he has so borne himself that 

the aggressoi- has never attempted to repeat 

his insolence. 

He has been accused of being amintious. If 

this lie so, in reph', the words of Anthony of 

Cjesar are appi'opriate — 

He is my fripnd, ''aithfiil and .iust to me. 
But P.i'utns says he is ambitious, 
And Brutus is an honorable man. 

J. ('. L. Gudger, now one of the Judges of the 
Superior Courts, was born in Buncombe County 
in 1838; learned in the law, which he has suc- 
cessfull}' practiced for fifteen years.. 

He entered the Confederate army as a pri- 
vate in 18(]1, and rose to the rank of captain. 

After the war was o\-er lie removed to- 
Waynesville, in Haywood County, where he 
was extensively engaged in the practice of his 
profession when he was elected to the high 
position he so worthily occupies. 

Robert M. Furman resides in Buncombe 
County, although a native of Franklin County, 
where he was l)orn 21st September, 1846. at 
Louisburg. He early entered the Confederate 
army, but on his health failing he- was, at the 
end of five months, discharged. He, on recov- 
ery, again entered tlie army (in 1804,) and 
served until the war closed.. His young life 
has been spent in the editorial line, in which 
he attained much success. In 1S66 he was in 



charge of the Louisburg Eagle. He next 
established the Henderson Index, and became 
afterwards connected with the Norfolk Cour- 
ier, and the Raleigh Sentinel. In 1872 he 
became editor of the Asheville Cilizeyi. He 
was reading clerk of the Senate of the State 
Legislature of 1876. He holds, also, the posi- 
tion of clerk to the United States Senate 
Committee on Railroads, of which General 
Ransom is chairman. 

Thomas Billiard Johnston resides at Ashe- 
ville; born 1st April, 184.3, at Waynesville, 
educated at Colonel S. D. Lee's Academy and 
.the University,, but from ill health did .not 

graduate; entered the army in Z. B. Vance'^s 
company, 14th North Carolina, and at the 
battle of Alalvern Hill was severely wounded, 
which disabled hira from active service in the 
iield. After war was over, he read law with 
that accomplished jurist and noble hearte'd 
gentleman. Judge J. L. Baily, and was 
licensed to practice in 1866. In 1870 he was 
nominated to the House, and carried the county 
by 400 votes, a gain of 600 for the party. He 
was one of the managers in the impeachment 
trial of Governor liolden. He was re-elected 
in 187-2, and elected to the Senate in 1876. 



"Waightstill Avery, born 1741, died 1821. 
'There is no name in the annals of North Caro- 
lina that is more deserving of being perpetu- 
ated than the subject of this sketch. His 
family were the devoted friends of liberty, and 
many of them martyrs to its cause. In the 
Revolutionary war there were eight brothers 
of this name and family, all patriots. Some of 
them were massacred at Groton, Connecticut, 
and at Fort Griswold; some perished at Wyo- 
ming Valley. Some of this family still reside 
at Groton, Connecticut, (where the subject of 
this sketch was born;) some reside at Oswego 
and Seneca Lake, and some came to Virginia. 

It was early in the year 1631 that the ship 
Ax'abella arrived in Massachusetts Bay, from 
Loudon, and landed passengers at the place 
where now stand Boston and Charlestown, 
and where Governor John Winthrop, senior, 
had commenced an English settlement the 

year before. Among the passengers were 
Christopher Avery, of Salisbury, England, and 
his little son James, then eleven years of age. 
They proceeded to the point of Cape Ann, 
where Gloucester now stands, which was at 
that time one of the most nourishing iishing 
establishments along the shore, where tish 
were cured for the European markets by fish- 
ermen from England, and in connection with 
which were agricultural and other profitable 

Christopher settled there as a farmer, and 
became the possessor of valuable and produc- 
tive lauds, which he cultivated to advantage. 
He had left his wife in England, like many of 
the leading men who first came over " to spy" 
out the land," for it was not easy to persuade 
their wives to leave their comfortable English 
homes and venture ofi' upon the ocean on a 
passage of nearly a hundred days in a small 



TCBsel, cTowded with passengers, to share the 
doubtful fortunes of an unknown wilderness. 

The vessels sent from England by the mer- 
chant adventurers had for years rendezvoused 
at Cape Ann to cure and prepare the large 
quantities of lish taken bj' thera for the Euro- 
pean markets, and it was a remunerative trade 
for the farmers there. It had been a fishing 
and curing station for years, and with its 
variety of veg-etables and abundance of fish, 
added to the game and other animal food 
obtained in trade with the Indians, the thriv- 
iing community did not lack the means of 
good and wholesome living. They also had 
their little chapel where common prayer was 
oft'ered on the Sabbath by " one Master Rash- 
ley, their chaplain," as we are told bj' Leck- 
:ford. When the Puritans afterward settled 
at Boston they receiv-ed and fellowshipped 
Chaplain Rashie}- for eight or ten j^ears, 
although he was not of them exactly. 

For ten years Mr. Avery, with his son James, 
enjoyed that pleasant community, his greatest 
privation being that of the disinclination of 
his wife to come over and join thera in their 
new home. As he could not persuade her to 
cross the ocean, he was compelled to send her 
80 much of his earnings and savings as he 
could spare for her support there. She never 
came to America. 

In 1642 the Cape Ann settlement had become 
so considerable that the General Court of the 
Colony incorporated it as the Town of Glou- 
cester, and the Rev. Mr. Blinman,a Dissenting 
minister, who had made an unsuccessful effort 
to settle with the Pilgrims at Plymouth, was, 
by the Boston authorities, sent to Gloucester 
with a small company of Welshmen, who had 
accompanied him over the sea, to settle. This 
was not so pleasant for Christopher Avery, who 
had so long been the leading inan of the set- 
tlement with Chaplain Rashley, but he was a 
man of so decided mark that he was neverthe- 
less elected over and over again as selectman 

of his new town, notwithstanding the per- 
sistent and shameful persecution of the new- 

In 1643 his son Jtmies Av^ery, then 23 years 
old, went to Boston and hrought to his home 
in Gloucester his young bride, Joanna Green- 
slade, who had with her a certificate of good 
standing in the Boston church, dated January 
17, 1644. 

Not^vithstandlng Mr. Blinman's ecclesiasti- 
cal precedence, he was rather overshadowed 
by Christopher Avery, the civilian and some- 
times first selectman. Insomuch that after he 
had been there six or seven years he became 
"dissatisfied with his teaching," (as old Gov- 
ernor Winthrop wrote to his son John, then 
Governor of Connecticut,) and gladly accepted 
the call to settle at the mouth of the Thames, 
(Pequot,) where Xew London now stands. 

He was accompanied b}' most of the leading 
members of his church at Gloucester, and 
among them James Avery with his young wife 
and three children. James sold all his land at 
Gloucester to his father Christopher in 1651, 
for he had settled at New London, October 
19, 1650, with what was called the Cape Ann 
Colony. Mr. Blinman preached at New Lon- 
don about as long as he had at Gloucester, and 
then left, dissatisfied, for England. Christo- 
pher Aver}- remained in Massachusetts until 
after Blinman had left for England, and then 
joined his son James at New London, and in 
the va,lley of the Pequonuc. 

James Avery and Joanna Greenslade had 
ten children, three born at Gloucester, before 
1650, and seven at New Loudon, afterwards. 
Their youngest son, Samuel, was born August 
14, 1664, who married Susan Palmer, daughter 
of Major Edward Palmer and granddaughter 
of Governor John Winthrop, Jr., on the 27th 
of October, 1686, and with her had ten child- 
ren, to wit: Samuel, b. August 11, 1687; Jona- 
than, b. January 18, 1689; William, b. August 
2&, 1692; Mary, b. January 10, 1695; Christo- 



pher, b. Februaiy 10, 1697; Hiimplirejr, b. July b. Jnl.y 8, 1706. The deacon was a cotempa^ 

4, 1699; ISTathan, b. January 30, 1702; Lucy, b. rary of Samuel Avery, b. 1664, who was the 

April 17,1704; AYaitstill, b. March 27,1708, grandfather of AVaightstill, of Noith Caro- 

(had two wives;) Grace, b. June 2, 1712. lina. Alike prominent in Church and State 

When that portion of New London east of the affairs, Avery, the town's first selectman, and 

Thames was set oW as the separate town of Seabury, the first deacon of the church, they 

Groton, in 1705, Samuel Avery, the father, was were neighbors, friends, and their families 

chosen the first moderator, and became the were intimate, 

first selectman, which responsible position he Samuel Seabury, b. July 8, 1706, v\'as licensed 
held for twenty 3'ears —nearly up to the time and preached as a Congregational minister in 
of his death. 1726, at the new church in North Groton. lie- 
On tiie 5th of February, 1724, Humphrey declared himself a convert to Episcopacy in 
Avery, (the sixth child of Samuel,) b. .July 4, 1730, and next year went to London and was 
1699, married Jerusha Morgan, daughter of ordained by the Bishop of London. Returned 
William and Margaret (Avery) Morgan, and in 1732, and was rector of the Episcopal 

had twelve children, to wit: Humphrey, b. 
March 10, 1725; William, b. September 13, 
1726; Solomon, b. July 17, 1728, who died 
August, 1728; Solomon, b. June 17, 1729; Sam- 
uel, b. October 5, 1731; James, b. August 13, 
1733; Jerusha, b. June 7, 1735; Paulina, b. 
April 3, 1787; Christopher, b. May 3, 1739; 
AVaitstill, b. May 10,^1741; Isaac, b. October 
27, 1743; Nathan, b. November 20, 1746. 

It was this Waitstill, the tenth child of 
Humphrey, who, after graduating at Prince- 
ton, (Nassau Hall) N. J., in 1766, studied law 
in Maryland, and moved to North Carolina in 
1769, when he entered college at the age of 
twenty-one, he matriculated as Waightstill, 
thus changing the spelling of the old Winthrop 

church in New London for eleven years. 
Moved to Hempstead, Long Island, in 1743, 
where he kept a high school a- well as preached 
until 1764, the year of his death. He it ivas, 
iindoubtedli/, who prepared WidtsdU Acevi/for col- 
le/je, ivhich he entered in 1762. 

His son, Samuel, born at Groton 1729, went 
to Englaml in 1784, where he was consecrated 
the first Bishop of the Episcopal church in Amer- 
ica. On his return he tonk charge of the 
church at New London, where he died in 
1796. My opinion and belief is that on this 
trip to England, he was accoinpanied by his 
father's pupil, Isaac, youngest brother of 
Waightstill Avory, who became a rector of 
that church in Virginia, and who is said to 

name. His eldest brothei', Humphrey,. moved have lieen ordained in England. He was 21 

from Groton, where his family and ancestors years old at the time of his old tutor's death, 

had lived so many years, to Hempstead, Long by whom, no doubt, he was educated for the 

Island, where he raised a large family. His Episcopal ministry, and about 40 when or- 

brother, Waitstill, sixteen years younger than dained in England. 

himself, as well as his 3-oungest brother, Isaac, There is a family tradition m North Caro- 
hved with liim in their youth, a^id were both Una that AVaightstill graduated at Yale col- 
prepared for college at the select school of the lege before going to Princeton, and that he 
Rev. Samuel Seatiury there. was a tutor there; but his name nowhere ap- 
Deacon John Seabury, of Groton, who had pears in the Yale catalogues, and all the dates 
married Elizabeth Alden, in 1697, grand- and circumstances seem to show its incorrect- 
daughter of John Alden, of the Mayflower, ness. If ho had graduated at Yale, the fact 
settled in Groton, 1704, and had a son, Samuel, would be stated in the Princeton, as well as 



t'ho Yale catalogues; but nowhere does it so 

As the name AYaitstili is so historical, it is 
to Le regretted that the master spirit of the 
Meckleniiui'g declaration and tlie patriarch of 
the North Carolina bar, ever changed the 
spelling. Still was the name of one of the 
maternal ancestors of the Winthrops, in Eng- 
land, at Groton manor, and JT'/i/ was another. 
Mrs. Susan (Palmer) Avery had an uncle, 
Wait sail, who in a matter of record at Kew 
London, A[iril 16, I71o, is sty]ed Slajor Gen- 
eral Wait Still Winthrop, the middle name was 
often omitted in the signature in those early 
da^s. Susan named her son, b. March 27, 1708, 

after her distinguished uncle, an 


llumphrej'gave the name to the distinguislu'd 
North Carolinian. The first James Avery, aiid 
Edwaril I'almcr, were distinguished in nulitary 
and civil life; lioth were high comnianding 
officers in successful wars with the Indians 
They had served many years together in the 
Legishituro and upon the bench, an;l in the 
early history of New London, they are con- 
stantly named together as taking the lead in 
all public affairs. The families being so inti- 
mate, it is not rcmarkabh? that Samuel, the 
youngest son of Janics Axeiy, should have wed 
Susan, the daughter of Major I'almer, and 
granddaughter of Governor John Winthrop, 
Jv., of Connecticut. 

For this full and satisfactory account of the 
early history of tins family-, we arc indelited 
to the unpul)lished manuscript of J. George 
Harris, of the United States Navy, residing 
at Groton, wlio is a lineal descendant of Chris- 
topher Avery, the conmion ancestor of all the 
Averys nametl. 

Of this family there were eleven who were 
massacred at Fort Griswold, at Groton, Con- 
necticut, by tlie Englisli troops, commanded 
by that infan\ous traitoi', Benedict Arnold, 
on the (Jth of September, 1781; about 800 
troops under his command attacked this fort, 

defended only b}' about 160 Americans. After 
a stout resistance they took it after heavy 
losses on both sides. Colonel Ledyard, com- 
mander of the fort, had ordered his men to 
cease firing, and stood near the gates prepared 
to surrender. The British entered; the officer 
shouted," who commands this fort? " Colonel 
Ledj'ard replied " I did, sir; Imt you do now," 
presenting his sword with its point towards 
himself. His sword was tlirust back through 
his body and he fell prone on the earth. This 
was a signal of indiscriminate slaughter, and 
the British crossed the parade ground in plat- 
toons, firing upon the defenseless garrison, who 
liad grounded their arms. With the ba_yonet 
they stabbed the dead and dying. Of the 
command of 1(!0 they left scarce 20 aide to 
stand; there they in heaps fallen one upon 
anotlier, as brave a band as fought with Leon- of Thermop\dai. Of these are "immortal 
names that were not doomed to die," and 
eleven of the name of Aver}^ perished in that 
most infamous massacre by this demon of de- 

In a letter from bis brother Solomon Avery, 
of Jul^' 11, 1783, a copy of the original is to 
he found in " Uni. Mag.," IV, 245, he states: 

" Eleven Averys were killed in the fort at 
Groton, and seven wounded; many AverN'S 
iia\'e been killed in this war. There has been 
no Tory named Avery in these parts." 

From such a stock was Waightstill Avery 

Waightstill Avery came to North Carolina. 
He was truly an acquisition to any State. He 
was a gentleman and a scholar. He graduated 
at Princeton in 17<J(J, studied law with Little- 
ton Dennis, of the eastern shore of Maryland, 
and came to North Carolina, entering that 
province February 4, 1769, obtained a license 
to practice his profession, through Governor 
Dobbs, April 5, 1769, ami settled in Mecklen- 
burg, at the h<iuse of Ilezekiah Alexander. 
His diary is preserved in the " University Mag- 


aziiie," vol. IV, p. 3G6. giving a narration of his 
travels through the State, from which it will 
be seen that he was welcomed and appreciated 
hy the leading men of the country. 

After entering the State, February 4, 1769, 
having passed the Virginia line he arrived at 
Edenton, where he became acquainted with 
Air. Johnston, then clerk of the court, after- 
ward Governor and judge, and also Joseph 
Hewes; he passed on to General Allen Jones' 
plantation, near the present town of Gaston; 
thence to Halifax, and arrived at Salisbury on 
March 2, 1769. Here he met Edmund Fan- 
ning, who was a native of the same province, 
a man of iine address, a scholar, and a lawyer 
of high attainment, who used evei-y art aud 
blandishment to draw Avery into an alliance 
with Tryon and the adherents of royalty. A 
personal frientlship grew up, but no political 
alliance. After traversing every section of 
the province, from the Albemarle and the Cape 
Fear to the mountains, we tinally find him 
settled at the house Hezekiah Alexander, who 
agreed to board him "at the rate of £12 for 
eight months, making allowance if he should 
not be thei'e so long in the year." Here he 
associated with the patriots of the incipient 
Kevolution, the Alexanders, the Brevards, 
the Graiiams, Davidsons, Polks aud others, 
with whom he cordially sympathized and 
united in the spirit of liberty aud independence 
that soon pervaded the lovely valleys of the 
Yadkin and the Catawba. 

This period was one of stirring interest. 
The sentiment of revolution was beginning to 
rouse the gallant men of that day to arms, and 
the section where he had located was tlie Hrst 
and foremost in the fray. He united with the 
men of Mecklenburg " in the declaration of 
independence of the 20th May, 1775, and 
pledged his life, his fortune, and most sacred 
honor " to the sacred cause of liberty. 

He was elected a member of the Provincial 
Congress which met at Hillsboro, August 21, 

1775, and the next year to the same, whic"h 
met at Halifax, November 12, 1776. This 
body formed the State Constitution, in which 
he rendered important service, and was one 
of the committee who formed this instrument, 
so wisely and perfectly formed that under it 
the State lived for nearly sixty years in pros- 
perity and peace. The next year (1777,) he 
represented the county of Mecklenburg in the 
Legislature. William Sharp, Joseph Winston, 
Robert Lanier, and himself, made a treaty 
with the Chei'okee Indians at the Long Island 
of the Holstein, '•' a treaty made without an 
oath, and one that has never been violated." 
On January 12, 1778, he was elected Attorney - 
General of the State. 

July 3, 1779, he was appointed colonel of 
Jones County, (where lie had removed,) in 
place of Nathan Bryan, resigned, and tingling 
the climate of the low country was impairing 
his health, he removed, in 1781, to the county 
of Burke, and settled on a beautiful and fer- 
tile estate near Morgauton, on the Catawba 

The year previous (1778,) he had married, 
near New Berne, Mrs. Leah Frank, widow of 
Mr. Frank, who lived and died in New Berne, 
and daughter of William Probart, of Snow 
Hill, Maryland, a wealthy merchant there, who 
died on a visit to London. 

In 1780, whilst the British occupied Char- 
lotte, under Lord Cornwallis, his office was 
set on iire, and all his books and papers 
destroyed. In 1781 he removed to Burke 
County, and there he resided, in the practice 
of his profession, until the date of liis death, 
1821. He represented this county in the 
Legislature in 1782, '83, '84, '85, '93, in the 
House, and m 1796 in the Senate. At the 
period of his death he was considered " the 
patriarch of the i ar." 

It is doubtful if any one family in this State 
suffered more severely than did the distin- 
guished and gallant Averys. 

:b"urke county. 


Alphomso Calhoun Avery, now one of the 
Judges of the Superior Court, son of Colonel 
Isaac T. Avery, resides in Burke County. He 
is the eldest male survivor of thisdistinguished 
family. His three elder brothers, Waightstill, 
Clark, and Isaac J., (as we have recorded.) 
were killed m the late civil war. 

He was born about 1837, liberally educated, 
graduated at the University in a large class of 
70 members in 1857, among whom were B. B. 
Barnes, John W. Graham, L. M. Jeggitts, 
Thomas S. Kenan and otiiers. In the pro- 
ceedings of the cnmniencement, Mr. Aver}', 
then in his sophomore year, received at the 
hands of Governor Swain a copy of Shake- 
speai'e, a prize offered by the professor of 
rhetoric for the best composition in that class. 
'•Uni. Mag.,"IV, 278. 

He studied law, and was just commencing 
the practice when he obayed the call of his 
country to do duty for her defence. He was 
engaged at the battle of Manassas, where his 
leader, the gallant Colonel C. F. Fisher, fell, 
and did noble service under Pender. During 
the last closing years of the war, he was on 
the staff' of General D. H. Hill. 

Since the war he has devoted himself to the 
practice of his profession, of which he was the 
pride and ornament, only occasionally inter- 
rupted by his election to the Legislature. He 
was a member of the Senate in 1866 and again 
1867, and a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1875. 

He was the Democi'atic elector in the 8th 
district; and by his ability and exertions did 
much to insure its success. 

He was elected Judge of Superior Courts, 
which elevated position he holds now. He 
married Susan, youngest daughter of Rev. 
Robert A. Morrison, and sister of Mrs. Stone- 
wall Jackson. 

William Waightstill Avery was born at 
Swan Ponds, in Burke County, on the 25th of 
May, 1816. He was the oldest child of Col- 

onel Isaac T. Avery and Harriet E. Avery. 
His father was the onl^- son of Waightstill 
Avery, and his mother was the eldest daughter 
of William W. Erwin,and a granddaughter of 
William Sharpe. 

There were, during his l:)oyhood,no classical 
schools in the Piedmont region equal to Bing- 
ham and others in the central counties, and on 
attempting to enter colle.';e, in the 3^ear 1832, 
W. W. Avery found that he was not thor- 
oughly prepared in the ancient languages. He 
remained at Chapel Hill during the vacation 
and prosecuted his studies under the instruc- 
tion of the late Dr. Mitchell and Abram More- 
head, Esq., then a tutor, and so faithfully did 
he appl}' himself that in one j'ear he stood at 
the head of his class, and gi-aduated with the 
first honors in 1837 in same class with Perrin 
Busbee, Peter W. Ilairston, Pride Jones ami 

He studied law with .Judge Gaston and was 
licensed to practice in the Superior Courts in 

He was from bo3'hood an ardent admirer of 
Mr. Calhoun, and naturall}^ became a States- 
rights Democrat. He was unsuccessful as a 
candidate for the Legislature in 1840; but in 
1842 was elected as a Democrat from Burke 
County, though Governor Morehead, the Whig 
candidate for Governor, carried the county by 
a very large majority. 

He had a large and lucrative practice as a 
lawyer, and did not appear again actively as 
a politician till the year 1850. In May, 1846, 
he was married to Corinna M. Morehead, a 
daughter of the late Governor Morehead. She 
is still living. 

He served afterwards in the House of Com- 
mons, as a memlier from Burke, in 1850 and 

In 1856 he was chairman of the North Caro- 
lina delegation in. the National Democratic 
Convention that nominated President Buchan- 
an, and during the same year was elected to 


the State Senate, of which body he was chosen After the expiration of his terra iu Con- 
Speaker, gross in 1862, he returned to his home with 

In 1858 he was a candidate for Congress, to antliorit}' from the President to raise a regi- 
fiil the vacancy made by the appointment of ment; but was prevented from carrj-ing out 
Hon. T. L. Clingman as United States Sen- his purpose by the earnest protestsof his aged 
ator. Colonel David Coleman, who was also father and four brothers, who were already in 
a Democrat, opposed him, and after they had active service. They insisted that he was be- 
canvassed a large portion of the district, Hon. yond the age for service, and it was his duty 
Z. B. Vance announced himself a candidate, to his family and country to remain at home; 
and Colonel Coleman withdrew; but the dis- He was an earnest and active supporter of 
trict had given Mr. Buchanan a verj' small the Confederate cause, and contrilnited lib- 
majority, and the dissension was such that erally to the government and for the main- 
Vance was elected. tenance of the families of soldiers. 

In 1860, W. W. Aver}- was again chairman In 18fi4 an incursion was made by a party 

oftheKortli Cardlina delegation in the Na- of so-called Unionists from Tennessee, com- 

tional Convention at Charleston, and seceded mandcd b}- Colonel Kirk, who afterwards 

vVith the southern wing of the party that af- gained a very unenviable notoriety in North 

terwards nominated Mr. Breckenridge. Dur- Carolina. This party, after surprising and 

ing the same year he was again elected to the capturing a small Ijod}' of conscripted bo^'s in 

State Senate, and declined the nomination for Burke County, retreated tpv/ards Tennessee. 

Speakin- in i'avor of his friend H. T. Clark, Mr. Avery with a body of North Carolina 

who become Go\'ernor after the death of militia pui'sued the part}', and in attacking the 

Governor Ellis. After the election of Mr. retreating forces at a strong position in the 

Lincoln he was an avowed secessionist, and nnjuntains, was mortall}' wounded. He was 

strongl}' urged the call of a convention durisig removed to his home in Morganton, where he 

the winter of 1860 and 1861. died on the .3d day <.f July, 186-1. 

After the State seceded on the 20th of In all the relations of life ho was distin- 

May, 1861, he was elected by the Convention guished for his kindness and afialilit\', and his 

as one of the members from the State at large unselfish love for the comfort and happiness 

of the Provisi'.inal Congress. He served in of others. No man has been more missed 

that body until the Provisional Government and lamented by the communit}' in which 

was succeeded by the f'ei'mauent government, he lived, and his aged father, (then in his 

provided for in the Constitution adopted in eightieth year,) went down to his grave sor- 

1861. He was a member and chairman on rowing for the loss of this the third son who 

the Committee on ^[ilitary Aiiairs. had falle". in l)attle within one year. 

A majority of the Democrats in the Legis- Fo:- the Gjuealogy >)f the Avery family see- 

lature of 1861 voted for Mr. Avery for Sena- Appendix, 
tor in the Congress of the Confederate States; 

but a large minority supported Hon. T. L. McDowell Fajkly of Burke CocNir. 

Clingman, while the Whigs voted for a can- There are no families in the State that have 

didate from their own party. After balloting rendered more important service to the State 

for several weeks the friends of the two candi- than the McDowells. 

dates compromised by electing Hon. W. T. Although careful research has been made 

JJortch. _ foi- years in n cords of the State, and families. 


and by extensive correspondence, yet, in the ceived. In compiling gonealno'ical tallies, or 
earlier periods of our history', tlie want of the pedigrees, gi-eat attention is necessar^y in 
facilities of the press, and a carelessness in clearly stating the nnndjer of generations, in 
preserving family records, some obscuritj" rests anj' given period, as the}' form a guide to the 
on the history of the early founders of this probability of persons having sjirnng from any 
family. particular ancestor or individual. A genera- 
In ni_y " History of North Carolina," as to tion is the interval lietweeu the birth of a 
this family, it is stated that Charles and Jo- father and the birth of sun. Thirt3--tliree 
seph McDowell were brothers, the sons of years have l;een allowed to a generation, or 
Joseph, who, with his wife Margaret O'Neal, three generations for every hundred years, 
had emigrated from Ireland, settled in AVin- The bii'th and death dates, as well as the loca- 
chester, Viiginia, where Charles and Joseph tion, should be stated, since " cbronoli)gy and' 
were born. For authority of these facts, state- locality are the e\es of history."' Tlie repeti- 
ments were fui-nishcd from members of this tion of the same names, without dates or 
family and others \\-hich were believed. Re- [ilaee, creates confusion in our American gene- 
cent and more thorough exaujimitions make alogy, as it lias caused in this instance, 
these statements doubtful. A letter from one -John McDowell, called "Hunting .iohn." 
of the family* to me, states: who resided at Pleasant Gardens, was one of 

^ . , . . , , the early pioneers of AV^estern Carolina. He 
" It is sin'i:ular how inaccurate has been any ..... 
knowledge as to this family. An investiga- ^^'''^' i' ^^ believeo, a native of Ireland. He ' 
tion, instituted son:e time ago, with a view of and a man by the name of Henry "Widener, 
establishing a descent whieli wuild lead to the (^miuiy of wbose descendants now live in Ca- 
secuiint!; of a largo estate through Margaret . i ri j- i • ^i j.' i\-i ■. 
riiA-' 11 1 'r *i -e i- \ .1 ii";,,., tawha County, known ny the name ot White- 
O'JNeal, developed tlie tact, beyonn all ques- 
tion, that her husband (the father of General "(^''W c^mie to this country when it was an un- 
Charles McDowell, and General Joseph,) was hrokeu wilderness, for the purpose of hunting, 
named .Tnhn instead of Juseph, tbat they mar- ,^,,j securing homes for their families. John 
ned 111 Ireland, and In'ed at Qn-.ikei' .Meadows, 
in Riirke Conntv " McDowell built his house on the west siile ot 

the Cataw ba River, cm land now called the 

Lanman, in his " Biograi^bieal Annals of jiany Field, a part of the tine body of land 

Contcress," states: 

\\ell known as " The Pleasnnt Gardens," which 

"Joseph McDowell was a Rei.resentative in for i'ertility of soil, he:dthfulness of climate 

Congress irom 1793 to 17!)5; and again from jmd splendor of sceneij, cannot be excelled. 

1797 to 1799." rj^,|^^ j.^jg ,.,j. jjj^ ,_,-,,^,j^ p,. ^i^g ^-ji^g Qf j^jg 

Tlie family tradition and record is, he died settling, or the date of his deatli, from the 

in 1795. The first error does not destroy the loss of family records, cannot be given; hut 

truth of history that tlie family were of Irish fi-oni tradition, he lived in this lovely spot 

origin; and the second arises from there being with bis wife (Mrs.. Annie Edmundston) to 

two of the same name of the same family, a good old age. 

Every effort and [.ains have been taken to He was a famous hunter, and delighted in 

make the present sketch con-eet. If anv error " trapping," and to a late pei'iod of his life, he 

ecurs. the coriectiuiis will be gratefully re- could be seen on bis, way to the mountains, 

_ with four large bear traps tied behind him on 


*Dr. G. W. JSIidial, of Newton, N. Cto whom 1 his horse, with his trusty lifie on his shoulder, 
am iiKleWed for much information as to tlieMcDowell ^^^ ^^^^^^ excursions he would go alone, and be 



absent fov a montli or more, hunting the deer, 
turkies, and Ijeurs, and in silent eomnumion 
■with nature and witli natui-e's God. lie re- 
alized the exquisite lines ot Byron — 

Crime came not near him ; she is not the child 

Of solitnde. Health shrank not from him, 
For her home is in the rarely trodden wild ; 

Tall and SAvift of too i ^yel■e they, 
Beyond the d\ya.flug' city's pale abortion, 

15ecanse their thoughts had never learned to stray 
On career piin ; the green woods Avere tlieir portion, 

No sinking sjdriti^told them they grew gray, 
No fashion made them apes of her distortion 

Simple and civil ; and their rifles 
Tho' very trne, were not nsed for trifles. 

lie left two daughters and one son: Anna, 
who married Williani Whitson; Rachel, Avho 
imarried John Carson; and Colonel Joseph 
McDowell, who was born on 25th February, 
1758, at Rle.isant Gardens, in Burke County. 
He was always called "Colonel Joe of the 
Pleasant Gardens," to distinguisli him from 
" General Joe of Quaker Meadov>-s." 

He was a soldier and a statesman, and the 
most distinguished of the name. 

He earlj- entered the profession of arms. At 
the age of 18 he joined General Rutherford in 
an expedition, in 1776, against the Cherokee 
Indians, in which he displayed much gallantry 
and desperate courage. It is knov/n that in a 
hand-to-liand fight he killed an Indian chief 
with his sword. 

He was active in repressing the Tories, and 
took part in the battle at Ramsour's Mills, on 
•20th June, 1780, near Lincolnton, as men- 
tioned by General Graham in eulogistic tei'ms, 
for his conduct on that occasion., and materially 
aided in achieving a complete victory over a 
superior force. 

At Cane Ci'eek, in Rutherford Count}', with 
General Charles McDowell, he led the militia, 
i-hiefly of Burke County, and had a severe 
skirmish with a strong detachment of Fer- 
guson's army, then stationed at Gilbert Town, 
and drove them back. 

Immediately afterward he aided in measures 
which culminated in the glorious victory of 
King's Mountain. 

Tins was the darkest period of the dubious 
conflict. Gates was defeated at Camden; 
Savannah and Charleston surrendered to the 
British; Sumter, at Fishing Creek, (18th 
August, 1780;) Cornwallis, in '-'all the pride 
and circumstance " of a conqueror, held the 
undisputed possession of Charlotte and its 

Ferguson, with strong force, was winning 
the attachment of the people from liberty to 
:,loyalty; while the Tories ravaged the whole 
country with vindictive fury. 

There was not a regular soldier south of 
Virginia, and ever}' organized force was scat- 
tered or disbanded. The time had come, and 
these lirave men felt tliat they must " do or 

Anud all these dis istroas circumstances, the 
patri(.itic spirits of Cleaveland, Campbell, 
Sevier, and McDowell did not despair. They 
determined to attack the forces of Ferguson. 
They were all of equal rank, and as thetrojps 
were in the district of Charles McDowell, he 
was entitled to the command. 

From a manuscript letter of Shelby, in my 
possession, he says: 

" Colonel McDowell was the commanding 
officer of the district we were in, and had com- 
manded the armies of the militia all the sum- 
mer before, against the same enerny. He was 
brave and patriotic, but we considered him too 
far advanced in life and too inactive co com- 
mand the enterprise. 

" It was decided to send to headquarters for 
some general officer to command the expedi- 

■' Colonel McDowell, who had the good of 
his country more at heart than any title of 
command, submitted, and stated that he would 
be the messenger to go to headquarters. He 
accordingly started immediately, leaving his 
men under his brotiier, Major Joseph Mc- 

The next day Shelby urged that time was 
precious and delays dangerous. The advance 
was made. Colonel Joseph McDowell, the 
subject of our present sketch, led the boys of 



Burke and Rutherford Connties to battle and 
to victor}-, (7tli October, 1780,) and his com- 
mand was on the right wing of the attaclving 
forces, and aided greatly in insuring victor}-. 
Ferguson fell bravely lighting and his army 
completely routed. 

The next important battle in which Colonel 
Joseph McDowell was engaged was the Cow- 
peus, fought by Morgan and Tarleton on 17th 
Januar}', 1781, in which he led the Xorth 
Carolina militia, which terniinated in a glori- 
ous victory of Morgan, whose name is p-e- 
served in gratitude for his services by the 
■county town of Burke. 

This ended the military career of our pat- 
riotic soldier. 

His civil services were equall}' lirilliant; 
from his elevated character, his acknowledged 
abilities, and popular address, he was always 
a favorite with the people. His name is pre- 
served by calling a county for him erected in 
1842. He was a member of the House of 
Commons in 1787 and 1788; also a member of 
the Convention that met at Uillsboro, 1788, 
to consider the Constitution of the United 
States, of whicii he was the decided opponent, 
and which was rejected by a majority of 100 
votes. He was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture in 1791 and 1792; in 1793 he was elected 
to represent this district in the Congress of 
of the [Jnited States. 

Of the influence and the popularity of the 
McDowells there can l)e no more ample proof 
than that in 1787, 1788 and 1792 the Senator 
and botli of the members of the Housj were of 
this family. 

His presence was tall and commanding, of 
great digiiity of demeanor, and of impressive 
eloquence. Scrupulous in his statements and 
faithful in all business transactions. 

He married Mary, the daugliter of Geoi'ge 
Motfett of Augusta County, Virginia. lie died 
in April, 1795, leaving two sons, John and 

James, and one daugliter, Annie, who married 
Captain Charles McDowell, of '■ Qnaker Mead- 

His widow^ became the second wife of Col- 
onel John Carson, whose first wife was Kachel, 
daughter of "Hunting John," of Pleasant 
Gardens, a sketch of whom we shall present 
when the McDowells are finished. 

John ^IcDowell, sou of Colonel Joseph and 
of Mary Moftett, above, was esteemed a man 
of superior intellect, and of a retiring and 
modest disposition, of exemplary purity of 
life and character. He v\'as averse to public 
life; yet without any etfirt on his part, and 
indeed, against lii:^ wishes, he was elected a 
member of the Legislature f nun Kntherford 
County in 1820 and 1821. 

He married ilary Mansricld Lewis, of A'l- 
gusta County, Yirginia, and lived on ]3road 
Eiver, 14 miles above Rutherfordton, until 
they moved to the village for the purpose of 
educating their children. 

Their children were l>r. Joseph ^[cDowell; 
iMary, who married the Rev. \Y. A. Game- 
well; Dr. James McDowell, (fcxas;) Nancy; 
Martha, who married Dr. G. W. Michael, 
(Newton;) Mira, who married Col. .T. M. C. 
Davis, who fell in the civil war; Sally; John, 
who was colonel of a regiment in the civil wai". 
His sister Annie, only daughter of Col- 
nel Joseph and ^lary .NLoft'ctt McDowell, 
married Captain Chai'les McDowell, son of 
General Ciiarles, of Qaalcer Meadows, from 
which union there were five daughters and one 
son, namely: Eliza, married Nicholas W. Wood- 
fin; Mary, married, first, General John G. 
Bynum, aiid sec )i]d, Juilge It. .M.Pearson; 
Mira, mariied, first, Ji>hn Woodfin, second^ 
John Burnett; Margaret, married William 
McKesson; James, married Julia Manlj-, killed 
in battle at Fredericksburg, Virginia, on 
Marye's Heights; colonel of ISOd Regiment in 
civil war. \ ,_ , , XcA^ 



James McDowell, the second son of Colonel 
Joseph McDowell tliat lived to niannood, pos- 
sessed the esteem of all who knew him. 

He was a meniber of the Senate in the Legis- 
lature, from Burke Conuty, in 1832, and filled 
other offices of trust. Like each one of Col- 
onel Joseph McDowell's children, he was 
remarkable for his modesty, for his integrity, 
and his open-handed charity. 

He owned the I'ieasant Gardens, where he 
lived until advanced in life. He then moved 
to Yancey County, where he died. He married 
Margaret Erwin, and left five children, name- 
ly: Dr. Joseph McDowell, Dr. John Mc- 
Dowell, of Burke County; William McDowell, 
of Asheville; Kate, who married Alontraville 
Patton ; Margaret, who married Marcus Erwin. 

These are the descendants of the branch of 
which " Hunting John " w";is the ancestor. 
. John McDowell, of Quaker Meadows, was 
the cousin of "Hunting John," (Dr. W. A. 
Michal.). He was one of the pioneers of this 
region of country, and settled "at Quaker 
Meadows," on the Catawba Eiver, about a 
mile from Morganton. He was a native of 
L-elaud, and married Margaret 0'JN"eal, (the 
widow of Mr. Greenlee,) b}' whom he had three 
sons: Hugh McDowell, General Charles Mc- 
Dowell, Major John McDowell. 

Hugh McDowell, son of John and Margaret 
O'iN'eal, of Quaker Meadows, left three daugh- 
ters: Mrs. McGintry, Mrs. McKinsey; Mar- 
garet, who married James Murphy,, who left 
one son, John Miirph^-, who married Margaret 
Avery, and left three daughters and one son: 
Margaret, who married Thomas G. Walton; 
Sarah, who married Alexander F. Gaston,- 
son of Judge Gaston; Harriet, who married 
'William M. Walton; John IL McDowell, who 
married Clara Patton. 

General Charles McDowell, (son of John and 
Margaret O'Neal, of Quaker Meadows,) born 
in 1743; died 1815, was probably a native of 
Ireland. On the commencement of our Rev- 

olutionary troubles, he was the commander of 
an extensive district in his section of country, 
and was a brave and daring officer. 

It was not until the year 1780 that western 
N"orth Carolina became the field of military 
operations in the Revoluti(jnary war. After 
subduing the States of Georgia and South 
Carolina, the British forces advanced to this 
State and commenced making demonstrations. 
McDowell was active in counteracting their 

In June, 1780, having been joined by Shelby, 
Sevier, and Clarke, of Georgia, near Cherokee 
Ford on Broad River, McDowell determined 
to attack the British at a strongly fortified 
post on the Pacolet River, under comnnind of 
Patrick Moore, which he gallantly performed 
and compelled him to surrender. 

He also attacked the Tories at Musgrove 
Mill on the Ent)ree River and routed them. 

Many other brilliant afi:'.urs in this section 
marked his energy and efficiency as a soldier. 
We have recorded the facts of his missing a 
participation in the battle of King's Moun- 

As tlie several officers held equal rank, by a 
council of officers McDowell was dispatched 
to headquarters, then near Salisbury, to have 
General Sumner or General Davidson, who had 
been appointed brigadier general in place of 
General Rutherford, taken prisoner at Gates' 

This closed his military career. The [)eople 
of his county were not ungrateful to him for 
his long and successful military service. He- 
was the Senator from Burke from 1782 to 
1788, and he had been also in 1778, and mem- 
ber of the House 1809-'10-'ll. He died 31st 
March, 1815. He mari'ied Grace Greenlee, who 
was distinguished among " the women of the 
Revolution." She was a woman of renuirka- 
ble energy and firmness. Mrs, Ellet has re- 
corded her extraordinary character, and relates 
that on one occasion sonie bummers, in the 

BmmE COtrN"TY. ST 

absence of lier liLisbaiid, plundered her house. Athan A. McDowell served in the Creek 
With S!ime few fi-iends she pursued the iiui- war. He was shei'itf of Bnrke Country. Sen- 
raudei's and compelled them, at the muzzle of ator in the Legislature, 1815. He removed to 
a musket. to give up lier property. While her Henderson Count}'. He married Ann Good- 
husband was secretly making p:)W(^er in a son, the stepdaughter of Colouel AVilliam 
eave, she aided him, and burnt the charcoal Davenport, of Caldwell County, and left one 
herself This vcr}- powder did good service in son, Charles, and one daughter, Louisa, who 
the battle- of King's Mountain. Previous to n^arried Hon. James C. Harper, whose 
her marriage with General Charles McDowell, daughter married Hon. Judge Cilly. 
she was the v/ife of Captain Bowman, who James R. McDowell lived a bachelor, and 
fell in the battle of Ramsour's mill. She was died at the old homestead. He was a very 
the daughter of Margaret O'Xeal, by Mr. great favorite with all who knew him. He 
Greenlee, anterior to the union with the father often contended with H(in. Samuel P. Carson 
of General Charles McDowell. She had a in the political tield, with alternate success, 
daughter Ijy this marriage with Captain Bow- He was a member of the House in 1817-'1S 
man, named Mary, who married Colonel Wil- and '19, and of the Senate, in lS2o-'2o. 
liam Tate, and who was the mother of Junius Sarah married Colonel William Paxtou, 
Tate, and Louisa, who was the mothei- of the brother of Judge Paxton; had several chil- 
fivst Mrs. Z. B. Vance. dren; one of wh(UH married Rev. Brank Mer- 

She had by General Charles McDowell, three rimon, father of Hon. A. S. Merrimon, 

sons and fonr'daughters: Captain Charles Mc- United States Senator; Eliza Grace married 

Dowell; Athan A.; James R.; Sarah; Eliza Stanhope Erwin; Margaret married Colouel 

Grace; Mai'garet; Sallie; in whom and in William Dickson, whose son was in the Legisla- 

whose descendants, tlie blood of Grace Green- ture ]842-'44; Sallie; Mrs. Christian. 

Ibe courses. It is curious as well as interesting, .Major John McDowell, third son of John 

to observe the etiect of blood. Dr. Rush de- <i"fl Maigaret O'Xeal, of Quaker Meadows, 

clared that " the blood of one intelligent and brother of General Chai-les McDowell, 

woman would redeem three genei'ations of lived on Silver Creek, in Bui'ke County, about 

fools." nine miles from Morganton. 

'Ibis, like the golden thread of Ariadne, is He was a member of the Legislature ini 

clearly traceable in the genealogy of this 1792-'94. 

family, marking with intellect, beauty, and in He had the sad mishap to lose his sons 

enterprise, in clear and detinite lines. As Dr. (three,) and a nephew, at the same time, by 

Johnson, in his eiiitaph of Goldsrjiith, ex- the burning of his house. 

presses the beautiful idea- He left two daughters: Margaret, whomar- 

jSfiEtetiget, quod non onaivit. ried Robert McElrath; and Hannah, niarried 

Of these Captain Charles McDowell, who was Joh" McElrath. 

always called " (kptain Charles," owned the General Joseph McDowell was the son of 
homestead of "The Quaker Meadows." He John and Margaret (of Quaker Meadows,) had 
was a member of the Legislature from Burke tlie reputation of a brave otKcer of the Rev- 
County in 1809-'10-'ll. He was much res- olution, a soldier and a statesman. We regret 
spected; an ardent politician. (For his de- that so little is known of his character and. 
scendants see sketch of Annie McDowell, services. The aged men of Burke that knew 
whom he married.) him describe him as beinggenial in his temper 


and benevolent. I:i appearance he was tall George MnH'ett, of Aug-nsta Count}'-, Ya., and 

and comn.iandin.u;. the sister of Margaret, wife of GeneralJosepb 

lie was a great favorite with the people. McDowell. 

He was for eight years successively elected to Their children were Samuel Price; AVilliam 

the House of Conimons, 17f>0 to 1758, and Sen- M.; Matilda; George and Jonathan L. 

ator in 1791 to 1795. He was elected a mem- Colonel John Carson died on tiie 5th of 

her of CoiiL'.ross in 17!i7-'9f). He married March, 1841. 

Margaret Motfett, sistci- of the wife of Colonel Joseph McDowell Carson, son of John Car- 
Joseph McDowell. He lived on the east side son and Rachel McDowell, his first wife, was 
of John's River, ahont seven miles from Mo r- distinguished for his integrity and brilliant 
o-anton. intel'ieet. He };)racticed law for many years 

Oiie of his sons, Hugh Harvey, resides in -with eminent success. He much preferred 

Missouri and is the father of Mrs. Governor the steady and uniform life of a jurist to the 

Parsons. uncertain and fitful career of a politician. Yet 

Anotlier soil ; Joseph J.,) is a citizen of he represented his county in the Legislature; 

Ohio, and was elected a member of Congress in the Connnons in 1812, 1813, 1814 and 18o5; 

froni Ohio in 1843-'47. • and in the Senate in 1832, 1836, and 1838, and 

One of his daughters married Christ- was <a mendjer of the State Convention of 

man, and after his death married Judge Wake, 1835, to amend the Constituti.m. He lived on 

of Kentucky. ' Green River, in Rutherford County. He mar- 

The Caksons of Borke County. 

ried his cousin Rebecca, daughter of James 
Wilson, and had many descendants; Tench, 

John Carsou was the progenitor of this fam- who married a daughter of Vardy AieBce; 

ily, so distinguished in the iuma'sof our State. Rachel, who married Otis; Jason, who married 

lie was a native of Ireland, born on 24th Moore; Alargaret; Charles; Joseph McDowell^ 

day of j,i;ircli, 1752; came to America and John; Catheiine; James; Mikon. 

Settled in Burke (^ountj- about 1773. One of his gi'anddaughters, Reijccca, was 

He possessed naturally r. powerful intellect, the wife of the late Washiugton Id. Hardy, 

great decision t)f chariicter, mueii capacity for libraria.n of the House of Representa- 

bnsiness, quick, resolute, impulsive. He was fives, (1879.) 

consecpiently a man of prominent character \Villiam M. Carsju, sou of Colonel John 

and of much intiuence in his county, and for Carson, by his second wife, was born Deeem- 

many years its leading magistrate. her o, 1801. 

In 1805 and 1S06 he was a member of the He represented Burke Couuty in 1838 and 

Legislature frnm Curke Couuty. 1840. He had no fondness for political life, 

He lived on JJuck Creek, accumulated a but was deservedly very popular, and received 

large estate, and raised a large family. Pie nearly a unauiujous vote for the Le.gisiati.ire. 

was twice married. His first wife, as before But having n.) political as[iirations declined 

stated, was the daughter of -'Huuting" public ser\dce. 

John McDowell, and their children were He was twice married, first to Almyra, 

James, Jas;U), Joseph McDowell, Rebecca, daughter of Samuel "Wilson, of Tennessoe; a.ud 

John, Charles and Sally. ijis second wife was Catherine, the widow of 

His second wife was the widow of Colonel Samuel P. Ca.rsDU, daughter of James WilsiUi, 

Joseph McDowell, who was the daughter of of Tennessee. He lived on Buck Creek, in 


'McDowell Couiitj', where he died in the fall of a Re\'olntionary soldier, and delivered a haud- 

1862. some eulog}' upon him. 

But the most distinguished of this famil\' As the canvass progressed, it became evi- 

was Samuel P. Carson. dent to Vance and Graham, that Carson, al- 

Samuel Price Carson was the eldest son of though so j'oung, was not onlj^ a candidate, 

Colonel John Carson by his last wife, who but that he possessed talents of a high order, 

was the widow of Colonel Joseph ^IcDowell, and was winning hosts of friends. The con- 

of the Pleasant Gardens. test became warm, and before the time for the 

He was born in the county of Burke, on election, Walker, who had been completely 

ithe 22d day of January, 1798. won by Carson's kind and considerate treat- 

llis life, although short, was an eventful raent, withdrew from the contest and gave 

one. He entered political life earl}', and was liim the whole weight of his influence, 

-elected to the State Senate in 1822, and again This decided the contest, and Carson was 

in 1S24. But this was afield mnch too small elected. 

for his aspirations. In 182-5, he became a The contest in 1827, between Carson and 

candidate for a seat in the United States Vance, terminated in an unha|)p3' manner. 

Congress. His competitors were t!ie Hon. Samuel P. Carsmi's temperament was such 

Felix Walker, Hon. Robert B. Vance, and that he could not liear confinement ; therefore, 

Hon. James Graham. slow, plodding stud}-, was out of the question, 

Mr. Walker was an old man, and had been and regular systematic learning he did not 

the member from 1817 to 1823. He seemed possess. Yet his inquiring mind caused him 

highly anmsed at the idea of Carson's aspiring to read with a\idity whatever came to hand, 

to such a position. In his final speech he and with powerful perceptive faculties, and a 

announced Vance and Graham as his cjm- remarkably tenacious memory, he understood 

petitors, and added, "and I'm told there's a his subject at a glance, and whatever he read 

boy from Burke, who lUinils to be a candi- he retained, consjqueutly he was a well-in- 

date." formed man. 

In their speeches, Vance, who Wiis then Con- Fond of merriment, with a genial, social 

gressman, and Graham made the usual excuses disposition, and possessing great wit, he was a 

for being candidates. Each had had so many, delightful companion, and "the soul" of every • 

and such strong solicitations, that he was social circle which he entered, 

unable to resist the pressure upon him, and A great judge of human nature, he could 

had at last, as a matter of duty, consented to adapt himself to every one; and with the most 

present himself. Cai'son was not lo,)ked upon captivating manners he won all whom he met. 

as being in the way by either, and all their Generous to a fault, a man so endowed could 

batteries were turnefl upon Walker. They not be otherwise than immensely popular with 

told the people that at Washington City the people. And, with a superior intellect 

he bo'irdal Old of town, and I0:dked in; and rid- fine conversational powers, a chivalrous sense 

iculed the old nian without stint or mercy. of honor, and devoted attachment to his 

Carson, when he took the stand, told the friends, he was as much sought by the great 

people that all his friends had solicited him as by the more humble. 

not to run, and he was a candidate because lie Perhaps no man ever possessed warmer or 

wanted to ^0 to Congress. He treated Mr. AVal- more devoted friends, 

ker with the greatest respect; spoke of him as As a speaker he was argumentative, and his 


powers of analysis were very 2;i'eat, enabling taking his position lie told his second, the Hon. 

him to make his subject [ilain to the most sini- AVarren R. Davis, of South Carolina, that he- 

ple. At times, not often, he would illustrate did nut intend to kill him ; that he could hit 

a point with anecdote, and always with him anj'whcre he pleased, (Carson was a re- 

eftect. He had great command of language, markablj* good shot with a pistol.) and that 

possessed a powerful imagination, and a charm- he intended oidy to wound him. Da\is re- 

ing voice. Perfectly free from aft'ectation,self- plied to him that Tancehad con}e there 

yjossessed. with a manner dignified, ea^y, and to kill him; that if he only wounded him, au- 

graceful, he had tlie power of swaying the other meeting would be the result, and if he 

feelings of the crowd at will, and often held did not promise to try to kill him, that he 

his hearers, as if spell-bound, by his elocjuence. (Davis) could not be a party in the affair, and 
He was indeed an orator. ' that he must seek another second. This had 

He was said to be the l^est impromptu its influence on the mind of his principal, and 

speaker in Congress. a tragic effect. 

The next event to be noticed in this sketch, Their positions ^'ere tal-:en; the word was 

is one which could not but have saddened the given, and Vance IctI to die in a few hours, 

whole after life of a man possessing the kind, Carson, like Hamilton, was very much averse 

warm heart, and benevolent feelings of Samuel to duelling, and althtmgh on two occasions- 

P. Carson. afterwards, he r^greed to act as second in affairs 

In that day, duelling was sustained by pub- of honor, be only accepted the position in each 

lie sentiment, and it being ruinous to charactei' instance with the hope and for the purpose of 

to decline a challenge, or to neglect to send effecting an amica-ble adjustment of the difii- 

one, under proper provocation, it was a com- culty, and in both instances ha succeeded, 

mon thing, particularly among gentlemen in In one of these, a strong and decided politi- 

political life. cal opponent of Samuel f*. Carson, evinced 

Dr. Robert B. Vauce, Carson's rival before his appreciation of the man !>y calling on him 

the people, and his competitor in the last two to act as bis second in a difliculty with one 

elections for Congress, ^\-as a man of brilliant who was both a political and personal friend 

talents, and possessed many noble traits of of Carson. The parties alluded to were the 

character. He was vevy popular with the Hon. David F. Caldwell and the Hon. Charles 

people; and Carson's own personal friends Fisher, of Salisbury. In tlie other, he acted 

esteemed him highly. as second to Governor Branch, of Xorth Caro- 

Unfortuuatel}', passions aroused in political lina, in a ditticult}' with Governor Forsj'thjOf 

contests became morbid with him, and he was Georgia; Archer, of Virginia, being the friend 

led by them to provoke a challenge in such a of the latter. 

way that Carson could not decline to send it; General Jackson was elected President of 

this was by an insult to his father. The chal- the United States in the fall of 1828, and on 

lenge was promptlj' accepted. They met at the 4th of March, 1829, commenced an ad- 

Saluda Gap, on the South Carolina State ministration which will ever be memorable in 

line. the annals of the country. 

Carson was accompanied to the field bj^ the In that year Carson was re-elected to Con- 

Hon. David Crockett, and other friends. He gress. He and General Jackson belonged to 

shrank from the idea of taking Vance's life; the same political party, and a warm atW inti- 

and, perfectly cool and self-possessed, before mate personal friendship grew irp between 


tliem, which was destined to be tried bj'po'.it- In neither of the States, hovrever, was there 

teal dissensions that divided parties, alienated such unanimity anionii- the friends of nuUifi- 

friends, and came very near dissol\-inci; the cation as to make it prudent, in their judgment, 

bonds of the Union itself. to attempt to put it into practical etfect. 

Leading statesmen of the South considered ^^^-^ change, too, in the administration led 

high rates of tantf upon foreign importations them to expect a satisfactory mndiiicati..n of 

as destructive to the interests of the nun- the obnoxious law; and .hiring the summer of 

manufacturing States. They regarded it as 1829 their etforts were directed towards in- 

exceedingly unjust on the part of the General Anencing the public mind iu opposition to it., 

Govcrnn.ent to institute such a policy. They The opponents of the administration had a 

conceived that no snch iri, position is authorized cleci<led majority in Congress, and the Presi- 

by the Constitution of the United States, and ^'^'-'^ vetoed ^:everal bills that had lieen passed 

that any act of (Congress, providing for the 'j.V that body, which were antagonistic to the 

collection of excessive duties, is in violation views of the States Rights party ; <md for some 

of the true intent and meaning of that instru- time there was no open I, reach between Gen- 

ment, and is therefore " null a^nd void, and no ^ral Jackson and his party friends, and to all 

1 . •» appearances they were in harmony. But vari- 

r„, , . -. . . , , ous disturbing elements were in existence 
iliose who entertained these views regarded 

the cai'se in the i'undaniental law which 
acknowledges that all powers not delegated 
to tlie (ilenerjl (government are reserved 
to the States as one of- the gi'eatest import- 
ance; and that on its faitiiful observance de- 
pends the growth, development and welfare 
of the individual States, and the perpetuit}' of 
the Union. 

and intiuences were at v.'ork whicli, by the 
end of the second .session of the 2Ist Congress, 
the lieginiiing of 1831, indicated plainU- that 
there was a dix'ision among the friends of the 

In the election for members of C(uigress in 

1831, Mr. Carson was again elected. 

In the Presidential election which took 

phice in 1832, the ultra States Rights men 

In 1824, a vehement but inetiectual opposi- having confidence m General Jackson, re- 

tion was made in Congress to a protective fused to support him, and there were different 

tariff bill; andwhe:i that body passed a law parties, some of which possessed great strength, 

increasing the rates of duty, as was done in ;„ opposition to him; but the elements of op- 

1828, the whole country became profoundly position were too incongruous to admit of any 

agitated. The delegation in Congress from m^ion between them, and General Jackson 

South Carolina held a meeting, and discussed ^jy^^g re-elected. 

the question of resigning their seats; and also ^-^,.g.. |,.^,-| j,,^,,^ Y>een questions presented to 

the question of declaring the law to be void, ^hg country which involved such interests. 

and of no effect within the State. On the 27th of November, of the same year, 

Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, and- the Convention of South Carolina met, and 

other Southern States passed resolutions in soon after the Act of Xullification was passed, 

their respective Legislatures, exhibiting their Everywhere the feelings of the people were 

extreme opposition to the measure; antl every wrought up to the highest pitch of excitement, 

where throughout the South there were in- Passions were aroused in man}- places, almost 

dications of imminent di'.nger of a disruption to a state of frenzy', and to all appearances 

of the Union. civil war was inevitable. 


Congress met, and by a modification of the manner which shows the kindly impulsive na- 

tarift', oil was poured upon the troidjled ture of Mr. Carson. At a large public ball, 

waters. Soon all warlike demonsti'ations Mr. Carson in turning saw Mr. Webster, who 

ceased, but still bitterne-'S rankled in the was standing with his arms folded in rather 

■ bosoms of many. an absti'acted niannor. Giving way to the 

Samuel 1'. CcUvon believed that the doctrine impulse of the moment, he immediately ad- 

of States Eights contained a vital principle in vanced to him with his hand extended, and 

our Government, and v\-as. therefore, one of its said, in his usual hearty manner, "How do 

warmest advocates. A large majority of the you do, sir?" Mr. "Webster grasped his hand 

people of his district regarded the preservation most coi'dially and exclaimed: "Carson, I al- 

of the Union paramount to every other Ijless- wa^'s liked you, I knew you tt> be an honest 

iug, and at the Cbagressiomil election which inan." And tiiey were friends ever after, 

took place in 18-33, he was defeated by the Mr. Carson continued feeble; and indeed, he 

Hon. James Grahanj. never regained his healtli. He pa.ssed his 

But Mr. Carson had lost liis health, and was time in the quiet enjoyment of the society- of 
not able to canvass liis district. his friends, until the j-ear 1835, when he re- 
He never appeared before the people of his solved to remove to Texas — then struggling 
district again. under the op[.iressions of Mexico. In that 

Mr. Carson I'Cnew the strength of General year he visited that country for the puipose 

Juckson's p)rejudiee3, and the vigor of his tern- of selecting a hijme; and when he returned, he 

per, and being a ver^- warm personal friend, could not but have been gratified at the strik- 

telt anxious to know what his feelings towai'ds iug evidence which the [leople of his native 

him' were after the change in their political count}'. had given of their confidence in him, and 

relati'ons. their liigh esteem. They h<id elected him, 

Therefore, upon meeting General Jackson's during his absence, as their memlier of the 

brother-in-law, immediately after returning to State Convention, ^vhich was held that j'ear, 

W^ashiugton, he inquired what the General's 1S3.5. He accept i.d the position, and discharged 

feelings tovvaid him were. He replied: "They the duties with fidelity and acceptability, 

always were to be of the kindest sort, be is In the fall of 18-36, he reuujved with his 

i'ond of your company; that he does not dis- family to tlie county which he liad selected,; 

lii-ce }ou or Sam Houston." and the same year was elected member of the 

There never seemed the slightest abatement Convention of Texas, of wniich General I)a\'id 

iu the warmth of his feelings for Carson. His G. Burnett was President, and which created 

invitations to him were just as frequent as the Republic. 

ever; theii' friendly and social relations were This was a dark and gloomy hour. Gladly 

never disturbed in the slightest degree. VVlieu did Texas welcome such a man as Samuel P. 

in Washington Citj' 2vir. Carson was a general Carson. Iu the organization he ^vas made 

favoiite among the members of Congress, their Secretary t>f State; and it was owing to his 

relations were \eiy kind, and his intercourse intimate acquaintance and personal popularity 

with them was very pleasant. with the public men of the United States ho 

A coolness occurred between, him and the was sent to "Washington Gity to intercede for 

great Daniel Webster, whicli prevented them the recognition of the Republic among the 

from speaking to each other for three or four nations of the earth, 

years. It was terminated howes'er, and in a At this time the whole civilized world was 

bukke couxtt. 


sTiocked at the horrible massacre of Alamo, and 
syiiipathized with Texas, struggling against 
the immense armies which AJexico had hurled 
upon her. Her destruction seemed inevitable. 
Under these circurn-tances, recognition was 
out of the question. But when Texas, on the 
field of San Jacinto, h;id scattered the hosts 
of Mexico, and made manifest her ability- to 
maintain herself against that power, recogni- 
tion by the Cnited States came, and Mr. 
Carson, without doui.t, did much towartis 
preparing this countiy for it._ 

He was not al)le much longer to discharge 
the active duties of life. 

His wife was Catheiine, a daughter of 
James'Wilsiin, of 'i'ennessee. to whom he was 
married on the 10th day of May, 1831. With 
her and his little daughter, to whom he was 
devoted, he spent the most of the remainder of 
his life. 

He died at Little Eock, Arkans:is, in No- 
vember, 1840, leaving one chuighter, who is 
the wife of Dr. J. McD. Whitson, of Talla- 
dega, Alabama, a great grandson of -'Hunting'' 
John McDowell. 

But Caison was never the same man after the 
aii'air whirh terminated in the death of the 
feailess and talented Vance, the uncle of the 
Governor and General Vance, as lie was before 
the tragic event. From ii ruddy and robust 
complexion, iiis countenance so expressive of 
genius and good humor, a frame active and 
buoyant, in his pallid cheek, his sunken eye, 
antl tottei-ing step, he showed the deep pangs 
and ravages of remorse. As expressed by- 
Home, in Douglas; 

Happy hi my uihid was lie that died, 

For many deaths has the survivor suffered; 

In the wild desert on a rock he sits, 

Or on some nameless stream's untrodden banks, 

And ruminates all day on his unhappy fate. 

At times alas ! not in liis perfect mind. 

Holds secret coiivetse witli Iiis departed friend. 

And oft at iiiglit forsakes liis retless couch. 

To make sad orizous for him he slew. 

material as to the !McDovi-ell family, I must 
again express my thanks to Dr. Michal. 

Israel Pickens i-epresented Burke County in 
the Semite in 1808 and 1809, with Isaac T. 
Avery and CharlesMcDowell as colleagues tlie 
latter year. 

He was a native of Mecklenburg County, of 
tlifit part now Cabarrus; born SOth January, 

He was the son of Samuel Pickens, who done 
good service in the Revolutionary- war against 
the British and Tories. 

He was educated in Iredell County, and fin- 
ished his education at AVashington College, 
Pennsylvania, w-here he also completed his law 
studies. He was licensed to plead, and settled 
in Morganton. 

He \\-as the Representative in Congress from 
this district in 1811 to 1817, and was suc- 
ceeded by Hon. Pelix Walker. 

He voted f(n' tlie war of 1812, and was a firm 
supporter of Madison. 

In 1817 he removed to Alabama. and settled 
at St. Stevens, and was appointed by the 
President, Register of the Land Oiiice. On 
the death of Governor Bibb, he was elected, 
in 1821, Governor of that State, and again in 
1823; and in 182(i, on the death of Dr. Chal- 
mers, he was appointed Sjuat )r in Congress 
from Alabama. 

He was appointed United States Judge for 
Alabama, which he declined to accept. In 
the fall of 182C, in consequence of a serious 
affection of the lungs, he resigned his seat in 
the Senate; he repaired to Cuba, hoping that 
his health would be restored by the mild cli- 
mate, where he died 24th April, 1827.* 

David ISTewland was a native of Burke 
County, and represented the county in 1825- 
'27 and '28 in the Commons, and in 1830 in 
the Senate. In 1832 he was a candichite for 
Congress against Hon. James Graham, and 

For the above sketch, anil for most of the *Pickett's Alabama, II, 432. 



believed that lie was fairly elected. It was 
nearly a tie in the popular vote, and Graham's 
seat was contested by him. The House, unahle 
or unwilling to decide, referred the election 
back to the people, and Graham was elected. 
He immigrated to Wisconsin, and was so suc- 
cessful in politics that he was elected to the 
Legishiture, and on sevei'al occasions was chosen 
.Speaker. But broken down in fortune and 
health and hopes, he went to Washington 
City, where lu engaged in " the wild hunt for 
toflice." Aftor fruitless attempts, failing to 
obtain any position, however menial, he sunk 
in despair, and on 20th December, 1857, his 
body was found in the Tiber. He had com- 
mitted suicide. 

— -Alas, poor Yorick ! I knew him, Horatio. A 
fellow of infinite jest, and most excellent liumor. 

Todd R. Caldwell was born in Morganton, 
February 19, 1818. His father, John Cald- 
well, was a native of Ireland; settled in Mor- 
ganton in 1800, and became a leading merchant 
in that place. 

He was well educated, and graduated at the 
University, 1S40, in a hirge class, with such 
men as Judge Barnes, Judge Shipp, John W. 
Cunningham, WilUani Johnston, and others, 
with honor. He read law with Governor 
Swain, and was admitted to the bar in 1840, 
and sjon attained an extensive practice. 

He entered the arena of politics in 1S42, 
and continued in its e.xciting pursuit as long 
as he lived. He was an (dd Line Whig of the 
strictest sense. 

In 1848 he was one of the electors, and cast 
the vote of the State for Taylor and Fihiiore. 
On the breaking out of the civil war, he was 
the friend of tiie Union and the foe of seces- 

In 1865, he was elected a delegate to the first 
State Convention that met after the war. In 
1868 he was nominated as Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor on same ticket with Governor Ilolden, and 
was elected. On deposition of Governor 

Holden. in 1871, he succeeded him as Gover- 

As a criminal lawyer he had much reputa- 
tion; and as a politician, much success, rarely 
failing in an election liefore the people. In 
1872 he was nonunated as Governor, and 
opposed b}' Judge Merrimon. After a heated 
canvass he was elected. 

He married the eldest daughter of William 
Cain, and niece of late Judge RutHn. He 
died, after a short illness, at Hillsboro, on the 
11th February, 1874, and was succeeded as 
Governor by Hon. C. A. Brogden, of AVayne 

R. C. J^earson was one of the most useful 
and patriotic citizens of Burke County ,■^vllere 
he was bm-n, lived and died. 

lie was an honest and intelligent merchant, 
a skillful financier (president of the branch 
bank of the State,) and one of the most earn- 
est friends of internal improvements in the 
State. From the day he organized the first 
stockholders' meeting in 1855, at Salisbury, of 
the Western, N. C, Railroad, and through the 
weary years that followed, ha was the stay 
and backbone of the belt of counties between 
Rowan and Buncombe. What Alorehead wtts 
to' the Central, so was Pearson to the Western 

But it was in private life, as a friend and a 
neighbor, that the traits of his real character 
were most conspicuous. During the long and 
bloody civil war, although firmin his devotion 
to his native land and people, his house and his 
heart was open to all Confederate wounded sol- 
diers, and an as_yluui for their widows and 
orphans. His death caused a deeper sorrow than 
was ever evinced in our community, and his 
nieuiory — 

Sleeps in blessings. 

And has a touib of orphan tears, 
Wept over him. 

He left several children to imitate his exam- 
ple and emulate his virtues. 



Caljarrns County, daring the Revolution and 
before a part of Mecklenburg, showed early 
resistance to the powers and oppressions of 
its rulers. The people lost no opportunity 
■of opposing the Royal Grovernment. 

I found, in the London Rolls Office, the list 
of persons who were concerned in destro3"ing 
the ammunition intended for Governor Trj^on's 
arm}-, en route from Charleston to Salisbni'v, 
in 1771, inclosed in a dispatch from Governor 
Martin; and the}' are preserved, as many of 
the descendants of these bold and [latriotic 
men still reside in tlds section, as follows: 

James Ashmore; Benjamin Cochran; Robert 
Caruthers; Robert Davis; Joshua Hadley; John 
White; James White; William White, Jr. 

We present a name wortliy of respect and 
remembrance. Our pages have T)een hitherto 
devoted to tlie soldier and sttitesman, but we 
now dwell upon one who stamped upon bis 
day and generation, as a divine, a cliaracter 
worthy of all Gl'ecian or Roman fame. 

Rev. John Robinson, J). D.,* was in all re- 
spects one of the highest type of men in mmd 
and manners; resplendent in purity and use- 
fulness of his lit'e; peerless in consecrated 
genius; like Masselon, he was trulj^the Legate 
of the Skies. He was horn in this county, 
near Sugar Creek Church, and received his ac- 
ademic education from Mr. Archibald, and 
completed it at Winnsb)ro, South Carolina. 
He was licensed to preach in 179-3, and became 
one of the most popular and acceptable minis- 
ters of the Presbyterian faith; ho taught 
school for many years, and some of the first 
minds of the country were developed l.i}- his 
learning and assi(h^it3^ t These have adorned 

*Historical sketch of Poplar Tent Chiircli, by Wm. 
S. Harris. 

t As Governors Owen, Pickens, Murphy, and Hon. 
Charles Fisher, D. M. Ijarringer, Col. Daniel Coleman 
and others. 

every station of life; in testimony of their 
grateful appreciation of his services, his 
pupils built a handsome monument, on which 
is a beautiful inscription appropriate to his 
character. And although an ordinarj' life has 
elapsed since his decease, his memor}- is still 
cherished by manj- with afi:"ection. 

He married Mary Baldwin, whose lovely 
character did much to temper the ardent en- 
thusiasm of her husband. Only four children 
reached maturity, two sons and two daughters. 
His eldest, Samuel, was adventurous and daring 
in temper. He participated in the South 
American and Turkish-Grecian struggles, and 
attained command of a splendid ship, which 
was lost at sea in February, 1843, with all on 

Connected with Cabarrus County' and the 
church is the name of Rev. Hezokiah James 
Balch, who was born at Deer Ci'cek, Hai'ford 
Cimnty, Maryland, in 1748. He was a gifted 
divine and a finished scholar. He graduated 
at Princeton in 1766, in the same class with 
Waighstill Aver}', Oliver Ellsworth, of Con- 
necticut, Luther Martin, of Maryland, and 
others. He came to North Carolina in 1760. 
He was the first pastor of l^'oplar Tent Church, 
and remained so until his death. He com- 
bined in his character unspotted piety, enthu- 
siasm, and firmness. He was earnest and 
patriotic in the cause of liberty; and took an 
active part with the men of Mecklenburg, to 
whicli Caliarrus then belonged, in the conven- 
tion that declared Independence on the 20th 
of May, 1775. He did riot, however, live to 
see the warmest wish of his heart gratified, 
the independence of his country', for which he 
was ready to give up his life. He died in 

In the ancient graveyard of the ven- 
erable Poplar Tent Church, stands a moss- 


covered monument which bears this inscrip- 
tion — 

Beneath this marble 
are the mortal remahis of 
Hezekiah James Balch, 
first pastor of Poplar Tent Congregation, and one of 
the oiiginal members of the Orange Iresbytery. He 
was^icensed a preacher of the Everlasting Gospel of fliaoiice in public affairs. He was an educated 
the Presbytery of Donegal in 176G, and rested from his 

man; graduated at the University in 1799, 

and died on the 18th October,. 1845, near 

of General John Phifer, (son of Martin and' 
Bets,)' Locke.) lie was a useful man, of deci- 
sion of character, patriotic and enterprising 
He often represented Cabarrus in the Legisla- 
ture from 1808 to 1815, and wielded great in- 

labonrsin A. D. 1776; having been Pastor of the Uni- 
ted Congregations of J'oplar Teut and liocky Piiver 
about seven years. 

He was distingnit-hed as one of a Committee of three 
who prepared the Declaration of Independence; 
and his eloquence, the more effectual from his acknowl- 
edged wisdom, purity of motive, and dignity of charac- 
ter, contributed much to the unanimous ad' ption of' 
that iustrumeni. ou 20th May, 1775. 

Yet there are some few of modern times 
^^■ho alleged that no such convention ever oc- 

The Phifeu Family. 

The ancestor of this large family. Alar- 
tin Phifer, (or Pilfer,) was a native of Switz- 
erland, and emigrated to Amcriea; went first 
to Pennsyh'ania, and afterwards came to North 
Carolina, with the current of German, Irish 
and Scotch, and settled in the then Mecklen- 
burg County. He was much respected for his 
industry, frugality, and sound sense. lie was 
elected in 1777 a member of t!ie Legislature 
from Mecklenburg, with Waightstill Avery as 
a colleague in the Comnmns, and John Mc- 
Knitt Alexander in the Sent,te. lie married 
Margaret Blackweldcr. He died in 1789, 
leaving three sons. 

For the Genealogy of the Phifer Family, 
see Appendix. 

The genealogical table h;is been carefully- 
compiled, and it is believed to be accurate. It 
emijraces three generations and can be ex- 
tended. It presents the members of a hirge 
family', many of whom are distinguished for 
their services and talents, and all for their 
sterling \irtues and exemplary characters. The 
services of John Phifer, son of Martin and 
Mai'garet Blackwelder, in the war of the 

The Family of BARRmoERs of Cabarrus. 

John Paul Barringer, (or as he wrote his 
panic, Paul Barringer,) the founder of the 
family in North Carolina, was born in Wurtem- 
burg, in German}', on 4th of June, 1721. He 
settled first in Pennsylvania, and afterwarde 
in Cabarrus, then Meckleidjurg, about 1750. ■ 

Wlieti the Revolution broke out, he took a. 
decided stand with the oppressed [.)eople of 
his State, and from his devotion to tlieir cause, 
he suffered severely, for he was taken prisoner 
by the Tories, and carried to South Carolina. 

He was elected a mend:ier of the Legisla- 
ture, the first from Cabari'us after its division.' 
from Mecklenburg in 1793, atid was a promi- 
nent and influential citizen to the day of his 
death, which occuri'cd on 1st January, 18 07. 
He married, first, Ann Elizabeth Iseman; and 
second, Catherine Blackwelder, by whom he 
had several children, viz: 

Diuiiel L. Barringer, born in .\Iecklen- 
iiurg County, Octobei' 1st, 1788, studied law, 
and settled at Raleigh, lie was elected a 
member of thellouse of Commons from Wake 
County, 1813-'iy-'21; and a member of Con- 
gress from 1826 to 18-35. 

He removed to Tennessee, and was one of 
the Presidential electors in 1S44, voting for 
Mr. Clay. He was the Speaker of the House 
of Representatives of that State. He married 

" Much of the material of the sketch of the Phifers 
has been gathered from correspondence, and from an 

Revolution, and in the Councils of the State, e.xcellent article in North Carolina University Maga- 

zine (Vol. V., p. 418, November, Ihob,) entitled A- 
deterve a perpetual remembrance; as also those memoir of Coir el John Phifer. 


Miss White, sister of Mrs. D. L. Swain. He Colonel Geor£;e Alexander and Major Thos. 

died October 16th, 1852. Harris were natives of Cabarrus and officers of 

General Paul Barringer, the eldest son the Continental line. The}' both were brave 

by a second marriage, was born 1778. He re- and true — fonght nndcrthe eye of Washingti^n 

ceived a good English education, and was at Monmouth and Trenton and in the battle 

distinguished for his business habits and his of Camden, where both were taken prisoners 

strong practical sense. He was a member of and Harris severely wounded.* 

the House of Commons from 1806 to 1815, and T>v. Charles Harris was born in 1763; while 

in 1822 in the Senate of the Legislature. but a ^outh pui-sning his studies in Charlotte, 

He married a second time, Elizabeth, he joined the corps of cavalry under General 

daughter of Matthew Brandon, of Rowan, W. R. Davie, and rendered good service 

whoso family are distinguished for their abil- under Ihat brave and daring officer. After 

ities, patriotism and love of independence. the war was over he resumed his studies, and 

Matthew Brandon was a soldier of the he finished his classical as well as his medical 

Revolution, and was with General Joseph stud}' in Philadelphia, under the charge of 

Graham and Colonel Locke in opposing the that eminent professor, Benjamin Rush. On 

advance of the British near Charlotte, when his return he settled first in Salisbur}-, and 

Graham was sevei'ely wounded and Locke practised with great succe.-s. He then moved 

killed. His relative, William Brandon, was a to Cabarrus, where he lived a long and useful 

lieutenant in the Continental army, and was life, and died in 1825. 

the first child born south of the Yadkin. He He established a medical school, and was 

died in 'i'ennessoe m 1836, aged ninety-nine eminent as a physician and sui'geou. 

3'^^''*- His school was well patronized for more 

General Barringer died at Lincolnton on than forty years; pcrha^^s the only one ever 

June 20th, 1844, and his wife followed him established in the State. Among his pupils 

soon after, (in Xovember of the same year.) ^^^re l)r. Charles Caldwell, formerly a Profes- 

Fnr Genealogy uf the Barringer family, see gor in Transylvania University, Louisville, Ken- 

^I'Pendix. tucky, Dr. Robert McKensie, and Dr. Robertr 

Nathaniel Alexander was a native of this B. Vance, member of Congress from Asheville. 

county when yet a portion of Mecklenburg. jjig g,,,,^ William Shakespeare Harris, was 

His early education was commenced in a hum- n,u,.h esteemed for his taleiits and worth. lie 

hie log cabin at Poplar Tent, near his paternal represented Cabarrus in 1840. 

mansion, the Morebead Place, thence he went Robert Simonton Young was a distiu- 

to Princeton, where he graduated in 1776. He guished, useful and exemplary citizen of this 

studied medicine, and was a successful phy- eonnty. Active and patriotic, he was much 

®^'^'^"- esteemed. He was an officer in the Confed- 

He represented Mecklenburg in the House grate Army, and fell in battle near Peters- 

of Commons in 1797, and in the Senate in 1802. buro- in 1864. 

Li 1803 he was elected a member of the 8th jiq married first a daughter of John Phifer; 

Congress, 1803-'05. In 1805 he was elected second, a daughter of A. M. Burton. No nobler 

Governor ofthe State, and served till his death, offering was ever laid on the altar of public 

8th March, 1808. He married a daughter of service. 

Colonel Thos. Polk. His remains lie in the 

Presbyterian church yard at Charlotte. *MSS. letters of Wm. S. Harris.. 


Daniel Coleman, (born 2Stli March, 1799,)' trict. After serving for four years he retired 

was born in Kowan Count}'; moved to Cabar- from the practice, and engaged in constrnc- 

rus in 1823. tion, with Dr. E. R. Gibson, of the North Caro- 

Educated at Rocky River Aeademj-, con- Una Railroad. Appointed to office in the 

ducted by Dr. J. M. V/ilson, father of J. liar- Treasury, in 1871, which position he held 

vey Wilson, of Charlotte, and finished under until the time of his demise. 
Dr. John Robinson, at Poplar Tent, 1823, and He married Maria, daughter of John E. 

the latter part of this year settled at Concord. Mahan, of Concord, and had two sons, William 

In the Spring following he was elected Clerk M., late Attorney General of North Carolina, 

.of the County Court, and served till 1828. and Daniel Ra^Mnond, who is now a teacher in 

Read law with Judge David F. Caldwell, and the Deaf and Dumb Institution, at city of 
was licensed to practice. In 1830 to '33 he ■ Belville, Province of Ontario, Canada, 
.was engrossing clerk, and 1834 -'35, reading J. McCalib Wiley was born in Cabarrus 

clerk of the State Senate. County, in 1806; removed to Bibb County, 

In 1836 he was appointed Third As^stant Alabama, 1836; served in the army in the war 

-Postmaster-General under Amos Kendall, and with Mexico; member of Board of Visitors 

-served till May, 1841. to West Point; elected Judge of the Eighth 

He returned home and resumed his practice Circuit of Alabama 1865; elected member of 

at the bar, and in 1848, was elected by the 39th Congress, and in 1871, again elected 

Xegislature, Solicitor of the Sixth Judicial Dis- judge. 


Caldwell Count}' has no Revolutionar}' wor- Patterson, worthily enjoyed the regard and 

thies to present, having been formed in 1841, respect of his coantrj'. He died recently, 

from the counties of Burke and Wilkes. But much regretted. 

she presents a munber of names worthy of James C. Harper, who represented the dis- 
regard, trict in 42d Congress (1871-'73;) resides in 

Samuel F. Patterson lived and died in this this county. He is a native of Pennsylvania, 

•county. He was highly esteemed, and filled born in Cumberland County, 6th December, 

many positions of much responsibility with in- 1819; raised in Ohio on a farm, and settled in 

tegrit}' and honor. As a financier he had few this county in 1840, wiiich he represented in 

superiors. lie was, in 1836, Treasurer of the the Legislature in 1866 and 1868. He in 

State, and President of the Raleigh and Gas- Congress, as in the Legislature, Avas distiu- 

ton Railroad. He was averse to popular pro- guished for his close and faithful attention to 

motions, but was elected to the Senate of the his duties, never in the A\'ay in obstructing 

State Legislature in 1S64. useful legislation, and never out of the waj-in 

He married a daughter of General Edmund opposing wild and extravagant measures. 

Jones, long a member of the Legislature frtjm He married Louisa, daughter of Athan Mc- 

Wilkes, and universally respected for his Dowell, aud the granddaughter of General 

probity and intelligence. Ilis son, Rufus L. Charles and Grace Greenlee McDowell. The 


■•patriotic character of Grace Greenlee has al- that Korth Carolina appreciates and elevates 

Teac\v been alluded to. integrity and talent wherever found. 

One of Mr. Harper's daughters, Emma, mar- George Nathaniel Folk resides at Lenoir, 

ried Clinton A. Cilly, who was, in 1868, one Caldwell County. He is a native of Isle of 

of the Judges of the Superior Courts (if North Wight County, Virginia; born in February, 

Carolina. Judge Cilly is a native of New 1831. He removed to Watauga County in 

Hampshire, and was an oftieer in the army of 1852, and represented that county in 1856 and 

the United States during the whole war. He 1861. He entered the Confederate arm\' and 

is a nepVi'-w of the Hon. Jonathan Cilly, a dis- served two years in the 1st Regiment North 

tinguished member of Congress, who fell Carolina Cavalry, and was promoted to a colo- 

February 24, 1838, at Bladensburg, Maryland, uelcy of the 6th North Carolina Cavalry, 

in a duel with William J. Graves, of Ken- Wounded at the battles of Chickamauga, Vine 

tucky. Vine, and in East Tennessee. He removed to 

Judge Cilly, having settled since the war in Le':oir in 1866, and represented that district 

North Carolina, is a standing reproof to tlie in the Legislature in 1876. He is esteemed as 

idea that meritorious men of northern birth an able lawyer, and was Chairman of the Ju- 

are not welcome to the State, and an evidence diciary C/omniittee. 


General Isaac Gregory was born, lived and that many recollect, who was remarkable for 

died in this county. He was a brave and style of dress and line equipage, whicli won 

patriotic ofHcer in the Revolutionary army, for him the sobriquet of " Beau Gregory." His 

and did some service in the cause of Inde- resembknce to General LaFayette was a sub- 

pendence. He was one of the Committee ject of remark by all who knew them both, 

of Safety in 1776 for the Edenton district. He was fond of gay life and pleasure, 

and by the Provincial Congress that met at but not of labor, either mental or physical. 

Halifax, April 4, 1776, he was appointed He was a member of the Legislature from 

one of the held officers of one of the vegi- Pasquotank in 1828. Sheriff for some years, 

nients of Pasquotank, of which Camden and postmaster at Elizabeth City, 

was then a part.* He commanded a bri- Dempsey Burgess, Avho resided and died in. 

gade of State troops at the ilUfated battle of this county, was also one of the tield officers 

Camden, and was wounded severely. Bnt he appointed lieutenant-colonel with General 

was more of a politician than a soldier. He Gregory. He succeeded William Johnson 

was the first Senator from Camden County in Dawson as a member of Congress 1795 and 

the Legislature, 1778, in which he u'as eon- 1797, and re-elected in 1797 and 1799. 

tinned, with some intermission, until 1796. nis brother-in-law, Lemuel Sawyer, born 

We regret our material is so scant of the 1777^ ^jed 1852, was one of the most eccentric 

services and the character of General Gregory, men and successful politicians who entered 

He left a sou. General William Gregory, that public life about this time. He was elected 

* Autobiography of Lemuel Sawyer, page 7. a member of the Legislature in 1800. 



He belonged to a large and distinguished 
faiuil}'. His brother Enoch was the first col- 
lector of the customs, appointed in 1791 by 
Washington, and filled this responsible office 
till his death, in 1827. 

He was born in Camden Count}' in 1777. 
He was educated at Flatbrush Academy, on 
Long Island, under charge of Dr. Peter Wil- 
son, with such distinguished associates as Wil- 
liamand John Duer, Troop and Telfair, of Geor- 
gia. He studied law, but never made the pro- 
fession his object in life. He preferred the 
giddy pursuits of politics and of pleasure. After 
serving a session in the Legislature, he was 
elected one of the electors in 1804 for Presi- 
dent, and voted for Jetferson, to whose prin- 
ciples and politics he was a constant follower. 

On the retiring of General Thomas Wynns, 
of Hertford County, from Congress in 1807, 
Mr. Sawyer was elected to the I3th Congress 
over William H. Murfree, and from that date 
.to 1829 (with but few intermissions,) he was 
re-elected by the people over the most prom- 
inent and powerful opf)onents; among them 
were Mr. Murfree, Governor L'edell and others. 

What was the secret of this extraordinary 
success of twenty years' service it is difficult 
to conjecture, for he was not gifted as a 
speaker;, he was negligent of his duties, often 
a whole session passing without his appearing 
a single day in his seat; eccentric in his con- 
duet and priviite life, if not disreputable in 
some instances, as he himself confesses in his 
autobiography. Doubtless his principles, as 
his votes and his speeches in Congress show, 
were of the straightest sect of Democracy, 
and stern advocate of the rights of States. 
He commenced his political career by voting 
for Jeflersou, and ended it by advocating 
Jackson, Van Buren and Polk. 

He had a great fondness for literature, and 

wrote " The Life of John Randolph," his own: 
biography, " Black Beard," and other produc- 
tions. His easy disposition, his liberality, and 
his social eccentricities, while they made him 
many friends, brought him, at the close of life, 
to guttering, if not to want. His life was pro- 
longed beyond its usefulness, if he ever was 
useful in an}' capacity. 

His latter days were spent in Washington 
City. He was another of the many instances 
of persons who, charmed in more prosperous 
days by the glamor of this gay metropolis, 
feel, as did Madame Maintenon, that " there 
were a hundred gates bj' which one may enter 
Paris, but only one by which you should leave 
it." This he realized, for he died 1852, aged 
75, in Washington, where he had eked out a 
precarious existence from the salary of a S'liiall 
office in one of the departments.* 

His autobiography draws the last melan- 
choly scene of his life, which, in his own lan- 
guage — 

" I have drained the hitter cup of existence 
to the dregs. I have no earthly object to live 
for; nor have I the means to do so with that 
comfort and ease which alone can reconcile 
superannuated infirmity." 

His nephew, Samuel T. Sawyer, lived in 
Edenton, son of Dr. Matthias E. Sawyer. He 
was a lawyer by profession; often in the Legis- 
lature (1829 to '32, and in Senate, 1S31,) and 
elected to Congress 1837- '39. 

He was appointed by Mr. Pierce collector of 
Norfolk; he became the editor of the Argus, 
and served as commissarj' in the late civil 
war. He died in New Jersey, 29th Novem- 
ber, 1865, aged 65 years.f 

*From National Intelligencer, of lotli January, 1852,- 
Died.— Suddenly, on Friday, 9th January . 1852, at the 
residence of G. R. Adams, 11th street, near F, (in Wai-h- 
ington City,) of a disease of the heart, Hon. Lemuel 
Sawyer, for many years a member of Congress from 
North Carolina. 
fLanman's Biographical Annals. 




This county has the honor of being the first 
land sighted by the expedition sent out under 
the auspices of Sir Walter Raleigh to this con- 
tinent. Two ships, one called "the Tiger," 
and the other "the Admiral," commanded by 
Philip Amadas an d Arthur Barlowe, after enter- 
ing the Ocracocke Inlet, sailed up the sound, 
and landed on Roanoke Island, now in Dare 
County, in July, 1584. 

The patent from Queen Elizabeth to Sir 
Walter Raleigh, as well as the report of the 
officers, is recorded in Hakluyt's Voyages, III., 

No people have a clearer, and more perfect 
record of history than the people of our state. 
From this time to the present, it is preserved 
in veritable and intelligible language. 

No fabled fugitives from justice, no Norman 
tyrant with force of arms, no Pizarro bent on 
spoil and plunder, formed the first civilized 
settlement of our country; but "men, high- 
minded men," under the peaceful commis- 
sion of lawful authority, and with the cordial 
consent of the native inhabitants of the 

" were the first that ever burst 

Into that silent sea." 

What a proud record for our contemplation 
and pride! 

Connected with the name of Carteret, is a 
tradition that this was the refuge of the 
colony of White, who was the Governor of 
Roanoke Inland In the year 1.590, he returned 
to Carolina, after a visit in England of over 
a year's duration, but his colony had disap- 

White only discovered the word "Croaton" 

carved on the bark of a tree. Doubtless they 
had become amalgamated with tlie native 
Indians, for some of these had blue eyes, and 
said "their parents could read from a book;" 
and there' are names extant in Carteret corres- 
ponding with the names of White's colon}-.* 

Subsequently (1712,) the Indians, especially 
the Cores and Tuscaroras, waged a bloody and 
destructive war upon the whites in this region. 
Much property and many lives were destro3-ed, 
among them, John Lawson, the earliest 
historian of the state. His work was pub- 
lished in London in 1709, and is considered as 
good authority, giving the best description of 
North Carolina, its products and natural his- 

Lawson's book has been so highly appre- 
ciated, that the legislature ordered it be re- 
printed. The original copies are very rare. 

He gives a particular account of the man- 
ners and customs of the dift'erent tribes of 
Indians of Carolina. The account he gives of 
their cruelty to prisoners is graphic and terri- 
ble, and was most fearfully i-ealized by Lawson 
in his own person. He says: 

"Their cruelties to their prisoners are 
such as none but Devils out of Hell could 
invent. They never miss skulping of tliem, 
which is to cut tlie skin from tiie tem- 
ples, and taking the whole b.ead of hair along 
with it. Sometimes they take the top of tlie 
skull with it, which they preserve and carefully 
keep by them for a tropU}' of their conquest 
over their enemies. Others keep their enemy's 
teeth which are taken in war, whilst others 
split pine into splinters and stick them into 
the prisoner's body, yet alive, then they light 
them which burn like so many torches, and in 
this manner they make him dance around a. 

*See Hawk's History of North Carolina, I., 100, 



great fii'e, every one butt'eting and deriding him and she was fully armed and equipped with 

till he expires. cannon, guns, and men. 

This cruel fate was fearfully realized by The swiftness of the vessel, the skill with 

Lawson and his negro servant, and would have which she was managed by Burns, his intimate 

been bj' his associate, the Baron De Graaf- knowledge of the dreaded and dangerous coast 

fenreidt, whose life was onl\' saved b}' his tine of Carolina, and the daring of a chosen crew of 

appearance, and because he wore a gold medal men, soon made the name of Otway Barns a 

which the Indians thought was an indication terroi- to all the British in American waters, 

of high rank. He captured and destroj'ed a large number 

Colonel Moore, of wliom we have already of English prizes, and amassed fortunes for 

written, closed this war by marching into himself and his comjiati'iots. 

Carteret, and completely subduing the '- He lirought into Beaufort heavy cargoes of 

savages in a decisive battle near the pres- valuables, and established quite a market for 

ent tov.'u of Beaufort. Here, within ''the the merchants of all eastern Carolina. His 

sound of the church-going bells," occured the house was but a short distance from the pres- 

last desr>erate struggle of the red man in this ent Atlantic Hotel, on the top of which he 

section for donjinion over his native soil, which established an observatoi'y, from which he, by 

he could not, and ought not hold. aid of a sp^^-glass, commanded an extensive 

In 1712, a fort was built on Core Sound, view of the ocean. Here would the daring- 
named in honor of Governor Hyde, to protect sailor watch and wait, while his ship was kept 
the inhabitants. with a ready crew and anchor tripped. When 

There are many names connected with Car- ever he espied a vessel sailing under English 

teret worthy of record, as the Bells, EuUers, colors, he would hurry up the '-Snap Dragon" 

Bordens,Hellens, Marshal Is, Sheppard,Piggots, and pursue the prize. From the sailing quali- 

Wards, and others. ties of his ship, Burns would soon overhaul and 

Otway Burns, who represented this county capture the pursued vessel, 
often, (1822 to 1834,) is woithy of our mem- Such was the damage done bj- Captain 
ory. His name is more securely preserved in the Burns to the commerce of England, that the 
capital of the Count}' of Yancey, He repre- British Council held consultations to devise 
sented Carteret Count}^ in the state senate, some means for his capture. Finall}', they order- 
when (1834) Yancey County was erected, ed the construction of a fast sailing vessel, fully 
Doubtless the compliment secured his read\- armed, with a large crew, but built as a mer- 
advocac}' for its formation. chant ship. This ship met our gallant " tar 

He came to Beaufort from Onslow County, heel" on the coast, and b}' a ruse, captured 

where he was born, when quite young, and him and liis crew without tiring a gun. The 

engaged in a seafaring lii'e. He became a cap- Englishman, rigged as a merchantman, with 

tain on a coasting vessel plying between Beau- his guns concealed as well as his crew, suffered 

fort and New York. the "Snap Dragon" to run alongside, and 

When the M'ar of 1812 commenced, he ob- hauled down his colors in token of surrender, 

tained from the Government of the United As Burns and his men commenced to board 

States, letters of marque and reprisal, and the prize, h^. guns were run out and manned 

built, through the aid of several wealthy per- by the crew, Avho suddenly appeared on deck, 

sons, as a stock compan}-, a fast sailing ship ; on and the harmless merchantman was presto con- 

;her he bestowed the name of " Snap Dragon," verted into a terrible man-of-Avar, with shotted 



cannon ready to fire. Burns, with heartfelt 
chagrin, was compelled to surrender. Thns he 
and his crew were taken prisoners. 

After the close of the war he was released, 
and he returned home. With the character- 
istic extravagance of a sailor, he squandered 
his propertj' and was very poor in the declin- 
ing years of his life. His generous qualities 
and social temperament, with the fame of his 

daring exploits at sea, (about which be was 
very fond of talking.) made him a favor- 
ite of the people. He was '' sudden a;id quick 
in quarrel, " full of frolic, fnn and ligMC, and 
towards the close of his life became very dis- 
sipated. He died in 1849, while iu command 
of a light Ijoaf. His eventful life was so in- 
teresting that it once formed the suoject of 
a lecture hj Governor S\vain. 


This county having been formed since our 
Declaration of Lidependence, her revolutionary 
history is connected with that of Orange 
County, from which it was taken. It preserves 
the name of Richard Caswell, who was one 
of the most active and efficient patriots of 
that eventful epoch. He was the first gov- 
ernor after the Ro\'al governor had left, and 
did great service, not only as governor, but as 
a soldier and statesman. 

He was a native of Maryland; born in Cecil 
County on August 3, 1729. The year in which 
the Lord I'roprietors of North (^arolina sur- 
lendered their charter to the Crown, George 
II. then being King. 

Mr. Caswell came to North Carolina when 
quite a youth to seek fame and fortune. lie 
was duly appreciated, and appointed clerk of 
Orange County, and deputy surveyor of the 

He read law, and practiced it with great 
success. He settled in Lenoir County, then 
Dobbs, where he married Mary Mcllweane, 
and afterwards he removed to Johnston 
County. The people were not slow to dis- 
cern his abilities, and he was elected to 

represent them in the assembly in 175-1. So 
acceptable were his services that he vras con- 
tinued until 1771, being chosen speaker during 
the last t\Vo sessions. He was tlie colonel of 
the county, and as such commanded the right- 
wing of Tryon's army at Alamance, May 16, 
1771. This was his first appearance in the 
profession of arms, which was congenial to 
his nature, and in which he was destined to 
be so conspicuous. 

Like many other patriots of that day, the_y 
forbore, as long as patience v/ould allow them, 
the cruelties of the mother country towards 
tlie colonies, but when the attempts (jf Eng- 
land to subjugate the liberties of tlie people 
became too oppressive he did not to 
advocate the rights of the many thus threat- 
ened by power and oppression. 

By the first Provincial Congress that organ- 
ized in opposition to the Royal Government, 
(August 25th, 1774, at New Berne,) he was, 
with William Hooper and Joseph Hewes, ap- 
pointed delegate to the Continental Congress 
at Philadelphia, and attended for three years. 

He was lo(^ked upon with great respect by 
the Royal Governor, Martin, and his course 



gave Martin much chagrin, as will appear from 
a copy of his dispatch, dated — 

' Aiigiist 28th, 1775. 
"On Boaed Cruiser Sloop-of-war. 

"Evei'y device has been practiced b^^ the sedi- 
tions coniniittees to inflame the minds of the 
peo[ile ; and most of all by the return of Richard 
Caswell to tliis province, and no doubt will in- 
flame it with the extravagant spii'it of that 
daring assembly at Philadelphia. At New 
Berne I am credibly informed he had the in- 
solence to reprehend the committee of that 
little town for suifering me to remove from 



" This man, at his going to the first congress, 
appeared to me to have embarked with re- 
luctance in the cause, that much extenuated 
his guilt. Now he shows himself a most active 
tool of sedition." 

On his return from congress in the spring of 
1776, his military ardor was roused at the 
alarming state of affairs at home. The great 
fleets of England hovered around the coast, 
while the whole region of the Cape Fear 
swarmed with disafl'ected and dangerous 
tories, who had gathered in strong force to 
unite with Clinton in subjugating the state. 
In conjunction with Colonel Lillington, lie 
summoned the minute men of Dobbs County, 
and met the tories under General McDonald 
at Moore's Creek Bridge, on February 27th, 
1776, and completely routed them with great 

He received the thanks of the Provincial 
Congress (at Halifax. April 4th, 1776,) for 
this brilliant victory, and for it he was pro- 
moted to the rank of Brigadier General. 

This battle of Moore's Creek Bridge was of 
infinite importance, as it prevented the junc- 
tion of the Scotch loyalists with the British 
forces, and the cause of great discomfoi't to 
Governor Martin. 

In a dispatch of Governor Martin to Lord 
Germaiue, dated March 2, 1776, (from the Rolls 
Oflice in L(mdon, never before published,) 
Governor Martin says: 

"An agent had been dispatched to the in- 
terior counties of North Carolina to raise 
troops in the country to meet the troops expect- 
ed from England. Three thousand men were 
expected to be raised. 

"They had been checked, about seventeen 
miles above Wilmington, in an attempt to 
pass a bridge on February 27th. After sus- 
taining the loss of Captain Donald McLeod, a 
gallant officer, and near twenty men killed 
and wounded, our forces were dispersed. 

'■ This unfortunate truth was too soon con- 
firmed by the arrival of Mr. MacLeane, Mr. 
Campbell, Mr. Stuart, and Mr. Nichol, who, 
with great difficulty, found their way to the. 
Scorpion, sloop-of-war, lying at Brunswick. 
The force was about 1,400 men raised; but for 
want of encouragement at the time ^vas re- 
duced to about 700, of them 600 were High- 

" The governor expresses the opinion that 
this little check which the loyalists received 
would not have any extensive ill consequences, 
yet he suti'ers every anguish, mortification 
and disai,)pointment from the defeat of his 

Some controvers}' has in late years arisen as 
to whom the honor of the victory of Moore's 
Creek Biidge belonged, or, at least, whether 
the honors should not be divided. Honorable 
George Davis and Professor Hubbard were 
0[)posed on this question. This should not 
aflect the reputation of either Lillington or 
Caswell; both were brave patriots, and both 
did their duty. The facts are that congress 
thanked Caswell, and in a masonic address 
by Francois X. Martin, delivered soon after 
this battle, at New Berne, he calls Caswell 
" the gallant commander of Moore's Creek." 

Caswell was president of the Provincial 
Congress (which met at Halifax November 
12, 1776,) and was one of the committee that 
formed a state constitution. He was elected 
the first governor of the state under the con- 
stitution. H conducted the ship of state in 
its untried and perilous voyage with singular 
fidelity and matchless sagacity during his 
term of -office. After this expired, his active 

^Colonial Docs., page 224. 



and patriotic spirit brooked no repose. He 
savv his country in danger, and with the North 
Carolina troops was engaged in the battle of 
Camden, August 16, 17.S0. 

The disordered state of the finances of the 
state demanded attention, and Governor Cas- 
well vv'as elected comptroller general, which 
duties he discharged with great abilitj' until 
1785, when he was again elected governor of 
the state, an unusual circumstance which 
proves the great acceptability of his services, 
and the grateful appreciation of them by the 

The following addi'ess on this occasion may 
be interesting, as showing how such ceremonials 
were conducted in the good old times of yore. 

From the journals of the assembly of the 
State of North Carolina: 

"The address of the Speaker of the House 
of Commons, William Blount, on the qualifi- 
cation of Governor Caswell, May 13, 1785. 

" Mr. Richard Caswell, 

Sir: The general assembly of the State of 
North Carolina, at their last session, pro- 
ceeded to the choice of a chief magistrate 
to. preside over the executive department 
of the government of this state, when you 
were elected by a large majority of both 
houses; iuid it gives me great pleasure that 
it falls to me as Speaker of the House of 
Commons, in the name of the representatives 
of the freemen of the state, and in the ['res- 
ence of these honorable gentlemen, to call 
upon you to qualify, in pursuance of this, theii' 
highest mark of public regard, which can by 
them, be shown to tlie most wortliy citizen. 

(The governor now qualities.) 

" To you, sir, as the first chief magistrate of 
this state, we commit and deliver the Bill of 
Rights and the Constitution; the one asserting 
the civil and political rights of the freemen 
of this country, the other giving existence to 
your office and the present happy form of gov- 
ernment. That the same under your guardian- 
ship mny be sustained, supported, maintained 
and preserved inviolate, and as an emblem of 
that power and authority with which ^-ou are 
invested, we present you this sword, and do 
announce and proclaim you, Richard Caswell, 
Esq., Governor, Captain-General and Com- 

mander-in-Chief in and over the State of 
North Carolina, in which all good and liege 
people are to take notice, and govern them- 
selves accordingly. 

" William Blodnt, 
"Speaker of the House of Commons. 
" KiNST0N,M7.j/ 13, 1785." 

With the exception of Caswell, Benjamin 
Williams, (Governor in 1799 and in 1807,) and 
Governors Reid and Vance, no instance occurs 
in our history of the same person being twice 
elected to this elevated position. 

Governor Caswell was elected a member of 
the Convention to meet in Philadelphia in 
Ma}', 1787. to form the Constitution of the 
United States. This he declined. 

His last public service was as Senator from 
Dobbs County (since divided into Greene and 
Lenoir,) in the legislature, which met at Fay- 
etteville, 1789, of which -he was elected 

While presiding in the senate he was struck, 
November 5th, with paralysis, and he died on 
the 10th, of that year. 

Mr. Gaston informs us that once whilst on a 
visit to Boston, he called on the illustrious and 
venerable John Adams. In an interesting 
conversation with him as to the I'evolutionary 
worthies of North Carolina, Mr. Adams asked: 
" Where is the family' of Richard Caswell ? 
for he was, sir, a model man and true patriot. 
We alwaj'S looked to Caswell for North Caro- 
lina." His character is one of which liis 
country may well be proud. Not brilliant, 
but solid; useful rather than showy; deliber- 
ate in counsel and decided in action . Mr. Macon 
declared him one of " the most powerful men 
that ever lived in this or any other countrv." 
In his career he closely resembled the father 
of his countr}'; if Virginia be proud of her 
Washington, North Carolina may be of her 

Governor Caswell's will is on record in 
Lenoir county, and is dated July 2, 1787. 
He left one son and one daughter. Of his son 



(Winston) but little is known to us. His 
daughter, Anna, married twice. First Fon- 
ville, and second to AVilliam White, who was 
Secretary of State from 1778 to 1811. Mrs. 
White left three daughters:* 

I. Anna, who married Governor David L. 

II. Another married General Daniel L. Bar- 

III. Another married General Boone Felton, 
of Hertford County. (Universit}^ Magazine 
IV., 1772.) 

General Felton was a native of Hertford 
County, and a man of some wealth and cul- 
ture. He represented this county in 1809, and 
frequently afterwards. Ten years afterwards 
he had a difficulty with his relative and col- 
league, which was the cause of much excite- 
ment in the count}. 

The capital town of the county preserves a 
name equally as illustrious as the name of Cas- 
^^■ell, it is that of Bartlett Yancey, who was 
horn, lived and died in Caswell Count}'. He was 
educt^ted at the university, although his name 
does not appear among the list of graduates, and 
for a time was a tutor in that institution. He 
studied laAv, and attained great eminence in 
the profession. But political life was his 
proper element, and there he shone conspic- 
uous. His first appearance in public life was as a 
member of the Thirteenth Congress, 1813 ,-'15, 
and again in the Fourteenth, (1815,-17.) Here, 
by the solidity of his judgement, the suavity of 
liis manners, and the extent of his acquirements, 
he attained a high position among such states- 
men as William Gaston, William R. King, 
William H. Murfree, Israel Pickens, Nathaniel 
Macon, all of whom were his colleagues. He 
was the firm and fearless supporter of the 
administration of Mr. Madison and the re- 

* One of Governor Caswell's daughters married a Gat- 
lin. Dr. John Gatlin, wlio wa^a, surgeon in tlie United 
States army, and was massacred at Dade's Defeat by 
the Seminoles, in Florida, was a grandson of Caswell. 
General Gatlin was a brother of Dr. Gatlin. 

publican party. On his retiring from congress 
he resolved to devote himself to his profession, 
but the people would not permit him to retire. 
The next year they elected him to r.?present 
the count}' in the senate, in which position he 
was continued until his death. The senate 
each year elected him unanimously its speaker. 
No one possessed more populai'ity. On some 
occasions he received nearly every vote in 
Caswell County. 

As presiding officer of a deliberate body 
he was pre-eminent, and scarcely ever ri- 
valed. Blessed with a manly person, of 
most engaging and bland manners, a quick 
and well balanced mind, an accurate memory 
and clear and harmonious voice, he was pecu- 
liarly qualified for the duties of a speaker. 
As the journals will show, in Congress, the 
speaker (Mr. Clay) often supplied his own 
place by the substitution of-Mr. Yancey. His 
efforts for the benefit of the state are monu- 
ments of his greatness as a statesnuin. The 
organization of the judiciary; the system of 
finance in the treasury and comptroller's 
offices as also of the common schools, and 
other public measures attest his sagacity and 

He died in the meridian of his life and use- 
fulness in 1828. This sudden and unexpected 
event caused a deep sensation of sorrow 
throughout the state. All eyes were turned 
to him as the successor of Governor Branch, 
in the United States Senate. He left five 
daughters: Mrs. McAdden, Mrs. Giles iNlebane, 
Mrs. Lemuel Mebane, Mrs. Thomas J. Wom- 
mack and Mrs. George W. Swepson; and two 
sons: Rufus A., who graduated at the univer- 
sity, with great credit, in 1829, in the same 
class with Buiton Craige, William Eaton, Dr. 
Sidney X. Johnston and others, he died in 
Richmond, Va., about 18-35 ; and Algernon 
Sidney, who was a lawyer, died in 1S40. 

Brobably there are few men, in either public 
or private life, who occupied during their 



term of life more of public notice than Romu- 
lus M. Saunders. 

-From the time he entered the legislature, 
in his 24th year, until his death, at which time 
he lield the ofSce of judge, he was either in 
office, or an applicant for office, or an aspii-ant 
for position. He was the son of William 
Saunders, born in Caswell County, 1791. His 
early education was defective.* He studied 
law, and practiced that profession with suc- 
cess. He early entered political life, which 
was more germane to his tastes than law. From 
1815 to 1820, he was a member of the House 
of Commons, and twice its speaker. In 1821 to 
1827, he was in Congress. In 1828, he was 
elected' attorney general, which position he 
filled till 1833, when he was appointed a com- 
missioner nuJer the French Treaty, in which 
he served till 1835, when he was elected judge, 
which he resigned on being, in 1840, nominated 
candidate for governor, but was defeated by 
John M. Morehead. In 1841, elected to Con- 
gress, in which he served until 1846, when he 
was appointed Envo}' to Spain, where he ser- 
ved till 1849; and in 1850, he was again elected 
a member of the House of Commons. In 1852, 
elected to House of Commons, and again he 
became .Judge of Superior Courts, in which 
office he died, April 21, 1867. 

A good story (says Moore I., 468) is told by 
Judge Badger, of this extraordinary propensity 
for ofKce. Mr. Badger was asked who would 
be the ncAV Bishop, in place of Ives, on that 
prelate's defection to Rome: " I can't tell you 

who it will be, but I am cei'tain Judge 

will be a candidate, as he wants everything 
else," replied the great lawyer. 

From History of Xorth Carolina, by J. W. 
Moore, II., page 98 : 

" In 1852-'53, the democrats had a majority 

*From Raleigh Star, of March 29, 181 '. The trustees 
of the university of Korth Carolina, have been obliged 
to perform the painful duty of expelling from the In 
stitution .John Allen, of Pitt, Horace B rton, of 
Granville, Romulus Saunders, of Caswell County. 
David Stone, President. 

in the legislature, but failed to elect a senator 
to succeed Judge Mangum. R. M. Saunders, 
as usual, was a candidate. He was one of our 
leading men but insatiable in his thirst for 
office. He was equally profound and adroit 
as a law3'er, greatly respected as a judge, and 
unsurpassed as a stump orator. His four years 
of acquaintance with the formal etiquette of the 
Spanish Court had failed to remove his native 
and inherent roughness of manners." 

He was twice married; by his last marriage 
with a daughter of Judge William .Johnson, of. 
the Supreme Court of the United States, he 
left a son and two daughters. 

That .Judge Saunders possessed force of 
character and talents, the high positions he 
held are proof. But that he was seliish and 
uncertain in his friendships is admitted. The 
opinion expressed of Goldsmith by Dr. John- 
son was realized b^- him: " his friendships were 
so easily acquired, and so lightly lost, as ren- 
dered them of but little consequence to any 
person." Asa politician he was able and active, 
but even this character was obscured by the fact 
that he always hoped to be advanced personal I3-. 
In a memorable contest in 1852 for Senator in 
Congress, when his party, with a majoi'ity of 
only one or two, and he himself a member of 
the body, nominated James C. Dobljin, than 
whom a purer man did not exist, Saunders 
refused to co-operate, bolted the caucus and 
with his friends, defeated the election of 
Dobbin. t 

In a subsequent contest for the same post he 
again played the same role, and thus defeated 
the election of Bedford Brown, who was the 
choice of the democratic party in 1842-'43, and 
so caused the election of William H. Haywood, 
whose career as a senator not being successful, 
he resigned. Had Saunders followed the ad- 

tThis has been disputed by some friends of .Judge 
Saunders. We quote from History of Nortli Carolina, 
by John W. Moore, (page 227 ) 

"Mr. Dobbin succeeded Governor Graham as Sec- 
retary of the Navy, Mr Dolibin was defeated for 
the United States Senate by the friends of .Judge 
Saunders, and Judge Mangum's term havnig expired, 
the state for the next two years had but one senator." 



vice of the great Cardinal of Heniy VIII. he 
would have been a happier, if not a wiser and 
better man. 

I charge thee fling away ambition. 

By tliat sin fell the angels ; and how can man then- 
Ihe image of his maker— hope to win by it'' 

We would fain have made this sketch more 
favorable, but in pen pictures as in portrait 
painting the truth demands a faithful, not a 
liattering, likeness. 

Robert Williams was a native of Cas- 
well County, distingnislied for his attain- 
ments. He was adjutant-general of North 
Carolina, and a repi'esentative in Congress, 
(Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Congress) 1797 to 
1803, and was appointed commissioner of land 

Colonel of a battalion raised in the Ilillsboro 
district. He was educated at the Bingham 
academy in Orange, and spent one year at the 
universit}^ when he commenced reading law 
with Judge Settle, bis brother-in-law, and 
finished under Judge Henderson. He was 
admitted to the Bar in 1827. His success in 
the practice was flattering, but his fame rests 
more on his etforts in the legislature than his 
career as a jurist. 

His first appearance as a statesman was 
as a member of the convention of 1835 to 
reform the constitution. This was an able 
body of practiced statesmen, and af- 
forded an admirable school for the young 
politician. This opportunity was not ne- 
glected by Mr. Graves. In 1840 he was elected 

titles in Mississippi Territory, He was also 

the governor of the Territory of Mississippi a member of the House, and in 1842 when he 

from 1805 to 1809. He died in Louisiana. was made speaker. la 1844 he was again a 

Marniaduke Williams, who succeeded his member, but the whig party having a msijority, 

brother in Congress, was a native of Caswell 
County, born in 1772; married Mrs. Agnes 
Harris, nee Payne. He was by profession a 
lawyer. He r.epre3ented Caswell County in 
the state senate in 1802, and the district in 
(the Eighth, Ninth and Tenth Congress) 1803- 
1809, In 1810 he removed with his family 
to Alabama. He was repeatedly elected to 
the legislature of that state, and was a dele- 
gate from Tuscaloosa County to the conven- 
tion which formed the state constitution. He 
was a candidate for governor and defeated \>y 
William W. Bibb. In 1826 he was a commis- 
sioner to adjust the unsettled accounts between 
Alabama and Mississippi. In 1832 he was 
elected judge of the county court, which he 
resigned, having attained the age of seventy, 
which the constitution declared a disqualifica- 
tion in a judge. He died October 29, 1850. 
Calvin Graves was born in Caswell County', 
in January, 1804. He was the son of Azariah 
Graves. His mother was the daughter of 
Colonel John Williams, who took a decided 
part in the revolution, and was Lieutenant- 

elected Mr. Stanley speaker. In 1846 he was 
returned as a member of the senate. 

During this session a party move of much sig- 
nificance was made to re-distri ct the state, and 
opposed by Mr. Graves. In 1848 he was again 
elected to the senate, when the parties 
were evenly balanced, he was elected speaker 

This was an important session. The 
lunatic a.sylum was constructed, and the 
proposition to make internal improvements by 
a railroad connecting the mountains with the 
seaboard, involving an appropriation of §2,000, - 
000. The latter bill passed the lower House 
b}' a close vote, and after a warm and able 
discussion, which was maintained by both 
sides with eloquence and abilit}', and listened 
to with breathless anxiety by a crowded gal- 
lery', the vote was taken, and stood yeas 24, 
nays 24. The vote was handed liy the 
clerk to the speaker, upon whom all ej'es were 
now turned; Mr. Graves arose from his 
chair, and in a clear and audible voice an- 
nounced the vote: " The clerk reports twenty- 


four in the afRrmitive and twcntj--four in the from public life, and moved to Missouri; but 

negative. The speaker votes in the affirma- after a short time he returned to North Caro- 

tive; the bill has passed the senate." lina, and was again elected a of the 

The plaudits were de:ifening, and the session state senate from 1858 to 1862, and in 1868. He 

of the senate broken up, without adjourning; died at home December 6th, 1870, lamented 

tumultuous joy came from one side, and sullen b\' the state and nation. 

murmurs from the other. Whatever views His character as a statesman was like 

may now be entertained of the policy of this T'ayard's," without fear or reproach." He was 

law, it was at the time an act of political suicide distinguished for his firmness and unquestioned 

b}' Mr. Gi'aves; he never again appeared in the integrity. His friends did not claim for bini 

legislature. Like Coriolanus, when yielding an ecpial rank in the intellectual power which 

to the entreaties of his mother, he might say; marked the career of many with ^\iiom he 

•'Mother, you may have saved your country, but von was associated, but he was the peer of any in 

have lost your son." integrity, patriotism and purity of life. 

Mr. Graves married Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob Thomp.son is a native of Caswell 

John C. Lea, by whom he had an interesting County; born May 15. 1810. His father, 

family. He died some few years ago. Nicholas Thompson, was a respectable and 

Bedford Brown was a native of Caswell, worthy man, who bestowed on his son every 

where he lived and died; he was born advantage of education. His early studies 

in 1795, a farmer by profession, a patriotic were conducted by .Mr. Biugham at Hillsl)oro, 

statesman, and an unflinching advocate of the and finished at the university, where .ho grad- 

rights of the state. uated in 1831, in a class with Thomas L. 

He eai'ly embarked on tlie sea of politics, Clingman, James C. Dobbin, ami others; and 

in M'hich he had a long and successful voy- he was for a time a tutor in the college. He 

age. He entered ihe House of Commons in studied law with Honorable John .\L Dick, and 

1815. At one time (1817,) this county was licensed in 1834. 

sent Bartlett Yancey to the senate, and Horn- The next year he moved to Pontotoc, .Mis- 

ulus M. Saunders and Bedford Brown to sissippi, and entereil at once upon the practice 

the ccmimons. This was a triumvirate of of the law. 

ability not excelled in the legislators of any He was elected a member of congress from 

other county in the state. Mr. Brown entered Mississippi in 1839, ami continued by suc- 

public life at an important epoch in our history, cessive elections in that position until 1851, 

The democratic principles he adopted then when he declined a re-nomination. During 

and there, he maintained through life. He this period he passed though many scenes of 

was elected frequently to the legislature, and extraordinary interest and excitement. Ques- 

in 1828 and 1829 was chosen .speaker of the tionsof importance were agitated, in which Mr. 

senate. In the latter year he was elected Thompson bore a distinguished part in defend- 

United States Senator to succeed Governor ing the honor of the country and the interests 

Branch, who v/as appointed Secretary ofthe of his constituents. The sub-treasury, the 

Navy. Here he served till 18-40, when he re- New Jersey case, the Mexican war, Mi8.sissippi 

signed under instructions from the legislature, repudiations, and other questions agitated 

He again entered the legislature in 1842, the nation, 

and was again a candidate for the senate, but He bore himself as a statesman, and a 

not elected. He then withdrew for a time patriot.. 



On the resignation of Robert J. Walker 
as senator, in 1845, to assume the duties of 
Secretary of the Treasury under Mr. Polk, he 
was appointed Senator of the United States; 
but for some reason, he did not accept the 

In 1857, he was appointed Secretary of the 
Interior by Mr. Buchanan, over which depart- 
ment he [iresided with unexampled integrity 
and ability, until the great civil war between 
the states began, when he resigned, preserving 
the respect atid regard of his associates When 
Mississipfii seceded, Mr. Thompson deemed it 
his duty to share her fortunes and her fate. He 
was employed by the Confederate government 
as a financial agent, and suffered deeply in the 
wreck of his once princely estate. He now 
resides near Memphis, pursuing the vocation 
of planter. 

He married in 1838, Miss Jones, whose kind 
disposition and genial manners shed a charm 
over every circle. Their only son was in the 
Confederate armj', and fell in battle. 

John Kerr, late one of the judges of the 
superior courts, resided in this connty. He 
was the son of the lieverend John Kerr, who was 
an eminent Baptist preacher of great elo- 
quence; he represented the Lj'nchliurg dis- 
trict, Virginia, in the Thirteenth and Four- 
teenth Congress. His son, the subject of our 
present sketch, was born on February 10th, 1811, 
in Pittsylvania Ci)unty, Virginia. Educated 
at home and at Richmond, he read law with 
Judge Pearson. He was elected a member of 
the Thirty-third Congress from this 
district; and ivas the whig candidate for gov- 
ernor in 1854, but was defeated by Governor 
lieid. He represented Caswell County in the 
legislature in 1858 and 18G0. 

During the civil war, he was employed in his 
professional and agricultural pursuits. When 
the war closed he suffered much tribulation 
and indignity at the hands of those who were 
.attempting to reconstruct the state govern- 

ment. He and others were arrested by George 
W. Kirk. 

Upon his application for a writ of habeas 
corpus, I copy from the records the following: 

"Before Chief Justice Pearson, ex-parte John 
Kerr, at chambers in the rooms of the supreme 
court, August 2nd, 1870. 

"The counsel for the petitioner, upon the re- 
turn of the marshal of the supreme court, and 
the communication from George W. Kirk 
being read, contended that Kirk's response to 
the service of the writ of habeas corpus upon 
him (that he held the prisoner under order of 
Governor Holden,) was insuliiuent upon sev- 
eral grounds, and that he ought to be attached 
for making it. The counsel, therefore, moved 
for a precept to have the bodj' of the peti- 
tioner brought before the chief justice, kc." 

On this the chief justice delivered the fol- 
lowing decision: 

"The motion is not allowed. I can say no 
more than I have already said. The power of 
the judiciarj^is exhausted. I have no posse 
commi.(((ius. In this particular, my situation 
differs from tiiat of Chief Justice Taney, in 
'Merri man's case.' He had a posse coinmitatus 
at his command, but considered 'the pov.-er of 
judiciary exhausted.' He did not deem it his 
duty to command the marshal with n posse 'to 
storm a fort.' " 

The time has not yet come to comment upon 
all these circumstances, yet some of the re- 
corded facts may be detailed for future refer- 
ence. It was, indeed, a fearful epoch in our 
history when the lives and liberties of inno- 
cent and worthy' citizens were exposed to the 
tender mercies of lawless power. 

That " the great writ of right " was power- 
less and exhausted in the state struck the 
whole country' with dismay. 

It forcibl}' brought to mind the prophetic 
remai'ks of Lord Shelburne to -Mr. Laurens, of 
South Carolina, once our envoy to Holland and 
President of Congress, who had been a prisoner 
in tlie Tower (1779j for some time; after his re- 
lease, in an interview with England's Secre- 
tary of State, the following conversation oc- 


"I am sorry for your people," said Lord Shel- to the bench of the superior courts, which dis- 

buriie, "that^they have gained their indepen- tinguished post he held till his death. 

dance." "Why so ?" asked Mr. Laurens. "We ^ i t- it- iqp.t i ■ . i 4. 

" ,: ■ Y • 1 -4. 1 t ■ „+■ Judge Kerr had, m 1862, been appointed to 

English people gained it, by centuries ot «= ' ' ii 

wrangling, years of battle and blood, and con- a seat on the bench by the governor, (Clark,) 

firmed it by at least fifty acts of parliament," but Judge Gilliam was elected by the.legisla- 

answered his lordship. "All this taught the ^^^^.^ 

nation its inestimable value, and it is so ' . 

ingrained in their creed as to become the J^^ge Kerr, in the palmy day of politics, 

foundation of our liberty and no judge or gained much reputation as a skilful and elo- 

party will ever dare to trample upon it. quent debater; of a kind and social tempera- 

Your people will pick it up, and attempt i • ,.1 ^■^^ ■, ,. 

, •. 1,1 • ^ ,. ,.1 ' , i-i,;,,,-, fi,i„ rnent, he was one who m the tilt and tourna- 

to use It; but having cost them notlnng, tney ' 

will not know how to appreciate it. At the ment of the political arena, so bore himself that 

first internal feud you will have it trampled "the opposer would beware of him." But the 

under foot by the lawless power of the major- ^^^^^^^^^.^ ^fiect of age lessened this trait, and 
ity; the people will permit it to be done, and = -^ . , 1 , 

away goes your boasted liberty." £is a member ot the Baptist church, he earned 

"gentle peace" and good will of all. He w^as 

An application was then made to Judge an earnest advocate of education, one of the 

Brooks, of the United States District Court, trustees of the university, and the president 

on August 25th, 1870, for a writ. This of the ISIorth Carolina Ilistorical Society., 
he caused to be issued against Kirk, "requir- He died on September 5th, 1879\ at his 

ing him to bring before the court the prisoners home in Keidsville, after a lingering ililness 

detained in military custody." of several mouths. 

Governor Graham, Judge .Merrimon, and K. Connected with the memories of the past, 
H. Battle, jr., appeared for the petitionei's, it may not be improper to record the niyste- 
whilst the Attorney-General Olds, and Messrs. rious murder of John W. Stephens, of this 
J. M. McCorkle and William H. Bailey, ap- county, which occurred May 21, 1870. Stephens 
peared for the defendant. On the return nuide was a native of Guilford County, born Octo- 
to the writ, b}- Kirk, and after ai'gument, the her, 1834; one of the disreputable waifs of cir- 
prisoners were released. No case had everoc- cumstance whom the troubled weaves of civil 
curred that more excited the county. The war brought to the surface. He was of low^ 
course of Judge Brooks was commended, not origin, of dissolute habitsand disreputable char- 
only b}' public meetings in the state, but in acter. He had been arraigneil for petit larceny- 
Baltimore and elsewhere. and other offenses. His mother was found mur- 
On his return to his home in Elizabeth city, dered in his house in broad daylight, with her 
a perfect ovation by men of all parties awaited throat cut from ear to ear, and no one ever 
him. They expressed their "appreciation of knew, nor did the coroner's jury decide, by 
his fidelit3' in enforcing the law." No con- whom or how the murder was done. Yet, 
quering hero, returning from the field of victory, this man was, in 1868, elected senator over the 
could have received such applause. It was the Honorable Bedford Brown; and appointed by 
triumph of the law and of justice over misrule the governor, he served as a justice of the 
and oppression. (See sketch of Judge Brooks peace, and was granted a license to practice 
in Pasquotank County.) The sufferings and law by Judge A. W. Tourgee.. 
contumely thus endured by Judge Kerr ex- On Saturday, May 21st, 1870, a meeting 
cited the sincere sympathy of the country, of the conservative party of Ca-swell County 
and he was elected by the legislature, in 1874, was held in the court house at Yanceyville tO' 



nonuDate candidates for tlio le^iislature. 
Speeches were made bj' Samuel P. Hiil, Bed- 
ford Brown, and others. A large number at- 
tended, among them was Stephens. At night 
he was missing, and search was made. The 
next morning, in one of the rooms in the base- 
ment of the court house, the dead body of 
Stephens was found, The jury of inquest re- 
ported "the death of John W. Stephens was 
caused by a small rope drawn around his neck 
in a noose, and by three stabs with a pocket 

knife, two in, the tb.roat, the other stab on the 
left of the breast hone, nenetratino' the cavity 
of the chest, inflicted by the hands of some per- 
sons unknown; of which wound the said John 
W. Stephens died, on Maj' 21st, 1870, between 
the hours of four and seven o'clock, p. m." 
Various surmises have been made as to the per- 
sons and motives of this mysterious murder. 
But no positive evidence was elicited, and per- 
haps it is only when the secrets of all hearts 
are known, will the facts be ascertained. 



There lived in this county during the revo- 
lutionary war, one of tlie most daring and des- 
perate tories that those dangerous times pro- 
duced, by the name of David Fanning. He 
was born iibout 1754, in Wake Count}', and in 
1778 moved to Chatham. The occupation of 
Wilmington b}' the British troops afforded an 
opportunit}' for his nefarious depredations. 
One of the earliest sufferers was Charles Shear- 
ing, of Deep River, to whose house he went at 
night, and shot him dead as he fled. His 
energy and desperation were appreciated by 
the British authorities, and he was made col- 
onel of the loyal militia, and Major Craig, at 
Wilmington, presented him with a uniform 
and pistols. 

One of his*eai'liest successes was the capture 
of Colonel Philip Alston, at his house. In July, 
1784, he entered Campbellton, now Fayette- 
ville, and carried off Colonel Ennett, Captain 
Winslow, and others. On September 12th, 
following, he, with a troop, entered Hills- 

boro' and seized the Governor (Burke,) and 
other prominent whigs, and carried them to 
Wilmington as prison ers of war. 

I attempted, in the history of JS'orth Caro- 
lina, to give a brief sketch of this noted 
marauder under the head of Chatham County. 
Since writing this, I have been so fortunate 
as to find in manuscript, an auto-biography 
written b}' Fanning himself, which is very 
lengthy and minute; this has already been 
published. He was a refugee after the war 
closed, and died in St. Johns, Province of ]S!"ew 
Brunswick, in 1825. 

Charles Manly, born 1795, died 1871, late 
Governor of Xorth Carolina, ^^■as a native of 
this county. 

His fatlier, Basil Manly, was born and raised 
in St. Maiw's County, Mai-yland. He removed 
to North Carolina before the revolution, and 
settled in Bladen Count}-. He was a bold and 
active partizan ofHcer, holding the commission 
of captain during that war. 


He married Elizabeth Maultsby. Quae- that time in tlie state, and an associariou with 

count of ill health, iie removed to Chatham prominent and leading men, he was enabled 

Coiintj', where he died in 1824, much respected to prosecute the study of the law witiioat 

for his high moral courage, and his inflexible entrenching upon the narrow income of bis 

integrity. Having had but a limited educa- father. He was admitted to the bar in 1816, 

tion liimself, lie felt its impoi'tance and ad- and commenced the practice of law with great 

vantages, and he devoted all the energies success. 

of an industrious and frugal life to the be- On the death of General Robert Williams,' 
•stowal of its benefits on his sons. He lived in whose ofhce he read law, he was appointed 
to accomplish this cherished object of his life, his successor as treasurer of the board of 
and with his pious and exempbiry wife,' a trustees of the universit}-, and in that capacity, 
woman of great mental endowments, to rejoice for a series of j'ears, rendered faithful and 
in the happy result of their joint efforts and signal service to that venerable institution, 
prayers, the eminent success in life of their In 1823, he was appointed, on the uK^tion of 
three distinguished sons, Charles ATanl}-, Basil John Stanley, the reading clerk of the House 
Manly, (who graduated at the South Carolina of Commons. The same year, (1823.) he was 
university, with the first honors of the institu- appointed clerk to the commission under the 
tion, born 1798. died at Greenville, South treaty of Ghent, to examine the claims of 
Carolina, 1868,) and Matthias Evans Manly, of American citizens for slaves and other prop- 
New Berne, late judge of the superior and erty taken by the British, during the war 
of the supreme courts in this state, also elected of 1812. Langdon Cheves, of South Car- 
senator in congress, but denied his seat. olina, and Henry Seawell, of North Carolina, 

Charles Manly, the eldest son, was born in were the American commissioners; George 
the County of Chatham, on May 13th, 1795. Jackson and John were the 
He was prepared for college b}' that excellent British commissioners. The board sat at 
classical scholar, the late William Bingham, Washington. This was a position most de- 
af the Pitttiboro academy, and graduated at t he sii'able and improving to a young man, afford- 
university in 1814, with the first distinction in ing a pass-port to the best society at the capital, 
all bis classes. In this class was AaronV. Brown, But its duties interfered so much with his 
of Tennessee, (member of congress, 1839 to professional pursuits at home, that he soon 
1843; Governor of Tennessee, 1844, and Post- resigned. 


master-General of the United States, 1857;) The Alumni association of the university 
Plons. James Graham, and John Hill, both in resolved to have an annual address at each 
after life members of congress, and others.* commencement, and Mr. Manly delivered the 
The treasurer of the state, the late John first in 1838, which was most acceptable, 
Haywood, attended this c(nnmencement, and and was considered a model of chaste and pop- 
was so attracted by the talents and proficiency ular elocution. 

of this young man, that he engaged him as a In 1830, he succeeded that fine speciiJien of 

privaty tutor for his sons. This position was "the old school gentlemen," Pleasant lleu- 

highly advantageous. For besides the advanta- derson, as principal clerk of the House of Com- 

ges of enjoying the regard and society of Mr. mons, and remained, by continuous elections 

Haywood, one of the most popular inen at in the same office, with one intermission, until 

~~;— , ^,, . , . , T ••,,., 1848, when he was elected governor of the 

*i or much of this material. lam iiiaebted toa bio- 

graphical sketch by .James M. Cleaveland. slate. He had never been ambitious in polit- 



ical preferment. In 1840, he wae elected an 
elector, and in the electoral college of that year, 
cast the vote of North Carolina for Wil- 
liam H. Harrison and John Tyler. In 1844, he 
was defeated as senator for Wake, but he filled 
various other offices of confidence and trust 
with ,2;reat credit to himself, and satisfaction to 
■the state. Among these positions were direct- 
or of the state bank, a commissioner to sell and 
collect the proceeds of the sale of Cherokee 
lands in the western part of the state, and 
treasurer of the universitj'. 

In the campaign for governor in 1848, the 
election being by [lopular suft'rage, he can- 
vassed the whole state with great satisfaction 
to his friends, and with the respect of his op- 
pioneuts. lie was elected by a handsome 
majority ; inaugurated governor on January 
1st, 1849, and served the constitutional 
term of two years. In 1850, he was again 
nominated by the whig convention 
was again opposed by that able and astute 
statesman, David S. Reid, and was defeated. 
Afterwards he retired to private life. With him, 
" the sceptre departed " from the whig party 
for a long time, for after Governor Reid, came 
Governors Bragg, Ellis, Clark and Vance. 

Governor Manly married in 1817, Charity, 
daughter of William H. Haywood, senior. 
By this marriage he became the brother-in- 
law of the late William H. Haywood, junior; 
senator in congress, (1843,) as also of E. B. 
Dudley, the first governor of the state under 
tlie amended constitution of 18-35. 

As might naturally be supposed, the promi- 
nent positions he had held, especially his long 
connection with the young and rising genera- 
tion at the university, and with those in 
active life in the legislature, as its principal 
clerk, and as governor, that he was extensively 
known to every man of prominence and 
distinction, especially those in the South. He 
was univerally respected wherever known, and 
became a great favorite with his genial man- 

ners, and magnetic humor. No one wfs a better 
conversationalist, or more aboundedin anecdote 
and reminiscences of men and times. His 
keen sense of the ridiculous, and his inimita- 
ble manner of narration, made him a welcome 
guest, and " his flashes of merriment VN'ere wont 
to set the table on a roar;'' his wit was never 
used to wound, and left no sting behind. Fond 
of society, his house was the resort of friends 
who partook of his unstinted hospit.ility. To 
the call of misfortune his hand was ever open. 
As a counsellor he was an honest and safe one. 
Zealous in the interest of his client, and fair 
in argument, respectful to the bench, and kind 
and considerate to the members of the bar, 
especially to his younger brethren. But with 
all his other admirable traits of character, and 
above all, he was a chrisHaii gentleman. He was 
for years in full communion and membership 
of the Episcopal church; an admirer of its 
tenets, and a foUower of its precepts. 

Such was Charles Manly. His latter days 
were darkened by the cloud of civil war, and 
the hand of disease. His substance vv'as dis- 
poiled, bis farms ravaged by hostile hands, and 
his health prostrated. He died at Raleigh 
on May 1st, 1871. Like Wolsey 
Full of repentance. 

Continued meditations, tears, and sorrows 

He gave his lionovs to tlie world again 

His blessed part to Heaven, and slept in peace." 

Christopher Gale resided in Edentou 
and did such service in the defense of the 
colony that his name should be preserved. 

We regret that neither traditioii or record 
affords much information as to his acts and 
services, and that the dust of time is fast ob- 
scuring the little information we possess, yet 
this should encoarage others to rescue from 
oblivion his life and character. 

He was a native of England, born in York- 
shire, son of Miles Gale, rector of a church in . 
Yorkshire. He came to America, and in 1709 
was appointed receiver general, and in 1723 
was appointed one of the council of Governor 


George Burrington, with Thomas Pollock, and Craige on the other, while Rencher circn- 

Francis Forstei', John Lovick and others; lated quietly among the people, and gained 

when he was at the same time chief justice of the votes. He was elected a member of the 

the colony. In 1729, with Colonel John Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-third, 

Lovick, Edward Mosely, and "William Little, Twenty -fourth and Twenty-fifth Congress, 

he was appointed one of the commissioners to (1829 to 1839.) He was again elected to the 

run the line between North Carolina and Vir- Twentj- -seventh Congress, (1841 to 1843.) This 

ginia; Colonel William Byrd, Richard Fitz- was a stormy period of our political history, 

williain and William Dandridge, being the Hari'ison died after being in the presidential 

commissioners for A'irginia. The journal of chair one month, and Tyler succeeded. The 

these commissioners has been preserved and friendsof the party calculatedou Tyler pursuing 

printed.* a course difi'erent from the line he had marked 

William Little, chief justice, n^arried a out. Mr. Clay and other leaders often assailed 

daughter of Judge Gale. He was active in him with great bitterness. This was a fierce 

resisting the attacks of the Tuscaroras, and and violent contest. A very few of the old 

went to SoutVi Carolina for aid, which was whigs stood firm, and so they were called "the 

promptly furnished, and Colonel Moore was corporal's guard." One of these was Mr. 

despatched with a sufficient force to subdue Rencher. After his term in had ex- 

them. pired he was appointed, in 1843, charge deajfaires 

Chistopher Ga1o died in Edenton, where he to Portugal, where he remained four years, 
lies buried, and left a name that was never On his return home he took an active part 

mentioned but with respect. t in the election of Franklin Pierce, and was one 

Abram Rencher resides in Chatham County, of the electors of the state. 
but was born in Wake about 1804. He fin- He was made governor of the territory- of 

ished his education at the university where he New Mexico, by President Buchanan. 
graduated in 1822. In the same class was John M. Mooring, speaker of the present 

Bishop Davis, Washington Morrison, and house of representatives of the North Carolina 

others. He studied law with Judge Nash, at legislature, (1879,) is a native of Chatham 

Hillsboro. County, born March 11th, 1841. He was edu- 

He early engaged in political life. In 1829, cated at Graham, and at the university, and 

he was a candidate for the state senate, and would have graduated in the class of 1863 

was defeated; but in the same year, a vacancy had not the civil war prevented. He joined 

occuriiig in congress from this district, he be- the army as a private in company G, seventh 

came a candidate, with Judge Pearson and regiment, and was sergeant-major at the sur- 

Burton Craige as opponents. This was a strife render of Johnson at Greensboro, 1865. He 

involving much intellectual power, and the studied law, and in 1872 elected member of 

great question as to the power of the govern- the legislature, and re-elected in 1874, 1876 

ment, and the rights of the state, and other and 1878, when he was chosen speaker. He 

topics, were argued by Pearson on the one side is a good speaker, and a laborious member. 

His even teniper, genial disposition, and quick 

+ RMl3t*f?JfjR!,nl,i„<^T. IT'- •. „ . preception of points of order, render him an 

TKecoi as tiom Board of Trade; Lniversity Magazine, i ^^ ' ' 

volume v., 221.) admirable presiding officer. 




This countj^, in the earlier daj-s of the state, 
was the residence of the Roj-al governors, and 
its capital town preserves the name of Charles 
Eden, who was governor under the Lord 
Proprietors, from 1713 to 1722. The adminis- 
tration of Eden was eminently prosperons. His 
grave is still to be seen on Salmon Creek, in 
Bertie County, and the marble bears the in- 
scription that he governed the province for 
eight years; that he died March 26th, 1722, 
aged forty-nine ^-ears. During his adminis- 
tration a notorious pirate lived in North Caro- 
lina, and whose name is preserved by "Teach's 
Hole," near Ocracoke Inlet. Inasmuch as at 
this point he was in the habit of careening his 
vessel, the "Adventure," and it was here, at 
the head of only seventeen men, he met the 
Viiginia naval expedition sent out for his cap- 
tuj'e, of whom he killed and wounded thirty 
before he fell — gallanti-y and conduct worthy 
of a better cause! The reputation of Governor 
Eden suffered by a, supposed intimacy with 
Teach, and he was compelled to lay before the 
council an account of his conduct. 

I copy from a very scarce work, "A General 
History of the Pirates from their first rise and 
settlement to the present time," by Charles 
Johnson, foui'th edition: London 1726, referred 
to in Waldic's select circulating library, Phil- 
adelphia, 1883,1., 123: 

"Edward' Teach, better known as 'Rlack- 
beard,' was born in Bristol, England. He was 
engaged as a private sailor till 1716, when a 
Captain Hornsgold, a noted pirate, placed him in 
command of a sloop which he had made prize 
of. They sailed together for the American coast, 
capturing D:any ships and plundering them. 
After various cruises they were shipwrecked 
on the coast of North Carolina. Teach hear- 
ing of a proclaujation by which pirates who 

surrendered were to he pardoned, went with 
twenty- of his men to the governor of the state, 
and received certificates of pardon from him. 
But it does not appear that their submission 
was from any reformation, but rather to gain 
time and opportunity for a renewal of their 
nefarious deeds. Teach had succeeded in cul- 
tivating the kind offices of the governor, and 
soon after brought in, as a prize, a merchant 
ship, which the vice-admiralty court of the 
province awarded as a lawful prize to Teach. 
In June, 1718, he sailed foi' the Bermudas, and 
took many siiips on his vo^^age, among them 
two French ships, one was loaded witli sugar 
and cocoa, and the otlier in ballast; the latter 
with both crews he released, and the other he 
brought to North Carolina. Teach and his 
officers claimed them as lawful prizes, and 
made affidavits that they fonnd the prize at 
sea without a soul on board, and th.e court 
condemned her. The governor (Eden,) re- 
ceived sixty hogsheads of sugar for his part, 
Mr. Knight, his secretar3% one, and the collec- 
tor of the province twenty. 

"Thus countenanced and protected. Teach 
became most daring, desperate and dangerous. 
He infested the whole const, particularly the 
waters of Delaware, Virginia, and the Caro- 
linas. In November, 1718, Governor Spotts- 
wood, of Virginia, offered a reward of £100 
for Teach, dead or alive. 

"On the 17th of tliesame month, Lie\itenant 
Maynard sailed fronj Kicqiietan, on the James 
river, in search of Blackbeard. On the 31st, 
at tlie mouth of Ocracoke Inlet, he came in 
sight of the pirate. Blackbeard had been ad- 
^■ise(l of this moven)ent by a letter from Mr. 
Knight, Governor Eden's secretary'. He iin- 
njediately prepared for a desperate resistance. 
A terrible conflict ensued in which Blackbeard 
was slain, fighting with great fury and desper- 
ation. Maynard sailed up to Bath with the 
head of" the pirate nailed to the bowspi'it of 
his vessel. A letter was found in the pocket 
of the dead pirate from Knight, dated 
November 17th, 1717, a copy of which is 
preserved in Williamson's History of North 
Carolina. When the lieutenant came to Bath 
town he seized the sugar that the governor 
and his secretary had received from Teach. 



The statement goes on to sny 'that the gov- 
ernor, apprehensive that he might be called to 
account, became ill <ii' a fright and died in a 
few days.' " 

In an autobiographical sketch of Benjamin 
Franklin, he says that at a very early age 
(about fourteen,) he took a strange fancy for 
poetry, and comjiosed several pieces, among 
them were two ballads, one called the "Light- 
house Tragedy," which contained an account 
of the shipwreck of Captain Worthilake and 
his two daughters, the other was a sailor's 
song on the capture of the noted pirate called 
Teach or BUickbeard. When they had been 
printed, Franklin's brother sent him around 
the town to sell them. Theyliad a prodigiems 
huccess, as the fiist event was then recent, and 
created much excitemen.t. 

Following the sound advice of his father 
this great philoso[iher esca[,ied the misfortune 
of being a poor poet, for the success of these 
two ballads had greatly elated his young 
mind, and but little encouragemer.t was needed 
to set him permanently to verse making. 

It is due to the truth of liistory to say 
that there was no evidence to implicate Gov- 
ernor Eden in the nc'farious transactions of 
Teach. , As to tlie statement "that he was so 
apprehensive, and was so frightened, that he 
died ill a few da^^s," is grossly in error, for this 
was in 1717, and Governor Eden, as appears 
by the date on his tombstone, died five years 

Tradition points to Iloliiday's Island, in tlie 
Chowan river, as one of Blackbeard's haunts,, 
and the mouth of Totecasi Creek, where it 
enters the mouth of the Meherrin river, as the 
point where he buried his spoils. 

The people of this section were, in the revo- 
lution, the firm friends of independence, and- 
the determined foes to oppression. The North 
Carolina Gazette, of February 21th, 1775, con- 
tains the pi'oceedings of the Committee of 
Safety for the town of Edenton, on February 

4th, 1775, showing thi? spirit. The commit- 
tee were Robert Hard_y, (chairman,) Joseph 
Hewes, Robert Smith, Jasper Charlton, John 
Rembough, William Ben not, Charles Boniield. 
Thomas Jones, and John Green.* 

Even the members of the Episcopal church,, 
who liavfr been charged I.)}' some as being op- 
posed to ir.dependence, v^ere tirm and open 
against the oppressions of the British Govern- 
ment, and resolved to stand by the Continen- 
tal Congress. 

We present a record from the proceedings 
of the vestry of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, at 
Edenton,. copied by the kindnes.': of Major 
Henry A. Gilliam, now of Raleigh: 

"Wo, the undersigned, profe.^sing our alle- 
giance to the King, and acknowledging the 
constitutional executive power of the govern- 
ment, do solemnly profess and decLire, that we 
do absolutely believe that neither the Parlia- 
ment of Great Britian, nor any memlier, or 
constituent branch thereof, have a right to 
impose taxes upon these coloriies to regulate 
the internal policy thereof; and that all at- 
tempts by fraud or force to establish and ex- 
eicise such claims and powei's are violations of 
the peace and the security of the people, and 
ought to be resisted to the utmost; and that 
the people of this province, singly and collec- 
tively, are bound by the acts and resolutions 
of the Continental and Provincial Congress, 
because in both tliey are fully represented by 
persons chosen bj' themselves. And we do sol- 
emnly and .sincerely promise and engage, under 
the sanctions of virtue, honor, and the sacred 
love of liberty and our country, to maiatain 
and support all the acts and resolutions of the 
said Continental and Provincial Congress to 
th-e utmost of our power and ability. 

" In testimony whereof, we have hereunto 
set our hands, this 19th day of June, 1775. 

" Richard Iloskens, Wm. Boyd, David Rice. 
Thomas Benbury,t Aaron Hill, Jacob Hunter, 
Pelatiah Walton, John Beasely, William 
Hinton, William Bennet, Thomas Bonner, 
William Roberts." 

These names are doubtless familiar wit!) 

^"Colonial Records in Rolls Otfice, copied by me. 
tThomas Eeiibury was speaker in 1778 to 1784. 



nianj' 3'et residing in Edenton. H(nv pron<l 
may the}' be of so glowing a record! 

The patriotism of the men was equalled by 
the self denial of the wonicn. 

There was brought from Gibraltar, many 
3'ears ago, a lovely painting of" a meeting of 
the ladies of Edenton destroying the tea, their 
favorite beverage, when taxed by the English 
rarliament." I saw this picture in the hands 
of Mr. Manning ill 1830. 

'J'he following record is from Eorce''s Ameri- 
can Archives: 

"As we cannot be indifferent on any occa- 
sion that affects the peac« and happin<ess of 
our count}', and as it has been thought neces- 
sary for the pulilic good to enter into several 
particular resolves by a meeting of the depu- 
ties of the whole provinice, it is a duty we owe, 
not onl}' to ourselves, but to ournea^rand dear 
relations, to do everj'thing as far as lies in our 
power to testify to our sincere adherence to the 
same; we, therefore, do subscribe this paper 
as a witness to our fixed intention and solemn 

Signed bj'' fifty-six ladies of Edenton, North 
Carolina, October 25th, 1774. 

There are but few sections of the states in 
in which have resided men more illustrious 
for abilit}', or v\ho have written their names 
more indelibly in the history' of their country. 

Among the first of theso is Samuel John- 
ston; born 1733, died 1816. He was a native 
of Dundee, Scotland, the son of John John- 
ston and Helen Scrymsour. His father in 
1736, followed Gabriel Johnston, who was his 
brother, and who was in 1834 the governor of 
the province of North Carolina, and alter 
whom Johnstone County is called. Pie died 
July 17th, 1752. 

He was a Scotchman In- birth, a .man of 
liberal views, and a physician by j>rofession. 
He married Penelope, the only child of Gov- 
ernor Eden, and his grandson, William John- 
stone Dawson, distinguished for his acquire- 
ments and talents, in 1793 represented the 

Edenton district in congress, and with Willie 
Jones, Joseph McDowell, Thomas Blount and 
James Martin, was on the committee in 1791 
to fix a permanent place for the seat of gov- 
ernment. He died in 1798; an event universally 

John, his brother, was appointed survej'- 
or-general of the province, and settled in 
Onslow County, whilst the subject of this 
sketch was yet an infant. His advantages of 
education were the best the country afforded. 
He studied law in Edenton, under Thomas 
Barker, and resided at Hays, near Edenton. 
When only nineteen he was appointed one of 
the clerks of the superior court for the dis- 
trict, and afterwards deputy naval officer for 
the port. 

Although holding this position, he was the 
ardent and unflinching advocate of the rights 
of the people. 

In 1773, he was appointed with Caswell, 
Harnett and Hooper a committee of corres- 
pondence >with the other colonies on the sub- 
ject of the cond-uct of England toM'ards the 

In a dispatch from Governor Martin to the 
Earl of Dartmouth, of September 1st, 1774, he 
thus speaks of the influence and the character 
of Mr. Johnston: 

" I have known the general assembly to 
sacrifice everything to a faction. 

"Eour of them, namely Currituck, Perquim- 
ons, Pasquotank and Chowan, send each five 
members; Tyrell, Bertie and Martin send eight, 
besides one for Edenton. These are al^^■a3•s 
led by a man or two. They are now absoliitel}' 
under the guidance of a Mr. Johnstone, who 
is deputj' naval officer, and was one of the 
clerks of the superior courts while thej' existed 
in the jirovince. who, under the prejudices of a 
New England education, is by no means a 
friend of the government, having taken a fore- 
most part in all the late opposition, joined with 
the Southern interest, ^vhich at present supi- 
ports a Mr. Ashe. 

"Your lordshi p will not be surprised to hear 
that the people of this province have followed 
the example of the rest of the continent in 



caballing and forniins; resnlntions against the 
measures of the Government."* 

As was to be expected, Govei'nor Martin 
suspended Mr. Johnston from office, which 
drew from him the following dignified letter, 
now on file in the Rolls Office in London: 

"Edenton, Noveriijjer IQih, 1775. 

"Sir: I have this day had the honor of re- 
ceiving your excellency's letter, signifying that 
you had been pleased to suspend me from act- 
ing as deputy to Mr. Turner, in the Naval' 
office, with the reasons for such removal, and 
it gives me pleasure that I do not find neglect 
of the duties of my office in the catalogue of 
my crimes; at the same time I hold myself 
obliged to you for the polite manner in which 
3'ou are pleased to express yourself of my pri- 
vate character. You will pardon me for saying 
that I had reason to complain of the invidious 
poitit of view in which you place my public 
transactions, when you state that 'the late 
meeting of the iidiabitants of this province at 
Ilillsboi'o, was a body of my own creation.' 

"Your excellency cannot be ignorant that I 
was a mere instrument on this occasion, under 
the direction of the people; a people amotig 
whom I have long I'esided, who have on all 
occasions placed the greatest confidence in me, 
and to whom I am bound by gratitude (that 
powerful and inviolate tie in every lionest 
mind,) to render any service they can demand 
of me, in defense of what they esteem their 
lights, at the risk of my life and property. 

"You will further, sir, be pleased to under- 
stand, that I never considered myself in that 
honorable light in which you place me — ^om of 
the Kirif/'s servants,^ being entirely- unknown to 
tliose who have the disposal of the King's 
favors. I never enjoyed, nor had I right 
to expect, any office under His Majesty. The 
office I held, and for some years exercised under 
the deputation of Mr. Turner, was an hon- 
est purchase for which I paid punctually i.n 
annual sum, and which I shall continue to pay 
until the expiration of the term for which I 
would have held it, agreeably to our contract. 

" Permit me, sir, to add that had all the 
King's servants iti this province been as well 
informed as to the dis[iosition of the inhabi- 
tants, as they might have been, or taken the 
same pains to promote peace, good order, and 
obedience to the laws, that I flatter myself I 

have done, the source of 3'our excellenc^-'s un- 
ceasing lamentations had never existetl; or had 
it existed, it would have been in so small a 
degree that e'er this it would have been 
nearly exhausted. 

"But, sir, a recapitulation of past errors, 
which it is now too late to correct, would be 
painful to me, and miii'ht appear impertinent 
to you; Ishall therefore decline the ungracious 
task, and by and v^ithall due I'cspect, subscribe 

"Your excellency's nn>st 

•■•'obedient, luimble servant, 

"Samuel Johnstone." 

He was a mendjer from Chowan in 1775, to 
the provincial congress of the state, and suc- 
ceeded, iin the death of .John Harvey, as moder- 
ator or president. 

He was ju-esent at Halifax at the formation 
of the constitution in November, 1776, and 
although not a member, afforded all the aid 
of his experience and ability to develope the 
conservative features of that instrument. To 
many of the principles adopted, he was 
opposed, fearing the departure from the forms 
long established and practiced was too great 
to be useful. 

In 1780 to 1782, he was a member of the 
Continental Congress.f In 1787, he was elected 
govenor of the state. He was an ardent and 
enthusiastic admirer of the constitution of the 
United States, and pi'esided at the conventioui, 
held July 21st, 1788, to'consider that instru- 
ment, jbnt it was rejected by that body. 
In 17j9, he and Benjamin Hawkins were 
elected the first senators from Nortli Corolina. 
in tKe Congress of tlie United States: here 
they served till 1793. 

In February, 1800, he was appointed one of 
the judges of the superior courts of lav/, and. 
equity, which he resigned in November, 1803. 
He died in 1816. 

*Colonial Documents, Rolls Office, p. 184. 

tWhile a memLev of the Continental ha was 
elected to the high honor of president of that body; but 
he was compellPd to forego tliis distinction because of 
the condition of his finances. This < ompelled his re- 
turn to North Carolina, ^and he had thus to forego 
what was then the hi^iest civil function in America.. 
— .Journa-t of Continental Congress- -^ 


Governor Johnston was mentally and Ho left two children, Reverend Samuel J. 

physically "every inch a man." His intellect Johnston, D.D., for years rector of St. Paul's, 

was of the highest order, cultivated by learn- Edenton, and Sallie Ajine, who married James 

ing and experience. His person was imposing, D. Wynns. Esther Gotten, the only other 

of a large and powerful frame, erect and stately child of Godwin Gotten, married in 1804 

in his carriage, and of iron will. He joined James Wright Moore, of Virginia. He was 

the graces of the scholar with the wisdom of the son of Captain William Edward Moore, 

the statesman.* and was noted for his manly and noble pres- 

He was a devoted advocate of mtisonr}-, and ence, and his devotion to field sports. He, too, 

was in 1788, grand master oi the order in the died eai'lj-, leaving one son, Dr. Godwin C. 

state. t Moore, and two daughters, Emeline, who mar- 

Ile married Frances Cathcart, and had issue, ried first, ])r. N. W. Fletcher, of Virginia; her 
•among tliem James C. Johnston, who lived second husband was Mr. LeVert, of Alabanm, 
■near Edenton, and died vluring the war be- and Sarah Matilda, married to Turner P. 
tween the states, about 1861, one of the Westray, of Nash, since dead, 
wealthiest men of the state. He was so de- The genealogy of the Johnston family: 
cidedly opposed to secession that he disin- John Johnston, brother to Gabriel John- 
herited alibis relatives, because they identified ston. Governor North Carolina 1734, married 
themselves with this war, and left his Helen Scrj-msour, and had seven children. I. 
property, amounting to many millions, to his Samuel. II. John, married Miss Williams and 
personal friends. At the outbreak of the had the following children: (a) John, mar- 
war he freed his slaves. He was a great ried Cotton, of Hertford County; (6) Samuel 
admirer of Henry Clay, whose debts, to a large Iredell, university class 1826, rector of St. 
amount, Mr Johnston discharged without Paul's, Edenton; (c) Sally Ann, married to J. 
Mr. Clay's knowledge; nor was Mr. Clay ever D. Wynns; (d) Elizabeth, married to Philip 
able to ascertain who was his benefactor. His Alston had six children, and (c) Anne, mar- 
will was contested by his legal heirs, on the ried to Hunter, no issue, 
ground of his being non compo.-s mmtis. III. Penelope, married to Parson Stuart, no 

About this time John Johnston, who had, in issue. IV. <lane, married to George Blair, 
1787, 1788, 1789, represented P)ertie County and had {a) Helen, married to Tredwell, had 
in the senate, l)ecame a citizen of Hertford four children; {h) William; (e) Margaret, 
County. lie had mariied Betsey Gotten, (laugh- married first to Dr. Hornier, and second to 
ter of Godwin Gotten, of Mulberrj Grove, and Mr. Sawyer, and had seven cliildren; [d) Sam- 
resided near there. He was of the same name uel, and {c) George, married Miss King, mem- 
and nephew of Governor Johnston, of Chowan, her of legislature in 1829. 

He was a man of high culture, but died too V. Anne died unmarried. VI. Isabella died 
young to attain the traditional prominence uumariied. VII. Hannah, married to James 
and usefulness of his family. Iredell, (Judge of the Supreme Court of the 
-UniveiTity Magazme, Vlil., 1. United States, born 1750, died 1799,) and had 
_ t "In ihe lodge room at Edenton," savs Mr. Banks four children: (a) Thonms; (/;) Annie- (r\ 
m the Ob erver, •■ there is a remarkable chair of heavy ^^ , , /,n t i -.-oo ^ 
■■ "- - Helen, and ((?) James, born lv88, Governor of 

North Carolina 1827, United States Senator 
1828, died 1853, leaving issue 

mahogany, carved witli all the emblems of masonry, 
with the words, "virtnte et silento. " This chair is the 
one which General Washiiigtou occupied at Williams 
burg, Va., and was deposited here during the revoln- 


'tiouary war for safety. It is a venerable relic, and , . , , , . ^. ., . 

possesses the reverence and regard of all masons." It is stated that this lamily is a branch of 



the hoLibG of Annandale of Scotland. An illu- 
sion is made in McRee's "Life and Correspon- 
dence of James Iredell," to the dormant claim 
to the Marqnisite of Annandale, as existing in 
the Johnston family of North Carolina — nor 
is this claim a m\'th. 

From a worii on genealogy'', reliable and val- 
uable, (the Peerage of Scotland, containing an 
historical and genealogiotil account of the no- 
bility of that kingdom from their origin to 
the present generation, by Sir Kobert Douglas, 
ill quarto, 1813,) I extract the following: 

"George, third Marquis of Annandale, died 
April 29th, 1792. He left an estate of £415.000. 
It is understood that the title devolved on 
James, (third Earl of Ilopetown,) who, how- 
ever, did not assume the title but took the 
nanie of Johnstone in addition to that of 
Hope. It has not been determined whether 
the title of the Marquis of Annandale has 
become extinct, or' devolves on the heir male 
general of the family, or who is such heir male 

"The motto of the family is 'Nunquam non 
'/)aratu.-:''^Vo\. I., 77. 

"The .Johnstones were a race of brave and 
warlike men, of gi'eat power atid authority' on 
the borders."— Vol. I., 70. 

From Family Romance; or, Episodes in the 
Domestic Annals of the Aristocracy of Great 
Britain. A work by Sir Bernard Burke, au- 
thor of the Peerage, &c., fourth edition: Lon- 
don, 1876: 

" Margaret, Lady Ogilvj-, (wife of David, 
Lord Ogiivy and daughter of Sir James John- 
stone,) Third Baronet of Westerhall and 
Dame Barl^ara Murray, was oneof tlie keenest 
supporters of the unfortunate Prince Charles 
Edward, when he raised his standard in Scot- 
land in 1744. 

" When the fortunes of Charles approached 
its close, Lord Oirilvj- was unwilling to continue 
his sui)port, and as the only way of securing 
her husband's attendance at the battle of Cul- 
loden. Lady Ogiivy rode herself with him at 
the head of the clan to the battle tield, she 
was beautiful and graceful, and an admirable 
rider. At the close of the day, her husband 
rode breathless up to her, and told her ' the 

battle was lost.' He escaped to France, where 
he entered the army, and attained the high 
rank of Lieutenant-General under Napoleon. 
Lady Ogiivy was taken prisoner, tried, con- 
victed, and sentenced to be executed in Edin- 
burgh. She made her escape, by a fearless 
stratagem, to France, where she joined her 
husband; there she died at the early age of 
thirty-three. She left one son, David, who 
died without issue, and one daughter who 
married Sir .John Wedderburn, heir of the 
House of Airlie. 

" She had several talented, distinguished and 
fortunate lirothers. Her second brother, Wil- 
liam, married Miss Pulteney, daughter of 
Daniel Pnlteney, sole heiress of the Earl of 
Bath. In consequence of succeeding to her 
inunense fortune Mr. Johstone assumed the 
name of Pulteney. He became Fifth Baronet 
and claimant of the Marquisate of Annaud;ile 
on the death of liis eldest brother. Her only 
daughter was created Countess of Bath, died 
without issue. Her vast estates were inherited 
by her maternal relatives; the Duke of Cleve- 
land, and Sir Richard Sutton; Sir William 
Johnstone Pulteney, heir in tlie Weitcrlmll 
estate, t\\Q American possessicns, and the claimant 
to the Marqui.sate of Annandale is Sir 
Frederick, the Eighth Baronet, great grand 
son of the third son of Sir James and Dame 

" Sir James's fourth son, John, went to India, 
made a fortune, and returned home, where he 
purchased large estates in his native country. 
Alva, in the County of Clackmannan, and the 
Hanging Show, in the Count}' of Selkirk. Tlie 
famil}' of Ml', .lohnstone's only son are numer- 
ous and prosperous." Main' of them emigrated 
to America; pp. 168 to 173, 

Some members of this family were engaged 
in our late inteniicme war, and fell iu battle. 

Althouich it is ikiquestionable as stated by 
Whitman in his woi'k on "American Geneal- 
ogy,'' that any given family in our country, 
claiming to be descended from any distin- 
guished English family of the same name i s 
doubtful, and such claims should be severely 
scrutinized; yet enough has been shown from 
the English authorities of unquestioned reli- 
ability, that the claim of the Johnston fam- 
ily m North Carolina to the title of the Mar- 
quisate of Annandale of Scotland has some 


foundation, and might re^val■d the descendants Continental Congress at Philade' :>hia, and 

in prosecuting the claim. served till 1785, and again in 178 '88. In 

Joseph Hewes, born 1735, died 1779, one of 1787 he, with William Blount ana Richard 

the signers (jf the Declaration of Independence Dobbs Spaight, was delegate to the conven- 

of July 4th, 1776, from North Carolina, was tion which formed the Constitution of the 

long a resident of Edenton. He was a native United States, and their names are appended 

of New Jersey, and a merchant. to that immortal instrument. 

He was a member of the Colonial Congress From his advocacy of the constitution, which 

at!New Bernein 1774,and in Hillsboro in 1775; was not accepted by North Carolina, he lost 

often a member of the House of Commons, mucii popularity. But this was but momen- 

and a member of the Continental Congress at tar\', for he represented the Edenton district 

I'hiladelphia, 1774 to 1777, and 1779 to 1780. in the Erst and Second Congress in the House 

He died while in Congress at Philadelphia, of Representatives, (1789 to 1793.) 
on November 10th, 1779. He left a large for- He served his country faithfully at hoi,ie and 

tune but no children to inherit it. He was alu-oad; was appointed at the head ■'■'f the 

possessing in person, and of great amenity of medical staft', by Governor Caswell an i was 

manners. His original miniature, beautifully with him at the battle of Camden, 178(3 He 

executed, now in the possession of Miss Ire- was literary in his tastes, and wrote (1812) a 

dell, at Charlotte, shows that he was very History of North Carolina. He died suddeidy 

handsome and of amiable countenance. in New York, (where he had removed and 

Mr. Hewes was a man of exquisite delicacy where he had married,) on May 22d, 1819. 
and refinement; be had been the accepted sui- Stephen Cabarrus, born 1754, died 180S, 

tor of Isabella, the sister of Samuel Johnston, represented Edenton in the legislature from 

She died just previous to her nuptials, and he 1784 to 1787, and the county from 1788 

soon followed her to the grave.* to 1805, with some intermission, and was an 

It is not very complimentary to our state acceptable speaker of the House of Commons 

pride that neither one of the signers of the from 1800 to 1805; from him Cabarrus County 

Declaration, as delegates from the state, were derives its name. He resided and died at Pem- 

native sons of North Carolina. William broke, near Edenton. 

Hooper was a Boston man, Hewes, a New He was a native of France, ar.d possessed the 

Jersey man, and John Penn, a Virginian. usual great wit and vivacity of his countrymen. 

Hugh Williamson, born 1735, died 1819, one That he was popular is shown from the r^-- 

of the signers of the Constitution of the peated elections of the people, and that I'e 

United States, from North Carolina, resided was a useful member is evident by his loi g 

for a long time in Edenton. service as speaker. He lies buried at Pcmbroko, 

He was a native of Pennsylvania, born De- a. large marble slat marks the spot of his last 

cember 5th, 1785, at Nottingham, a phy- resting place. It is thus inscribed: 

sician by profession. ,, ^^ memory of Stepheu Cabarrus, who departed this 

He represented the town in 1782, and the hfe ou the 4th of August, 18.8, aged fifty-four yeare.'" 

County of Chowan in 1785, in the legislature. Honorable Charles Johnson was a useful and 

In 1782, he was elected by the Provincial distinguished citizen of Chowan County. He 

Congress of North Carolina, a member of the often represented the county in the senate, 

~7 , T:r- ^ • 1 <., . , . (1781 to '92,) and in 1782, 1789, was speaker 

*Moore's Historical Sketches of Hertford Co. nty, ^ ,^ ,,,... 

XL, 556. of the senate. He represented the district in 



the Seventh Congress of the United States in 
1801; he U 1 in congress in 1802. His son, 
Charles E. Johnson, represented this count}' 
frequently in the senate, 1817 ,-'19,-20, whose 
son. Dr. Charles Johnson, was surgeon-general 
of the state in the civil war, and who lived 
and died in Raleigh. 

Thomas Benbury an early and active 
friend to the cause of the people — one of the 
Committee of Safety in 1775, was also a citi- 
zen of Chowan. He often represented the 
county in tlio legislature as early as 1774, and 
continue^ till 1781. He was speaker of the 
house ..- 1778,-'79,-'80,-'82. At one time 
Chowaij Countj' had her sons speakei's of both 
houses ( ;■ tlie assemblj-. One of his descend- 
ants re, resented Chowan County in the legis- 
lature! i 1862, -'64, with George M. L. Eure as 
colleague in the senate. 

James Iredell, born 1750, died 1799, one 
of the associate justices of the supreme court 
of the United States, resided in Edenton. 
He was a native of England. 

His father was a prosperous merchant at 
Bristol, eldest son of Francis Iredell, born at 
Lewes, in Sussex County, on October 5th, 1751. 

He came to North Carolina in the fall of 
1768, when oiily seventeen years old, and held 
the otiice of deputy of the port of Edenton 
under his relative Henrj' Eustace McCullock. 
''^''e was afterwards appointed collector, Feb- 
ry 17th, 1774, by the Crown. He studied 
lavp under Governor Samuel Johnston, whose 
8isj:er, Hannah, he married July 10th, 1773. 

He was licensed December 14th, 1770, and 
soon rose to eminence in his profession. In 
1777, he was elected one of the judges of the 
superior courts, which he resigned in 1777. In 
Jul}' following he was made attorney general 
by Governor Caswell. In 1788, he was a 
member of the convention that met at Hills- 
boro to deliberate on the Constitution of the 
United States, and was the able, but unsuccess- 
ful, advocate of its adoption. 

In February, 1790, he was appointed by 
General Washington, one of the justices of the 
supreme court of the United States. 

Full of years and honors he died at Edenton, 
October 20th, 1799. 

His name has been indelibl}- written on the 
history of the state, by calling after his name 
one of the most lovely counties of the state. 

Judge Iredell was, as expressed by Chief 
Justice Marshall in a letter to Judge Murphy, 
(October, 1827,) a man of talents, and of great 
professional worth. 

He left two daughters and one son: his 
death was hastened by his severe labors in 
riding the southern circuit. 

" Repeatedly," says McCree in his biography, 
" did this devoted public servant, in his stick 
gig, traverse the wide and weary distances 
between Philadelphia and Savannah." "The 
life and correspondence of Judge Iredell, by 
GrifEth J. McCree," gives a full and accurate 
account of his character and services. This is 
the best work extract on North Carolina biog- 

James Iredell, junior, born 1788 died 1853, 
son of Judge Iredell, was born, lived and died 
in Edenton. He was liberally educated, a 
graduate of Princeton in 1806, and studied 
law. Both in his legal pursuits and in political 
life he attained great eminence. 

In the war of 1812, he raised a company of 
volunteers and became its captain. His asso- 
ciate and life long friend, Gavin IIogg,was one 
of the lieutenants. He marched with his 
company to Craney Island, near Norfolk, and 
aided in its defense against the British. After 
the war he returned to his profession, of which 
he was a distinguished member. He entered 
public life in 1816 as a member from the town 
of Edenton; (in 1817 and 1818 he was speaker.) 
He was returned to the legislature for many 
years. In March, 1819, he was appointed a 
judge of the superior courts of law and equity, 
which, in the May following, he resigned. In 



1S27. he was elected Governor of the State of 
Xorth Carolina, and the next-j-ear was elected 
a Senator in Congress, succeeding Nathaniel 
Macon. He ^vas succeeded by Judge Manguni 
as senator in congress. 

Ai'ter leaving the senate,where he was loved 
by his associates, and esteemed bj' the nation, 
he retired to the practice of his profession, 
which the support of a J'oung and increasing 
famil}' demanded. He was for a time the able 
and accurate repoi'ter of the decisions of the 
supreme court, which are regarded b}' the pro- 
fession as models of their kind, and authorit}' 
in all the courts of the country-. 

Few men who knew Governor Iredell that 
did not esteem him; and to his intimate 
friends he was an especial favorite. Even in 
the heat of political contests, he never forgot 
the courtesy of life, or the dignity of a gentle- 
man. His social habits aii'ected much of his 

He married a daughter of Samuel Tread- 
well, collector of Edenton, by whom he had an 
interesting and numerous family. One of his 
daughters married Cadwallader Jones, now of 
South Carolina; another Griffith McEee, of 
AVihnington ; another Dr. Charles E. Johnson, 
and another Honorable W. M. Shipp of Char- 

Governor Iredell died in Edenton on April 
13th, 1853. 

Dr. James Norcum, one of the most skillful 
and successful phj'sicians of the county, was 
born and lived and died in Chowan County. 

He was born in 1778, educated at the 
academy- in Edenton, and studied his profes- 
sion under Dr. Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia, 
where he graduated in his twentieth year, 
under such medical celebrities as Rush, Wistar, 
Shippen and others. He returned home, and 
by his skill and learning soon obtained an 
extensive practice. So extensive that he was 
often sent for in consultation from a distance 
of more than one hundred miles. His field of 

practice embraced tlie counties of Chowan, 
Perquimoiis, Parquotank, Camden, Bertie, 
Hertford and Martin. But this large and 
lucrative practice he was compelled to abandon 
on account of his health. Apprehensive of the 
consumption, he repaired to Philadelphia, 
and consulted Dr. Rush, who prescribed along 
sea voyage. This advice was followed and for 
three years he was absent, visiting Calcutta 
and other regions. He returned in restored 
health, and resumed his practice at Edenton. 
Here he continued until bis death. He was 
appointed sui-geon in the army, which he soon 
declined. He was one of the first men of his 
profession. He wrote much on medical sub- 
jects, but onl}' a few of his n'orks have been 
published. Among them were articles on 
Tetanus, epidemic of 1816, on cholera, on 
scarlatina and on endemic fall and summer 
fever. He was a public spiiited citizen and 
christian patriot.* 

Gavin Hogg was born in Orange County and 
was distinguished as an advocate He com- 
menced the practice of the law in Bertie 
County, and removed to Raleigh, where he 
lived for a long time, and v>'here he died. He 
had few equals and no superiors as a lawyer. 
His family was distinguished in the revolu- 
tion. Governor Martin, the last of the Royal 
Governors, in a dispatch states: "The council 
have maintained their loyalty, especially An- 
drew Miller, John Hogg, and John Curden."t 

Writing of Gavin Hogg, the Economist 
(December 31st, 1878,) says "that Windsor 
was the starting place of his professional ca- 
reer, where he entered the legal arena, where 
he attained fame and fortune; he was a great 
lawyer but had no social affinities. He was 
stern and austere. The people respected him 
for his talents but never loved him as a friend. 
His learning and acumen gave him great 
power and influence His argument in the 

*From a memoir of Dr. Norcum by Dr. S. S. Satchell, 
1 S.52, tColonial Documents, 225. 



case of Gregory against Hooker's administra- 
tor, is said to be one of the ablest among the 
reports of the su[.ireme coui't, and when he 
retired from the bar he left no superior. 

thousands of dollars to the wealth of this 

Such a man may emphatically be styled a 
public benefactor; the people of Chowan re- 

Joseph Blount Skinner, born 1780, died cognized his merits. In 1805 and 1807, he 

1851, distinguished as a lawyer and statesman, was elected a member of the legislature, and 

lived and died in Edenton. He was the again in 1814 and 1815. He was a member of 

eldest child of Joshua and Martha Skinner, of the convention in 1835 — the most distin- 

Harvey's Neck. After spending some time at 
Princeton college, he read law under Governor 
Samuel Johnston, and attained distinttion at 
the bar; so lucrative was his practice that in 
a few years he was the leading counsel in 
every ease of importance in his circuit, and 
found himself possessed of ample competency. 
After the labors of more than twenty' years, 
he retired from the bar to the more congenial 
pursuits of agriculture; he purchased a farm 
near Edenton where he lived and died. In 
this, as in his profession, he was eminently- 
successful. He was a model farmer, and caused 

guished bodv of men ever assembled in the 


His course and position in the public councils 
have thus been described by his friend. Judge 
Nash: "His mind and character placed him 
among the ablest men of the legislature — and 
there were many of the highest range of in- 
tellect. Eminently practical, he brought to 
the discussions in that body a fund of knov\l- 
edge and facts, and was always listened to 
with profound attention." 

He died on December 23d, 1851. He mar- 
ried in early life Miss Lowtlier, the great grand 
the waste- places in that section to rejoice and daugher of Governor Gabriel Johnston, who 
blossom as the rose. His large farm became died several years before him, leaving an only 
the admiration of all in that section — beauti- son and a grandaughter. This son. Major 
ful beyond any other in our state. In other Tristam Lowther Skinner, fell in the battle oi 
pursuits he was equally successful and enter- Ellison's Mill. He had several brothers, Eev- 
prising. He gave the iirst impulse in this sec- erend Dr. Thomas H. Skinner, distinguished 
tion to that valuable industry, the herring and as a Presbyterian divine, and Charles W. 

shad tishei-ies. Hitherto the fisheries had been 
confined to tlie Roanoke and Chowan rivers, 
and their tributaries. They were few in num- 
ber and small in extent. Mr. Skinner, with 
his characteristic energy, ventured on the ex- 
periment, then deemed visionary and imprac- 
ticable, iind boldly launched his seines on the 
broad and oft vexed Albemarle itself, and suc- 
ceeded beyond his own expectations. His 
example has been followed; previously the 
spring catch was confined to float nets and 
weirs, now the northern shore of the sound is 
literally studded with fisheries, and there are 
numerous seines 2,000 yards long, worked by 
windlass and horse power, creating a large in- 
dustry, and adding annually- hundreds of 


Thomas J. Jarvis was i:)orn in this county 
July 18th, 1836, and graduated at Randolph, 
Macon; he studied law and obtained his li- 
cense to practice. During the war between 
the states he served as Captain in the Eighth 
Regiment of North Carolina troops. In the 
constitutional convention of 1865, lie served 
as a member, as also in the lower branch of 
the legislature in 1868, in 1870 he was elected 
speaker of that body. Removing to Pitt, he 
was chosen a delegate to the constitutional 
convention of 1875. In 1876 he was elected 
lieutenant governor of the state for four 
years, 1877 to 1881, but on the election of 
Governor Z. B. Vance to the United States 





^d*— co~^-^ 


Lc<.>v"'T-<- <-*-«-»•• ^ ^ 


Senate in 1879, he liecame tlie occupant of the We might extend our sketches by recoi'ding 
Executive Chair, and in 1880, b}' the suitrages the character, and services of other distin- 
ct his people, became their chief magistrate for gaished men of Chowan County, "who have 
four years. done the state some service," as the Johnsons, 
Augustus Moore, born 1803, died 1851, lived Benburys, Coffields, Brownriggs, Haskens, 
and died in Edenton. He graduated at the Warrens, Heaths, and others, did the limits 
university in 1821, in a class distinguished for of our work allow. But before we close 
ability, composed of B. B. Bhime, John Bragg, our sketch we cannot refrain from presenting 
(member of congress from Alabama 1851, and an amusing incident, which, by its humor, 
a judge in that state,) James W. Bryan, Mat- may relieve the dry detail imposed on our 
thias E. Manly, (judge of the supreme court kind readers. The account is from the gifted 
of North Carolina,) David Outlaw, (memberof pen of "Traveller." " I will close my letter 
congress 1747 to 1853,) and others; studied by relating a true story of one of Edenton's 
law with Charles R. Kinny, of Elizabeth City, gifted sons. Dr. Edward Warren, surgeon- 
and practiced with great success. general of the state during the war, and ^vho 

As an advocate, he had no superior for has been serving a foreign power, and now 

learning, diligence, accumen, or address. He resides in Paris. General Winfield Scott ac- 

was appointed judge of the superior court in cepted an invitation to visit Nag's Head, on 

1848, and presided with great acceptability, one occasion. Dr. Warren (than whom there 

learning, and integrity, but resigned the same are few better speakers^) was elected to make 

year. He died very suddenly at Edenton, in the reception address. As General Scott's 

1851. coming was doubtful, it was understood that 

He married Miss Armistead and left several if General Scott was on board, it was to be 

children. One of them, William Armistead made kno^vn by raising a flag on the boat 

Moore, late one of the judges of the state, and when a short distance from the wharf at Nag's 

who wore with equal dignity and ability the Head, when the salute would commence. The 

ei'mine of his illustrious father. immense crowd "on the Ijoat at Bl;\ckwater, 

William Allen, a representative in congress and business caused General Scott to return to 

from Ohio, 1832, senator from 1837 to 1849, Norfolk, and the steamer went on without him. 

and Governor of Ohio in 1874, was born in Before reaching Nag's Head, it was suggested, 

Edenton, in 1806, and determined ■' to play a trick on the boys." 

He was the son of TSTathaniel Allen, who Colonel John B. Odem, late of N"orthanipton 

represented the borough in the House of Com- County, now of Baltimore, the only living 

mons, in 1802, and was much esteemed for his .man in America who not only equalled, but 

genial qualities and generous disposition. He surpassed General Scott in person, air, and 

married a Miss Granbury, and their daughter tigure was selected to personate ad interim the 

married Mr. Thurman, a Methodist minister, hero of Lundy's Lane. General Lawrence S. 

and was the mother of Allen Granbury Thur- Baker, who was also along, kindly furnished a 

man, late a distinguished senator from Ohio, new uniform, epaulettes, chapeau, sword, sash, 

and president of the senate. &c., to which chapeau was apipeiided a flaming 

As a statesman and politician. Governor plume of red feathers. He " looked every inch 

Allen enjoyed a world wide reputation, and a King." Colonel Odem was squeezed in the 

K"orth Carolina is proud of her son. He died uniform, for he was "a world too large" for the 

July, 1879, universally loved and respected. war clothes of General Baker. He played his 

chowajS" county. 


part to perfection, with folded arms he was 
stationed near the pilot house and received 
" the upturned sen of faces " with the dignity 
of a hero. As the boat neared the wharf the 
flag was raised, loud cheers followed, and 
cannon after cannon rung out a cordial 
welcome. When the Itoat gained the wharf, 
Colonel Odeni took oft' his chapeau and made 
a graceful and dignified liow. Then Dr. 
Wari'en mounted a barrel on the wharf, and 
with a loud voice commenced; "General 
Scott, we welcome you to North Carolina! 
AVe hail 3'ou with delight and glory, as the hero 
of Chippewa, Cerro Gordo, Lundy's Lane, and 
Mexico, the greatest living representative of 
tlie warrior, and the hero of two glorious 
wars. Like our AVashington, without a model 
and without an equal, ' none Init thyself can 
be thy parallel.' " He thus continued for ten 
minutes, making one of the most beautiful 
reception speeches, -which captivated his audi- 
ence. They expressed their admiration by loud 
and continued cheers. Now for General Scott. 
Colonel Odem, who stammers a little at times, 
and was evidently overcome, replied as fol- 

"Gent-gentle-men; if, if, I, I, were Gen- 
General Scott; (wiiich he pronounced Scari, 
with a slighfhiss,) I would make yon a speech- 
a speech. But I am not General Scart. Scart, 
I am oi:ly John B. Odem, -John B. Odem; 
and I shan't do it.." 

" The crowd were furious, and madness ruled 
the hour; some were for throwing him over- 
board, uniform, feathers and all; some cried 
'kill him, kill him, for he has fooled us all.' 
But Major Henry H. Gilliam, who was the mar- 
plot of the whole matter, and who knows very 
well how to get a fellow out of a bad scrape 
either in court, or out of court, interposed, 
lie said, ' boys, hold on, what are you mad 
about? Warren has given us as a good speech 
as you ever heard. I propose to wash it down 
in champagne: come up to the hotel, it is my 
treat.' This was unanimously agreed to, and 
the croAvd went to the hotel; the first order 
was for six baskets, and how many more has 
not been ascertained. At any rate there was 

not a bottle to be found, until the next boat 
from Norfolk brought a fresh supply."* 

This section of the state suffered sadly from 
the ravages of warfare, for after the fall of 
Eoanoke Island the sounds and navigable 
rivers were open to the enemy's gunboats. 
These coasted up and down, and bore oft' the 
means and necessaries of life, living freights 
of fugitive negroes, and the low and skidking 
butt'aloes. These wore shameless and mean 
whites, who turned traitors to their friends, 
and betrayed them to their unrelenting foes. 
These were held in- abhorence and contempt. 
They established a stronghold at Wingfield — 
the lovely homestead for years of the Brow- 
rigg family, previously occupied by Dr. Dillard , 
but the Buff'aloes took possession, and the spa- 
cious halls, once the scene of elegance and 
beauty, were occupied by a foul and cowardly 
crew, who became such an intolerable nui- 
sance that the building was tired. 

These miscreants plundered all alike, the 
plate and pianos of the rich, as also the poultry 
and bread stuft' of the poor. 

The conduct of the colored population con- 
trasted most honorably with tlie conduct of 
their professed friends, and is recorded to 
their undoing credit. While every white 
man capable of bearing arms was in the field, 
the colored men remained at home cultivating 
the crops for the support of the helpless white 
women and their children. Although free- 
dom, plunder, and every allurement was held 
out to them to leave their old homes and their 
old masters, many of them utterly refused, 
and many of them became -warmly attached 
to the cause of their struggling masters. 
Moore, from whom I quote, states that in 
December, 1862, at Fort Warren, the humane 
federal commander. Colonel Dimmick, of- 
fered to release two colored men from cap- 
tivity, William, the servant of Captain 

*Ilaleigh Observer. 



Clements, and Brooks, the servant of Cap- 
tain Sparrow, upon their taking the oath of 

They spurned the offer, and remained to 
share the fallen fortunes of their old friends 
and the playmates of their youth. Major 
Moore relates the fact that, when in command 
of the Third North Carolina Battalion, he 

sent his man, Harvey, through the country, 
then swarming with federal troops, to his 
wife with two valuable horses and a consider- 
able amount of mouej'. Harvey had everj- 
inducement and opportunity offered to desert 
his service, but he proved faithful to his trust, 
and returned to his master before his furlough 
had expired. 


Craven Count}', like Chowan, contained 
many patriotic spirits of the early age of the 
state, and presents a glowing record of history. 
Around its venerable metropolis, New Berne, 
are clustered man}' memories of rare interest. 
Here landed the Palatines, led by the Baron 
DeG-raaffenreidt, from Switzerland. The name 
of New Berne was bestowed by them in re- 
membrance of the vine clad hills of their na- 
tive land. 

Here, for a long time, was the seat of the 
Royal government, and from here were the 
aflairs of the colony directed by the long and 
gentle rule of Governor Dobbs, and here his 
successor, Governor Tryon, held his vice-regal 
court, and erected a mansion more palatial 
than any ever before seen on this continent. 

A drawing of Tryon 's palace and its ground 
has been preserved by Lossing, and it must 
have been a most magnificent structure. Time 
and the accident of fire have efi'a«ed its 
beauties, but the stables are still in a good 
state of preservation, and are now used as 
school rooms. 

John Hawks, the grand-father of Rev. Dr. 
Francis L. Hawks, was the architect of the 

Tryon palace. Martin, in his historj- of North 
Carolina, states this building had at the time 
no superior in America, au'd that he in 1783, 
in company with Miranda visited it, and he 
stated that it had no supericH- in South Amer- 
ica. In December, 1770, Governor Tryon, for 
the first time, received the legislature in its 
princely halls. 

After the revolutionar}' war, the property 
was confiscated and sold. It was purchased 
by the Daves family. J. P. Daves donated 
the stable buildings to the Episcopal church. 
One of Mr. Daves's daughters married Governor 
John W. Ellis, and after his deatli J. E. Nash, 
of Petersburg. Governor Tryon's clock is in 
the possession of Charles C. Clark, and is still 
a good time keeper. His writing desk is the 
property of Z. Slade. It is of solid mahoganj', 
and in perfect state of preservation.* 

About the year 1709, Baron Christopher de 
Graaftenriedt led a large colony from the Palat- 
inate of the Rhine, and in September, 1710, 
founded the town of New Berne. He was 
born in 1611, and was made a land-grave of 

*Recollections of New Berne, fifty years ago. By 
Stephen F. Miller; Living and the Dead, January, 1875. 


Carolina hy th'j lords pniprietors. The Earoii, land, and finally to Williamsburg, Virginia, 

after many trials and snfterings, nearly losing where, on November 28th, 1722,^ Tscharner. 

, . ,.,. , . , , . ' . ,.„ their son, was born, being the first of the 

h,s hfe, became involved in pecuniary diffi- ^^^^^^ ,^^,,,^ -^^ America, and from whom all 

culties with Judge Gale, Governor Pollock the family in this country are desceniled. 
and others. I found a letter from the Palatines, " This Tscharner was twice married, and had 

,, 1 ,. . 1 ,, rn T i„ seven sons and four ilaughters. His oldest, 

among the records or the roll otnce, Jjondon, „ ■ j.t l- ^i t•T^ i-T, ■ t i / ■. ^l- 

-^ ' i^ ranciSjthetatherol Dr. iidwiii L. deGraatieu- 

which is as follows: i-jedt, is nov,- the sole survivor, lie had sev- 
eral uncles who served in the revolutioar\- 

" July 23d, 1747, letter received from the war; two of them killed in battle. His father 
Palatines m North Carolina, to his majesty the ^as a captain in the revolution on the Amer- 
King, tliat six hundred of them had been sent ican side. His brother, William, of Lunenburg, 
out undt-r care of Christopher deGraaJfenriedt; Virginia, was in the war of 1812. Matthew 
thatinl711,anIndianwarbrokeout;Graafien- Fbuntaiae, son of another uncle, was aid to 
riedt was taken a prisoner by them; that GeneralJackson in the battle of New Orleans. 
Thomas Pollock, acting as governor, sent Cap- u j,-, ^1-,^ i.,^^, (.j^.ji ^^.j^,, ^here were many of 
tain Brice,and took everytliing they had, and the name in the southern arm v. 
in 1747, the heir of said Pollock came and u r^^y^ „f ^]^g daughters of 'Tscharner mar- 
turned them off their lands, in order to settle pied brothers of John C. Calhoun, who were 
the rebel Scots." wealthy planters, and lived on Broad river. 

South Carolina. 

May 17th, 1748, letter from Governor-John- . Christopher died in 1742, in Lunenburg 

ston that the statement of the Palatines is Virginia." 

true, that many of their relations were mur- These people were keenly alive to their 

dered by the Indians, and they had been dis- rights, and opposed to every form of oppres- 

possessed as stated. sion. It was in New Berne that the 

,; HM 1 1 '• T 4. ■ provincial congress was held, in open opposi- 

'' i hey are verj- sober and industrious. ' '^ > i ii 

"Governor Johnston suggests that other tion to the authority of England, (August 25. 
lands be given them. Baron DeGraatt^enriedt 1774,) which appointed deputies to the Con- 
had returned hon.e." ti,,g„t.^, Congress at Philadelphia, (Caswell.. 

"Mco'ch 16th, li-LS. ^^ , i' ^ ,. . ., 

"Order OF King IN Council: Ilewts and Hooper,) and sympathising with 

" G(n'ernor Johnston shall make a grant of their oppressed and plundered countrymen at 

land to the Palatines as shall be ecpiivalent to Boston, sent relief in the way of provision- 
that that they have been dispossessed ot by , . , , . ,, ^ t^ . 

one. Colonel Pollock, and his heirs."* ''"^^ neces.sanes, declaring " the cause of Bostou 

is the cause of all." What an illustrious exam- 

DeGraafi^enriedt's son, and Lewis Michel, of pie to many who would still further distract 

Berne, came with him to America. Some of and divide the people of our county! Thecom- 

thc family are still in this country. mittee of safet v for New Berne, were Dr. Alex- 

Inquiry has produced a letter to Mrs. Mary ander Gaston, Richard Cogdell, John Easton. 
Bayard Clark, dated Columbus, Georgia, Jan- Major Croonij Roger Ormond, Edward Salter, 



uary 18th, 1871, which shows the whereabouts George Burrow, James Glasgow, and other 

of the American branch of the family: The town of New Berne was incorporated in,; 

,,, . ^ , , „ J.. . ,, , ^.. 1723, by the legislature then sitting at Eden- 

" Christopher de Graaiienriedt (son of Baron 

Christopher de Graaffcnriedt and Regina *'^"- 

Tscharner, his wife,) married at Charleston, Francois Xavier ^lartin, born 17G2, died 

South Carolina, on February 22d, 1714. They 1346^ author of a history of North Carolina, 

removed to Philadelphia, afterwards to Mary- , 111 1 ■ i j. „+■ 

'■ ^ and. some legal works, was long a resident ot 

»N. C, No. 11, B. 8S. _ New Berne. 



He was a native of France, born at .Mar- 
seilles, 1762. He was a printer and editor, and 
studied law, in wliich he ijecame learned and 

In 1806 and 1807, he was a member of the 
j House of Commons from the borough of New 
\ Berne. 

He was appointed by Mr. Jefferson, a judge 
in the Mississippi Territorj', and resided at 
Natchez. So acceptable were his services that 
on February 1st, 1815, he was appointed one of 
the supreme court judges of Louisiana, whicli 
elevated position he occupied till his death, 
December 10th, 1846. 

He became entirely Ijiind in his later 3-ears, 
but continued to preside with great accept- 
ability, and acknowledged abilit^^ He wrote 
a history of the State of Louisiana, as also of 
North Carolina. 

The Blount family in North Carolina have 
been distinguished for more than a century for 
integrity, enterprise, intelligence and patriot- 

According to a genealogical table, prepared 
bj' the late Governor Clark, this family was of 
English origin, and tigni-ed in the reigns of 
Charles I. (1625,) and Charles IL (1660.) 
The head of the family was created a Baronet 
in 1642, as Sir Walter Blount. 

He left four sons and four daughters. The 
\-ouuger cons sought theii- fortunes in America. 
From them, this family can l)e clearly traced 
in distinct lines to the presevit. 

From Sir Waltei' Blount descended: 

I, James; came to Nortli Carolina about 
1664, and settled in Craven. 

He was a m.embei' of the House of Burgesses, 
and was active in the Culpepper rebellion, 
which, for a time, held and controlled the 

From the Rolls Oflice, in London, I copy a 
paper directed to the Lords Proprietor, " con- 
cerning the rebellion in Carolina, from 1663 to 

■'The rebellion was a deliberate contrivance, 
suiiverting the governtnent, dissolving the 
parliaments, imprisoning the lordship's depu- 
ties, putting the president of the conn tr^' in 
jail, seizing and cnrr3'ing awaj' tlie records, 
assuming supreme power, convening assem- 
blies, and last of all, a most horrid and treas- 
sonable action, erecting courts to try cases of 
life and death without authority. 

" Captain Valentine Bird, collector, exported 
150,000 pounds of tobacco without paying any 
dues. On hearing that Eastchurst was coming 
as governor, ami Miller as collector, he took 
up arms with the rest of the subsci'ibers and 
o]iposed Miller on his first landing, and drew 
his sword. 

'' George Durant contemned and opposed the 
governor with a rebel rout. 

" Captain James Blount, one of the deputy's 
assistants, is one of the chief among the insur- 
rectors. I wrote to him and the other bur- 
gesses of Chowan precinct. When the sheriff 
came, he, with one Captain John Vernham, 
took the sheriff prisoner, and raised forces to 
oppose the governor."* 

Sir Walter Blount's next son was: 
II. Thomas; he had live sons., Thomas, who 
had five sons: («) Thomas, who married Eliza- 
beth Reading, distinguished in the Indian 
wars 1708: (b) James; (r') John; {d) Jacob 
and (e) Esau, twins. f 

III. Thomas (son of Thomas who married 
Elizabeth Reading,) had four sons: (a) Read- 
ing; [b) James, Captain in Second Continen- 
tal regiment; (c) John; (d) Jacoli. 

TV. Jacob, son of Thomas, was at battle of 
Alamance, 1771; a member of the lu-ovincial 
congress, and an officer in the revolutionary 
war. He married first Barbara Gray, second 
Mrs. Salter, was the progenitor of the family, 
had ten children, viz: 

I. William, who was born in Craven County, 
in 1749, married Miss Granger, of Wilmington. 
Elected member of legislature 1783,-'84; of the 
continental congress, 1782-'83-'86-'87; in the 
convention which formed Constitution of the 
United States, in 1787; appointed governor of 

*Coloni;il Documents, London, 15. 

tSee Williamson's, North Carolina, I, 202. 



territoviei ()f United States west of Ohio, 
1790; senator in congress from Tennessee, 
1796; expelled from senate iu 1797; member 
of the convention tliat formed state constitu- 
tion of Tennessee. Died in Knoxviile, 1810. 
He left one son, William Granger, who was in 
congress from Tennessee, 1815 to 1819, and 
who died in 1827, unmarried ; and one daughter 
who was the first wife of General E. P. Gaines.* 

II. Ann, daughter of Jacob, married Henry. 

III. John Gray Blount, son of Jacob, was 
born 1752. Married Mary Harvey; he was 
often member of the legislature, from 1782 to 
1796, from Beaufort County. He was an ex- 
tensive land owner and explorer. Often tjie 
com[ianion of Daniel Boone. He died in 
January, 1833, leaving six children, viz: (a) 
Thomas Harvey, son of John Gray; (6) Jolui 
Gray, in war of 1812; (v) William Augustus, 
(for sketch of whom see Beaufort County,) 
who died in 1867, leaving a sou William, and 
a daughter who is the widow of General L. 
O'B. Branch, resides in Raleigh; {<!) Polly, 
who married Rodman; (c) Lucy, who married 
General Grimes; (/") Patsy Baker, (unmar- 

IV. Louisa, who married to Richard Black- 

V. Reading, who married Lucy Harvey. 

VI. Thomas, born 1759, died 1807, was in 
the revolutionary war, sent to England a pris- 
oner. He was a member of the legislature from 
Edgecombe, 1798-'99, and a member of con- 
gress in 1793 to 1799, 1805 to 1809, and 1811, 
and 1812. He died at Washington, (without 
issue) leaving a widow, the daughter of 
General Jethro Sumner, named Mary Sum- 
ner Blount, who died near Tarboro in 
1822, made liberal bequests to Christ church 
in Raleigh, from which chiefly funds were 
realized to build the beautiful stone edi- 
fice iu that city. When the will was 
drawn, fearing that religious bodies could not 

*MSS. letter of Honorable Case Johnson. 

hold real estate against the claims of heirs at 
law, a provision was inserted that in case of a 
contest over the devises intended for Christ 
church, of Raleigli, those devises should vest in 
Judge Cameron and Dr. Hooper in fee, to be 
disposed of as their consciences might dictate. 
The marble slab marking her grave liad been 
broken by the fall of a tree, or as some say, by 
a stroke of lightning, and the vestry of 
Christ's church, of Raleigh, determined to 
replace it, but these praise worth}' intentions 
were frustrated by the inexcusable carlessness 
in the preparation of the original epitaph. It 
is verbatim, as follows: 

" Sacred to the memory of 

Mary Spmneb blount 
relii:t of ginl thomas blount 
long a representative in Congre 
ss from this district 
and daughter of genl. jethro blount. 
Died the ]8th Dec 1S22 in her 4oth year." 

Mrs. Blount's father was General Jethro 
Sumner, not "blount." It must have been a 
difficult task to compress so many errors in so 
small a space. 

VII. Jacolt; born 1760; married Collins, 

VIII. Barbara, born 1763. 

IX. Willie, son of Jacob, born 176S, secre- 
tary to his brother William, while governor of 
territory' west of the Ohio. Judge of the 
supreme court of Tennessee when only twenty- 
two years old, and the Governor of Tennesse 
from 1809 to 1815, (see Bertie Count}-.) As 
governor he tendered to the United States 
2,500 volunteers in the war of 1812. He 
died near Nashville, 1835, leaving two daugh- 
ters; one married Dr. J. T. Dabney, and. 
another to Dortch. 

X. Sharp, who married Penelope Little, of 
Pitt County, who left two sons, William Little 
and George Little. 

I have thus endeavored to present a genea- 
logical diagram of a family whose members 
have been distinguished in the field, on the 
forum, and in legislative halls, as well as in 
social life. 



The table may he relied upon, as it has been 
the subject ofimmch labor and research. Their 
lives aiiil offices have been briefly alluded to, 
figures and dates given, leaving to other hands 
the pious duty of coniuieutingin detail on their 
character and sei'vices. 

Abner Nash was born in Prince Edward 
County, A^irginia. At an early age he went 
to New Berne, where he studied and practiced 
law with great success. 

He was an able and active friend to the 
rights of the people, and a member of pro- 
vincial congress in 177-i. 

In the dispatch of Governor Martin, dated 
March lOtli, 1775, he informs his govern- 
ment that the seditious leaders of the peo- 
ple have too effectually prevented the 
King's speech from operating to the extent he 
wished. Instead of yielding the}' talk of re- 
sorting to violence. 

Enclosed is an advertisement of the com- 
mittee at New Berne, which he calls "atro- 
cious falsehoods," and the composition of 
a Mr^ Nash,, one of the subscribers, who is an 
eminent lawyer, but the most unprincipled 
character of the count}'. 

In another dispatch dated at Fort Johnston, 
June SOth, 1775, he writes: 

" Since I had the hcnior of representing to 
your lordship the state of this country, various 
circumstances have occnri'ed of which I think 
it my duty to give the best account my infor- 
mation enables me to lay before you. 

" On Tuesday, iMay 2od, 1775, a set of peo- 
ple calling then)selves a committee, met at 
New Berne. A motly crew, without any pre- 
vious notice of their purpose, appeared, corning 
towards my house; I sup[iosed they were the 
committee of whose meeting I had heard. I 
directed mj' secretary to signify my resolution 
not to see them He soon came back, however, 
with a message that the}' were the inhabitants 
.of the town of New Berne, who had come to 
v.^ait upon me, and requested to speak to me. 

"I directed them to be shown in, and I im- 
mediately went down to them. 

•" Mr. Abner Nash, ai. attorne}- and oracle of 

the committee, (of whom I have had occasion 
to mention to your lordship before as principal 
promoter of sedition,) came forward out of 
the crowd and said he had been chosen by the 
people of New Berne, then present, to repre- 
sent that their purpose in waiting on me was 
in consequence of a general alarm of the peo- 
ple of that p'ace at my dismounting some 
pieces of cannon which occasionally had been 
made use of on rejoicing days; that the Gov- 
ernor of Vii-ginia had lately deprived the peo- 
ple of that colony of arms and ammunition. 
The inhabitants therefore requested and hoped 
that I would order the cannon to be remounted 
and restored to their former condition. 

" Unprepared, my loi'd, for such a visit, and 
filled with indignation at the absurdit}' and 
impertinence of the cause assigned by Mr. 
Nash, I am satisfied that it was a mere pre- 
tense to insult me. I replied that the guns I 
had dismounted belonged to the king, and I 
was only responsible to His Majesty for any 
disposition I made of them, &c." 

But the next day, so precarious had his po- 
sition became, that Governor Martin sent his 
faniil}' to New York, and he himself went in 
much haste on board of His Majesty's sloop of 
war, the Cruiser, Captain Parry, commander, 
never to exercise again the functions of Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina. 

In the same dispatch, Governor Martin says 
" he iiad received an account on April 20th, 
between the king's troops and the people 
near Boston, which reached him a little more 
than two months after the event." 

In this dispatch, Governoi' Martin enclosed 
the resolves of the committee of Mecklenburg 
in the Cape Fear McrrAiry, a copy of whicli he 
says was sent by express to the congress at 
Philadelphia. This official dispatch would 
settle a question, about which thei-c never 
should have been any cavil, question, or doubt. 

These extracts from official sources prove 
the course which Mr. Nash pursued in perilous 
times. He was more of a statesman, however, 
than a soldier, yet he did the cause of his 
country as much service as if he were in the 
field. He played a leading part in that great 



drama in which men and guns are snliordinate 
a]3pendages. He was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Congress in November 1776, which met 
at Halifax, and formed the constitution of the 
state; and was theiirst speaker of the first House 
of Commons that ever sat in the state. He was 
speaker iii the senate in 1779, and was elected 
governor at thitt session and served till 1781. 
In 1782 and '83, he represented Jones County. 
He was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress in 1781. in which he served till 1786. 
He died at New York while attending con- 
gress, December 2d, 1786. 

He married the widow of Governor Dobbs. 
He was the brother of General Francis Nash, 
and the father of Frederick Nash, late Judge 
of supreme coui't of North Carolina, sketches 
of whom may be found in the record of Orange 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, of North Carolina, 
born March 'Zoth, 1758, died September 6th, 

He was born, lived and died in the 
town of New Berne. His family was dis- 
tinguished in tlie early history of the coun- 
try. His father was tlie secretary and clerk 
of the crown ; * an office in dignity next 
to that of the governoi'. His mother was the 
sister of Arthur Dobbs, governor of the prov- 
ince from 1751 to 1766. He lost his parents 
at an early age. Blest with a sound mind in a 
sound btidy, his education was of the highest 
order. He was sent to Ireland, when only 
nine years of age, where he pursued his acad- 
emic studies, his educi.tiou being completed at 
the university of Glasgow. He returned to 
his native country in 1778, and found it in- 
volved in the fearful struggles of the revolu- 
tionary war, his immediate section was the 
scene of tierce and bloody conflict. His chiv- 

*aixtrait from Colonial Rolls office, Lon- 
don; " Kichiu'd Spaight appointed secrrtary and clerk 

of the Crown'' "Ih- general assembly prefer 

charges against Governor Dobbs, among them, that he 
had appointed his nephew, Richard Spaight, a pay- 
master in the army." 

alrous temper caused him to volunteer his ser- 
vices to his country, and he was engaged in 
the disastrous battle of Camden, South Caro- 
lina, August 16th, 1780, as aid-de-camp to 
Governor Caswell. Although brave and en- 
thusiastic, there were fields other than those 
of war, more suited to his genius, where his 
services and talents could be as beneficial to 
country's welfare and liberty, and in which 
men and arms are demanded, but not tlie most 
important elements of success. IJis country- 
rjien appreciated this fact, and the *iext j^ear, 
he was elected a member of the general assem- 
bly from the borough of New Berne, and re- 
elected in 1782 and 1783. By the latter body, 
he was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress, (which met at Annapolis on the 13th 
December, 1783,) with Benjamin Hawkins 
and Hugh Williamson as colleagues. The w;u' 
had ended, and he witnessed the resignation 
by General Washington to tliat congress of 
his commission as commander-in-chief. 
The appreciation of the character and patriot- 
ism of Mr. Spaight, was evinced by being 
selected as one of '■ the committee of states;" 
in whom all the powers of the new govern- 
ment, (executive, legislative and judicial) 
were vested. When the convention was called 
to form the Constitution of the United States, 
wliich met at Philadelphia, (on May 14th, 
1787,) he was elected a member. His name, 
with that of William Blount and Hugh Wil- 
liamson, is appended to the constitution. He 
was a member of the state convention which 
met at Hillsboro, on J\tly 21st, 1788, to con- 
sider the Federal Constitution, and advocated 
with all his energies its adoption. In this he 
was aided by such distinguished names as 
Samuel Johnston, James Iredell, William R. 
Davie, John Steele, Stephen Cabarrus and 

But the active opposition of Willie Jones, 
David Caldwell, EJisha Battle, C. Dowd, 
Gritfith Rutherford, and others, caused its re- 


jection, and the State of North Carolina, from public life, but private circles. Governor 

July, 1788, to November, 1789, (when the Con- Spaight was the acknowledged leader of the 

stitution of the United States was ratified,) party which supported Mr. Jeft'erson and Mr. 

presented the extraordinary attitude of a sov- Stanly, its active adversary. Led on by the 

ereign state, independent and self-governing, maddening and malignant influence of partj' 

with no confusion within or coercion from spirit, on September .5th, 1802. Mr. Stanly 

without. This instructive page of history challenged Governor Spaight to tight a duel, in 

expresses the truth, that political reunion, like a note taunting in its terms, and very opprobri- 

social union, can best be secured by concession, ous. They fought on the same day. Gov- 

afi'ection, and justice. enior Spaight was mortally wounded, and died 

In 1792, Mr. Spaight was again returned to on the following daj'. This tragic event, from 

the general assembly, and by that body was his long, varied, and illustrious service, caused a 

chosen the governor of the state, which he deep sensation throughout the state, and even 

held for three years, when he was succeeded by at this day is felt with sad regret. 

Samuel Ashe. Such were the public services of Richard 

He was the first native born son of North Dobbs Spaight. These are inscribed in the 

Carolina elected as governor. He served records of our nation. Of his private charac- 

while governor as presidential elector. ter we are not left to conjecture. One who 

In 1797, he took his seat in the House of knew him long and well has informed us that 
Representatives, elected from North Carolina, "as a private citizen he was njiright in his- 
to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of intentions, and sincere in his declarations. 
Honorable N'athau Bryan, (second session of Methodical and even mercantile in his busi-- 
the Fifth Congress,) and re-elected a member ness; no errors of negligence or ignorance in- 
of the Sixth Congress, 1797 to 1799. This was volved him in litigation with his neighbors, 
an important epoch in our government. The Uniform in his conduct, respectful to author- 
two great parties (then called Federal and ity, and influential in his example. Plospitality 
Republican,) fought flerce and furious for was a conspicuous trait of his character. The 
power. Governor Spaight voted with his re- stranger was welcome, treated with cordiality, 
publican colleagues, Willis Alston, Nathaniel and entertained with kindness. His charity 
Macon, David Stone, and others. It wasdur- was universal Fur the tale of sorrow he ever 
iug this congress that Governor William liad a tear and relief. He was an aft'ectionate 
Blount, Senator from Tennessee, was im- husband, an indulgent father, and a compas- 
peached, (or threatened with impeachment,) sionate nuxster; consistent in his hours of study 
and for the first time the election of a presi- and recreation, no irregularities disturbed his 
dent was made by the house. After these course, or improper indulgence his repose."* 
exciting scenes. Governor Spaight sought re- No one, as a public man, could have held for 
tirement and repose. His health was seriously along and nninteri-upted series of years, the 
impaired, and he sought relief in the milder affections, countenance, and support of his 
climate of the West Indies. But the people countrymen, without any effort on his part, 
called him again to duty, and he was, in 1801, unless he possessed substantial merit and un- 
elected a senator in the general assembly, spotted integritj'. 
This was destined to be his last public service. 

Party politics were never more active and ^Reverend T. P livings funeral discourse on tlie 

, .^, „, .... -, 1 , , death of Governor Richard Dobbs Spaiglit, delivered at 

bitter, ihese animosities pervaded not onlj' New Berne, 1S02. 



Like him of Scotland it may be truly said: 

' ' This Duncfin 

Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been 
So clear in his great office, that his virtues 
Will plead like angels, trumpet tongued, against 
The deep damnation of his taking off." 

By his mai'riage with Miss Polly Leach lie 
had four children. 

I. William, who died youiii^. 

II. Richard Dobbs, a leading statesman in 
the state; for years in the legislature; in con- 
gress from 1823 to 1825; governor in 1835; 
died unmarried. 

III. Charles, who died unmarried. 

IV. Margaret, who married Honorable John 
R. Donnel, one of the judges of the state from 
1819 to 1836, who left four children.* 

An accurate portrait of Governor Spaight 
hangs in one of the rooms of Independence 
Hall, Philadelphia, 


The kind dispositions of the people of the 
state, their unambitious tempers, together with 
aversion to acts of violence and blood, have 
done much to discourage the practice of duel- 
ling. Of late years there have been but few 
" affairs of honor," so calletl. In our readings, 
however, we have met some cases of a custom 
"more honored in the iireach than in the ob- 
servance." Doubtless other cases have occurred 
that we have never heard of. 

Honorable John Baxter, (United States 
judge in Tennessee,) about 1850, met Colonel 
Marcus Erwin; exchanged iiie, and Baxter 
slightly wounded; cause, political. 

Bynuni Jesse and Jennifer of Maryland, 
(same cause,) neither huit. 

Honorable Duncan Cameron, and William 
Dutfy, met near Hillsboi'O; Judge Cameron 
wounded. Dutfy represented Fayetteville in 
the legislature of 1806. 

Honoinble Sanmel P. Carson and Dr. R. B. 
Vance, (see sketch of Carson.) 

*See sketch of .Judge Donnel. 


Honorable Thomas L. Clingman and Wm L. 
Yancy, (see sketch of Clingman.) 

Joseph Flanner and "Walker, near Wilming- 
ton; latter killed. 

Louis D. Henry and Thomas J, Stanly, 1812, 
latter killed. 

General Robert Howe and Gadsden, of 
South Carolina, fought May 13th, 1778, in 
South Carolina, neither hurt. 

Honorable J. J. Jackson and Joseph Pearson ; 
political, 1812, at Washington. 

Thomas F. Jones and Dr. Daniel Johnson 
at Bladensburg, 1846, latter killed. 

Law and Blanchard, (Bertie County.) 

Seatterwaite and Kennedy. 

Strong and Holmes, (Sampson County.) 

John Stanly and Governor Spaight, (see 
sketch of Spaight. 3 

Edward Stanly and Samuel W. Inge, of 
Alamance; political; neither hurt. 

Montford Stokes and Jesse A. Pearson, 
(Roward Count}',) Governor Stokes wounded. 

Alexander Simpson and Thomas White- 
hurst, in 1766; latter killed. 

Yellow by and Harris. 

John Stanly, born 1774, died 1834, was a 
native of New Berne. The son of John Wright 
Stanly. He was educated for the law; strong 
in mental as well as personal gifts, he attained 
high distinction in his profession. Blessed 
with a clear and musical voice, with manners 
at once graceful and digniiied; bold and fear- 
less in his elocution, sarcastic and severe in ex- 
pression, he was in his day an advocate of great 
power and success. 

He early entered the stormy arena of politics, 
and took satisfactidn in mingling in its fierce 
and furious strife. At an early age, (in 1798,) 
he was elected a member of the House of Com- 
iiuins, of which he was elected speaker, and in 
which he continued, with intermissions, until 
1826, when he, whilst debating, was struck 
with paralysis and never recovered. He was 
a member of the Seventh Congress, 1801- '3, 




inul again of the Eleveiitli Congress, 1809-'ll. 
His application to Governor AVillianis for par- 
don, has been published; and is admii-ed as 
being eloquent and dignified. 

I have in my possession, the original peti- 
tion of the members of tiie legislature to the 
governor, asking this pardon, signed by Duncan 
Cameron, Calvin Jones, John Allison, Peter 
Hojde, David Tate, Daniel Glisson, Durant 
Hatch, Jolm G. Scull, W. Lord, Peter Eorney, 
Ephm. Davidson, George Outlaw, Robert Wil- 
liams, and others. 

In his political campaigns, in discussions in 
the legislature, and in debate at the bar, and 
even iu private life, Mr, Stanly's course to- 
wards his opponents was marked with vio- 
lence. Speaking of the unamiable trait in his 
character, Mr. Miller states: " Judge Donnell 
was an able, Cjuiet, obstrusive, upriglit gentle- 
man. He bore with great equinamity the 
biting sarcasm which Mr. Stanly was in the 
habit of thrusting at the court, where Judge 
Donnell presided, whenever it suited his 
jiolicy." Judge Donnell was the son-in-law 
of the first Governor Spaight. The same 
writer, speaking of Mr. Spaight, the second, 

" Richard D. Spaight held a license to 
practice law, but was wealthy and difiideut, ho 
was not destitute of talents and learning." 

" I always suspected that Mr. Stanly was an 
obstacle to the professional success of Mr. 
Spaight, as Stanly was a man of imperious 
temper, and not satisfied with killing the 
father of Mr. Spaight, he seemed to delight in 
torturing the son, by looks and gestures, and 
intonations of his voice, when other methods 
were not used."* 

Mr. Stanly married a daughter of Martin 
Frank, of Jones County, whose handsome 
estate laid the foundation of his fortune. 13ut 
it was not permanent. In the Recollections of 
New Berne tifty years ago, the writer says:t 

*See our Living and our Dead, November, 1874. 
tStephen F. Miller, in our ' Liviug and Dead, No- 
\ ember, 1874 

"Mrs. Stanlj- was a count rj- heiress, -with- 
out cultivation or opportunity. Their na- 
natures and habits were incompatible; she was 
a shouting Methodist, he a staid vestryman of 
the orthodox Episcopal church."' His affairs 
became so embarrassed, that debts and judg- 
ments pressed him. To the kindness of a per- 
sonal and political friend, he owned the house 
ill which he lived and died. Here harrassed . 
by creditors, with a bod}' helpless from disease, 
a mere wreck of his former self; he died 
August 3rd, 1835. We may well recall at 
such a scene, the words of Ophelia: 

" O, what a noble mhid i.s here o'er thrown, 
The courtier's, soldier's, scholar's, eye, tongue 

sword, * * * 
Now see that noble ami most sovereign reason, 
Like sweet bells- jangled, out of tune and harsh." 

Mr. Stanly left one daughter,. who married 
Walker K. Armstead, then an officer in the 
United States army, against Mr. Stanly's 
wishes. Air. Miller says he never forga\"e her. 
When this worthy officer attained rank and 
distinction, in her old age Mrs. Stanl^' found a 
home under his hospitable I'oof, where she 
died. ;\Ir. Stanly also died under General 
Arnistead's roof. 

His descendants, a number of sons, wore: 

I. John, idiotic from birth. 

II. Alfred, resided in Fairfax. County. Vir- 

III. Frank, became a Methodist jireacher. 

IV. Edward, was a member of the liouse 
from Beaufort, 1844 to 1847.| 

V. Alexander.* 

A'l. Fabius, United States navy (retired 
admiral,) resided in Washington. 

VII. Cicero. 

VIII James. 

Dr. Isaac Guion, of New Berne, was surgeon 
to the First Regimentj^^pBl^arolina Conti- 
nentals, command ^ b-Jiolonei James Moore. 
From neglect of c^B he was suspended. 

On July 6th, Ij^R he was appoinrad com- 

tFor his sketch sefceuufort County. f 


missary to an independent company under children, a son, then only three years ohi, the 

Captain Selby Harvey, stationed on the sea subject of tliis sketcii, and a daughter, who, in 

coast.* after years, became the wife of Chief Justice 

William Gaston, born September 19th-, 1778,. Taylor, 
died January 23d, 1844, was the son of Dv His early education was conducted under 
Alexander Gaston, who was one of the most the guidance of a pious and patient mother, 
earnest and steadfast friends of the people, In the fall oi 1791 he was sent to the Catho- 
• and one of the committee of safety for Cra^'en lie college at Georgetown, where he remained 
County. He gave up his life to the cause of for two 3'ears, but under the severe disci- 
liberty; for, as the town of New Berne was pline and rigors of a variable climate,- his 
., attacked by the tories on August 20th, 1781, health gave away, and by advice of his pliysi- 
i he escaped with liis wife and children. He cian, be returned to the mild climate of his 
■■; had onl}- time to p)Ush off in a boat, leaving native land and the comforts of home. Under 

ibis wife and children on tbe wharf. One of the care of Reverend 'J'lioiiias P. Irving, he 

these miscreants levelled his gun over the was prepiared for Princeton, and where he en- 

ir shoulder of Mrs. Gaston and fired.- Her pa- tered the junior class. At the early age of 

triotic husband was shot. eighteen, he graduated with the first hou(U's of 

This tragic event has been graphicall}' de- that lenowned institution. He returned home 

scried by a resident of this section of our and entered the law otlice of Judge Francois 

stute, who states that Dr. Gaston and Colonel Xavier Martin. He was admitted to tlie bar 

JdR Green were dining at Dr. Gaston's house, before roacliing the age <>f twenty-one, and 

jKen an alarm was given that the tories were soon attained greet eminence in his profossinn. 

|?)ming. Gaston and Green arose from the In 1799, he was elei'ted to the state senate, 

3iied to the wharf only a few steps and LS08 to the Plouse of Commons, by which 

)ft', an(T^^fc|(l into a canoe; when off Cornel's body he was chosen speaker, 

wharf a pli^^Bi of the tories fired upon them. In 1810, he was a candidate for congress, and 

and both felM The tories then retraced their was defeated by William Blackledge, but was 

steps. The caMe was thepropert}- of an old ne- elected to the Thirteenth Congress, from 1815 

gro. John, wM, after some delay, procured aid to 1817, and the Fourteenth Congress^ froni 

and started« search of his canoe, which was 1817 to 1819. 

jlrit^mg about at the mercy of the winds and Here he occupied a position as the peer of 
.'aves. On reaching it, he found lying at the Callioun, Cla^', Lowndes, Randolph and Web- 
bottom of his boat Green, as he supposed dead, ster. His speeches on the loan bill and the 
and Gaston dying. He carried them back to previous question present some of the finest 
the wliarf, and then to Dr. Hazlin's house, specimens, of rea.soning and eloquence which 
The doctor pronounced Green mortally the c(juntry has ever furnished. He retired, 
wounded, and Gaston seriously. Just the con- from congress to pursue his law practice; 
verse of this opinion turned out ti-fle, for the I" 1824, he was elected to the House of Corn- 
latter soon died, and the former lived thirty mons, and in 1827-'28 and 1831. 
years afterwards. Dr. Gaston was buried in Here he rendered etRcient and invaluable 
" Cedar Grove," the city cemetery. services to the state. The perfect organiza- 
He left a disconsolate widow and two little tion of our then judicial system, and some of 

the best statutes of North Carolina, are the 

*Force's American Ai'chives. result of his sagacity and labor. 


In 1834,011 the death of rUidge Henderson, was no sophistry to mislead, no meretricious 
he was elected one of the judges of the supi'cme ornament to beguile; his person seemed almost 
court, which elevated position was so germane inspired, and his countenance expressed a be- 
to his talents and his tastes that he declined nigiity of soul which marked his whole life and 
a seat in the Senate of the United States, which character. 

was tendered to him. Only once more did The writer (Dalton,) already quoted, 9a3's of 

he appear as a statesman. He was a member Judge Gaston: " He was a great man in every 

of the convention of 1835, which body was, sense of the word. One was never tired of 

without doubt, the ablest that ever sat in the his company. His conversation was always 

state. The first men from every section in the interesting and instructive. He did not pos- 

state, of the highest positions, and of t!ie sess the excursive genius of Mr. Badger, nor 

largest knowledge, were selected. • the wit of Mr. Stanly. But his store of learn- 

He aided the ciniventidii in making health- ing and well balanced mind, added to his un- 

ful reforms, modified the tliirty-second article sullied character, made him greatly their su- 

disfranchising Catholics, and opposed the prop- perior- He had more matter of fact than 

osition to deprive free colored people of the romance in his character. He would have 

right to vote. Until this time they had pos- made a better historian than a novelist, and 

sessed the right in North Carolina. The perhaps, too, a great actor." 

character of Judge Gaston asastate3man,pure His last days were bright and glorious, and 

and patriotic, is inscribed in the annals of the his end triumphant and happ}'. 

nation, and the state. His ability and learn- On January 28d, 1844, while sitting on the 

ing as an advocate, none can question; and his bench of the supreme court at Raleigh, he 

patience with witnesses and suitors, his complained of a chill}' sensation, attended with 

urbanity to his associates, and his respect to fainting feelings, and was carried JVt)n"r"tne 

.authority rendered him universally popular. court room to his chamber. On that evening 

Ilis manner of address in a court or the he was better, many friends called who were 

legislature was peculiar. charmed with his conversation ;/a^ul when relat- 

It was my fortune to sit two sessions of the ing an account of a convivial party at Washing- 
legislature in the next seat to Judge Gaston, as ton, he spoke of one who av()Wed himself a 
alsoon thecommitteeon thejudiciary with him, free thinker in religion. 

and I had good opportunities of observing him. "From that time," he said, "I regarded that 

He had, or seemed to have, when he first arose man with distrust. I do not say that such 

to speak, a modesty that was as embarrassing to man may nut be an honorable man, but I dare 

himself as it was to his audience. He ti-embled not trust him. A belief in an all ruling 

perceptibly at first, but after a few moments providence who shapes our deeds is necessary, 

his emphatic and deliberate manner and sub- We must believe and feel that there is a God, 

dued tones commanded profound silence and all wise and almighty " 

attention. He became perfectly possessed, and As he pronounced these words, he raised 

he commenced his argument with matchless himself up from his couch to give emphasis to 

and thrilling eloquence. As he progressed, the his expression, in a moment there seemed to 

graiKleur of his expression seemed to increase, be a rush of blood to the brain, and he fell 

whilst his illustrations were as luminous as a backacorpse. The spirit fled from tiie scenes of 

sunbeam, and his arguments carried conviction earth, to meet that God in whom he trusted, 

to the minds of his entranced auditors. There and whose name last vibrated on his tongue. 




Truly did his able associate, -Judge Ruffin, 
say on the occasion of his death that he was "a 
good man and a great judge." His remains 
were deposited in the cemetery at New Berne. 
A heavy block of marble, resting on the 
granite, surmounted by a cross, bears simply 
the name of William Gaston and the date of 
birth and death. 

"I saw," says the writer already quoted, 
"one morning, before the sun has risen Edward 
Everett and John R. Donnel standing together 
at the tomb of Gaston. Mr. Everett removed 
his hat, baying: 'This eminent man had few 
equals and no superior.' " 

Of such a man's memory the state may be 
justly proud. She has written his name osi 
her towns and counties, and as long as talent 
is admired, or virtue appreciated, so long will 
the name of Gaston be cherished. 

Judge Gaston was thrice married: 

I. Miss Hay, of Fayetteville; no issue. 

n. Hannah McClure,who died suddenly, in 
1814, from alarm at the incoming of the Brit- 
ish fleet. She left (a) Alexander F. Gaston, 
who was in the legislature in 1830, and who 
' married { fir xi J Miss Jones, and [second) Miss 

Murphy of Burke, where he died; (b) and two 
daughters, one of whom was the first wife of 

k Judge Manly; she left one child, Hannah, who 
. .i-^married a son of the Rev. Dr. Fi-ancis L. Hawks; 
she has since died leaving several children. 
The second daughter of Judge Gaston by this 
marriage was the wife of Robert Donaldson, 
of New York. 

, in. Miss'Worthington,of Georgetown; issue 
(a) Mrs. Graham, who died recently near Marl- 
boro, Maryland; (i) Kate, single. 

John R. Donnel, born 1791, died 1864, a 
native of Ireland, and a man of letters, was 
educated at the university of North Carolina, 
and graduated in 1807, in the same class with 
Gavin Hogg, and others. He studied law and 
practiced that pi'ofession with great success. 

In 1815, he was elected solicitor of the dis- 


trict, and in 1819 he was elected judge of the 
superior courts of law, the duties of which he 
discharged with dignity and ability for seven- 
teen 3'ear3. 

His extensive property suffered severely frcim 
the tumults and depredations of civil war. 

He died at Raleigh, October loth, 1864, a 
refugee from his large estates and princely 

Judge Donne! married Margaret, daughter 
of Governor Spai^ht, who left five children: 

I. Richard Spaight Donnel, distinguished as 
a lawj-er.* 

II. Marj', who marrried Charles B. Shep- 
pard. Mr.. Sheppard was in congress 18o'9 to. 
1841, and who died 1843, leaving two chil- 
dren; [ti] Margaret, who married Samuel S. 
Nelson; (b) Mary, who married James A. 

III. Anne, single. 

IV". Fannie, who married James B. Shep- 
pard; Mr. Sheppard died in 1870, leaving :;ne 
son, John R. D. Sheppard, now in Paris. 

V. C. Spaight Donnel, married Thomas M. 
Iveerl, of Baltimore, where the}' reside. 

John Sitgroaves, late United States judge, 
was a resident of New Berne. The first United 
States district judge for the District of North 
Carolina, was John Stokes,t appointed by 
General Washington. 

He was succeeded by John Sitgreaves in 
1790, appointed by Jofi'erson. He was suc- 
ceeded by Henry Potter in 1803, who held the 
position until his death, December 20th, 18-59. 
He was succeeded by Asa Biggs, appointed by 
Buchanan; the war suspended his functions. 
George W. Brooks was appointed August 9th, 

The state has been divided i-ecently into two 
districts, and Robert P. Dick| was appointed 
for the Western district by General Grant. 

*For sketch of whom see Beaufort County. 

tFor sketch, see Stokes County. 

tSee sketch of Judge Dick, Guilford County. 



Judtce Sito;reaves, was like his predecessor, a 
soldier of the revolution. 

It is a reiiiarkalde historical fact that after a 
war, whether foi'eign or domestic, that the pop- 
ular feeling centers on those " who have done 
the state some service" in the field. The re- 
mark of Lord Bacon is verified bj facts. " In 
the youth of a nation, the profession of arms 
flourish; in its middle age, the useful arts; and 
in its old age, the fine arts.'" See America, 
England, and Italy to prove the truth of this 

Judge Sitgreaves was appointed bj' the Pro- 
vincial Congress in 177(i, an officer in Captain 
Cassell's company, and was in the battle of 
Camden, August, 1780. 

He was a member of the Continental Con- 
gress in 1784, and a memljer of the House of 
commons (1786 to 1789) from the borough of 
New Berne. 

Mr. Jefi'erson's diary contains the following: 

" 1789, Hawkins recommended John Sit- 
grea^■es, as a very clever gentlemen, of good 
■deportment, well skilled in the law for a man 
of his age, and if he lives long enough, will be 
an ornament to his profession. Siiaight and 
Blount concurring, he was nomiiuited." 

He died at Halifax, March 4th, 1802, where 
he lies buried. 

John Ilerritage Bryan, born 1798, died May 
19th, 1870, was a native of New Berne. 

Ill the I'rovincial Congress of November, 
1776, at Halifax, three of this name were 
members. His early education was conducted 
by the Reverend T. P. Irving, and he gi'adu- 
ated at the university in 1815, in the same 
class with Isaac Croom, Edward Hall, Francis 
L. Hawks, Willie P. Manguiu, Richard Dobbs 
.iSpaight, and others. He read law and at- 
tained high rank in his profession. 

He was elected to the state senate in 1823 
.and '24, and in the next year also, and at the 
.same time he was elected a member of the 
^Nineteenth Cojigress, from 1825 to 1827; an 

unprecedented event, and the more so as he 
was away from home when elected to both of 
these popular positions. He accepted the seat 
in congress, and he was elected to the Twen- 
tieth Congress. He declined a re-election, 
the care of a young and increasing family 
demanding his services. He removed to Ra- 
leigh, where he lived nmny years, loved and 
respected liy all who knew him, and where he 
died, universally regretted, in 1870. 

Pie married the daughter of William Shep- 
ai'd, of New Berne, and leaves a large and 
interesting family. One of his sons. Francis, 
graduated at West Point, and was distin- 
guished in battl-es in Mexico. 

Edward Graham, born 1765, died 1833, son 
of Edward Graham, (who came from Argyle- 
shire, Scotland,) was liorn in New York city, 
graduated at Princeton 1785, read law with 
Chief Justice Jay, and settled in New Berne. 

He was a member in the legislature from 
New Berne, in 1797 — his only public service. 
He was the second of Mr. Stanly in his fatal 
duel with Governor Spaight. He died in New 
Berne, xMarch 22d, 1838. 

He married Elizabeth, the daughter of Ed- 
ward Batchelor, and had two children: 

I. Elizabeth, born 1804, who married John 
P. Daves. 

II. Jane Frances, married to William H. ' 
Haywood, late United States senator. 

Francis Lister Hawks, born 1705, died 1866, 
the son of John Hawks, was a native of New 
Berne, and distinguished as a writer and pul- 
pit orator. 

One of his ancestors was the architect and 
superintended the building of the governor's 
•residence at New Berne in 1771. Among the 
Colonial Records in London, I find that in 
June 29th, 1771, at a meeting of the council, 
he submitted his accounts of expenses for 
building the palace. 

He graduated at the" universit3' in 1815, in 
the same class with Mr. Bryan, and others, as 



alluded toiu the sketch of Mr. Bryan: studied 
law aud was the reporter of the decisions of 
the supreme court for five years, (1820 to '26.) 

In 1821, he was elected a member of the 
House of Commons from Xcav Berne, hut he 
resolved to devote himself to the ministry, 
and was ordained by Bishop Eavenscroft He, 
in 1827, was assistant minister of Dr. Harry 
Croswell, of New Haven, Connecticut. In 
1829, he was the assistant of Bishop White, 
at St. James, Philadelphia, and from 1832 
to 1834, was the rector of St. Stephen's 
church. New York; during which period lie 
visited Europe, with an introduction to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, to collect materinl 
for a history of the Episcopal church in the 
United States, a fragment of which may be 
seen in his biography of Bishop White. 

From St. Stephen's he passerl to St. Thomas 
in 1832, and continued his connection with this 
parish until he removed to Mississippi in 1844. 
He was elected bishop of the diocese; which 
he declined, as also his election to be bishop of 
Rhode Island. At tiie close of 1844, he took 
chaige of Christ church in New Orleans, where 
he continued for five years, during which time 
he gave his aid to the establishment of a state' 
university, of wliicli he was made the presi- 
dent. But he was called to fill the pulpit of 
Cavah'y church, and he returned to New York 
and continued in this charge until 18G1 ; he 
then resigned l)ecause he sympathized with 
the south, and took chai'ge of a Baltimore 
churcli. One of his sons was major in the 
Confederate army. After the war was over 
he returned to and preache<l in the Church of 
the Annunciation, New Y'ork, where he died 
September 27, 1666. 

He married a lady in Connecticut, by whom 
he had 8e\'eral children. 

Dr. Hawks was true to North Carolina and 
proud of her glorious history.* 

* This sketch is compiled from original documents 
and from a memorial of F. L. Hawk-!, DD. LLD., 

As a divine, his merits were brilliant and 
unsurpassed. An agreeable address, an amia- 
ble and placid countenance, a deep toneJ 
voice, expressive of pathos and feeling, mo^iu- 
lated and eloquent in all its utterances, a warm 
southern sensibility and all marked with 
manly frankness, distinguished Dr. Hawks as 
one of the first pulpit orators of his age. 

As an author he exhibited great learning 
and laborious research; the most voluminous 
our state has ever produced. Among his most 
important works are: 

I. Reports of Supreme Court of Nt.>rth 
Carolina, (1820-'26,) in four volumes. 

II. J)igest of all the cases decided and re- 
ported in North Carolina. 

III. Contributions to the Ecclesiastical His- 
tory of the United States, two volumes, em- 
bracing New York, Maryland, and Virginia. 

IV. Egypt and her Monuments, (1849.) 

V. Auricular Confession in the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, (1850.) 

VI. History of North Cai'olina, two volumes, 

VII. Antiquities of Peru, (1854.) 

A^III. Oflicial and Other Papers of Alexan- 
der Hamilton, (1842.) 

IX. Romance of Biography. 

X. Appleton's Cyclo[iedia of Biography. 

XI. Journal of General Conventions (1856) 
of the Protestant Episcopal church of the 
United States, from 1785. 

XII. Under the pseudonym of Uncle Philip, 
several juvenile works for Harper's "Boys' and 
Girls' Library." 

XIII. He compiled from Perr^-'s original 
notes " the Narrative of Commodore Perry's 
Expedition to the China Seas and Japan," 

XIV. Lecture on Sir Walter Raleierh. 

by Everitt A. Diiyckinck. read before New York 

Historical Society. May, 1867. 
'■ Cyclopedia of American Literature.'' 
'• iJictionary of American biography by Francis S. 

Drake, 1«76." 


XY. Lecture establishing the authenticity ./appeariince, of great geniality of temper he 

of the Mecklenbarg, N^orth Carolina, Deelara- bwas a favorite with all his associates, 

tioij of Independence of May 20th, 1775. \ descended to the ludicrous. Of fine personal 

At the time of his death he was preparing But his transcendent powers as an advocate 

a work " on the Ancient Monuments of Cen- did not detract from his usefulness; not unlike 

tral and Western America," and a Physical Erskine, the giant lawyer, they did not dwarf 

Geography. the able statesman. It was his custtuu when 

George Edmund Badger, born 1795, died entering the senate, to linger in the morning 

1866, was a native of ISTew Berne. His father, and liave a pleasant word with nearly ever}' 

a devoted patriot, was a native of Connecticut, member, before he took his seat. This he 

His mother was a daugliter of Richard Cog- would not retain long, for he was less frerpient 

dell; who was one of the council of safety in in his own seat than in that of other members. 

1775. He was educated at Yale College, grad- Yet, witJi this apparent carelessness, he would 

uated in 1815, and studied law with John cutchand remeinberevery word,whetl)ertrivial 

Stanly, who was his relative. or important, uttered in debate, and ready to 

He was elected a member of the legislature answer any question. He had a certain kind 

1816; and in 1820, at the early age of 25, elec- of humoi' to ridicule, in a pleasant waj-, even 

ted one of the judges of the superior courts,' the most dignified of that distinguished body 

which he resigned in 1825. He then settled about any little mistake or blander, either in 

in Raleigh and pursued with great success his their speeches or conversation, 

profession. He was appointed Secretary of On one occasion, wlien a senator was con- 

the Navy in 1841, but resigned on Tjder's ve- cludinga long and laboi'cd speech, (J. P. Hale) 

toiug the re-charter of the United States he remarked:" I guess I have said enough;" Mr. 

Bank.* Badger who was just behind bin) said " I know 

From 1846 to 1855 he was United States you have." This descent from the sublime to 

Senator. the ridiculous created a pleasant smile. 

In 1851, he was nominated one of the judges On another occasion, when he had moved 

of the Supreme Coui't of the United States, that the senate adjourn over v.ext day, 

bat was not confirmed by the senate. being Good Friday, the motion \\-as lost. 

In 1861, he was a member of the convention "Well," he said, "I submit, but this is the 

and signed the ordinance of secession. His only judicial body that has evei' sat on Good 

admirable letter to Mr. Ely, already j^resented, Friday, since the days of Pontius Pilate, who 

(see Beaarfort) gives the "form and pres- tried and condemned our Savioar." Mr. AVeb- 

sure " of those unhappy times. The attendant ster was present and remarked: •' That Badger 

calamities doubtless shortened bit? days. is the greatest trifler I over knev,'; we are all 

As an advocate he had few equals, and no afraid of him; he can make mure out of a 

superior in the highest tribunals of the country, trifling occurrf !.je than any man I ever knew." 

As an orator he was eloquent, learned and able; But there was pith and point in all he said 

abounding in wit and humor, which sometimes and did. lie had no superior or equal in his 

matchless ability for winnowing chatt' from 

"^ It is singular that Korth Carolma has rarely been , , , i ii- 
honored by having one of her citizens made a cabinet wheat, or the most brilliant flowers ol elo- 

Sit'"'''''''^''"°'''^*''''^°'"°^'°^ q"^"^'^ ^■'■'J™ the '^'-y 'detail of sophistry; and 

I. John Branch, 1829; II. George E Badger, 1841 ; while he indulged in the humorous or hidicrous, 

III. William A. Graham, 1850 ; IV. James C. Dob- ,-,,,, 

bin. 1853. he wielded his arguments with the force of 


111 1798, ho was elected a judge of the su- B}- the act of 1817. he was appointed with 

perior courts of hiw and equity. At this time lleiirj Porter and Bartlett Yaiiee^' to revise 

the state was divided into eight judicial dis- the statute law of the state, and the stat- 

tricts,Edenton, Halifax, New Berne, Wilming- utes of England in force in the state. This 

ton,. Fayetteville, llillsboro, Salisijury, aiul work was completed and published in 1821. 

Morgauton. Court was held twice a year, at In 1825, Judge Tajdor continued this work, 

which two of the four judges ha<l to preside. He, .aliout the same time, publi-iied a treatise 

These courts had supreme jurisdiction, for '■ on the Duties tif Executors and Adnnnistra- 

there was no court of appeals, and their deci- to-rs." 

sions were tinal. This obviaus defect was en- This devoted I oyalt}- to his profession, diicl 
deavored to be remedied by the act of 1799, not prevent Jiuige Taylor tVom worshipping at 
directing the judges to meet together at Ra- the shrine of the muses. There v/as not, per- 
leigh twice a year to settle questions of law haps, a better bcUcs leltres scholar in his day. 
and equity arising on the cii-cuits. In 1801, While at the bar he possessed a singular 
the act of 1799 was continued for three years, felicity of e.xpressitui, which alwa3's seized the 
and the meeting of the judges was called '-'the most appropiriate word suited to tlie thought, 
court of confei'ence." His ett'orts were distinguished by a playful, be- 
lli 1804, this was made a permanent tribu- nevolent humor, great ingenuity and skill in 
nal, and its name changed in the following argment, and a most retentive memory, 
year to that of •' the Supreme Court." In Always pxdite to his associates, and respectful 
1808 the judges were authorized to appoint to the court, with high and generous feelings, 
one of their number chief justice, and Judge he was loved and respiected. Of tlic mode in 
Taylor was selected. In 1818, the supreme which ho exercised the functions of ajndge of 
court was-established, and John Lewis Taylor, this highest tribunal in our land, his recorded 
John Hall and Leonard Henderson were ap- opinions will demanstrate, and these are 
pointed to hold it. Judge Taylor continued models of eloqueiu-e and logic, whilst they are 
as chief justice until his death, ^vllieh oc- admired for their research and classic beauty, 
curred at Raleigh, January 29, 1829. A^ a neighbor, no oiio had a more benevo- 
Soon after his appointment, Judge Taylor lent disposition, moi'e sincere in his friendships 
began to take notes of the cases decided by or more affectionate in all the relations of 
him and bis associates; and in 1802 he pub- life. His tiibute to the nieiuory of the late 
lished "Cases Determined in the Si^perior James F. Taylor, who died in 1828, is credita- 
Courts of Law and Equity of the State of ble alike to his head and heart.* This gen- 
North Carolina." tlenian, though bearing the same name, was no 
In 1814, he published anonymously the iirst, blood relatioii, and was only connected by 
and in 1816 the second volume of " the Caro- having married his adopted daughter, Eliza 
lina Repository;" also another volume of re- L. Manning. Judge Taylor was twice married, 
ports from 1816 to 1818, known as " Taylor's His first wife was Julia Rowan, by whom he had 
Term Reports." His charge to the grand one daiightoi-, who married Maj >r Suded, a 
jury of Edgecombe, in 1817, was published at °on of whom was attorney -general of Tennes-. 
the request of the grand juiy, and is a model see. The second wife was Jane Gaston, a 
of its kind, showing the various offences that sister of Judge Gaston, by whom he had one 
grand juries are bound to notice, and a general daughtei-, who married David E. Sumner, of 
summary of their duties. -^^ig ^^.^^. ^^ ^^^^^^ .^^ , Devereux Ueports, 527. 



Hertf'ort Count}-, and a son, John Louis, who 
died years a.2;o, nnniarried. 

Henry P(.)tter, horn 17G5, died 1857, was 
for more than half a centuiy jud^2;e of tire 
United States District Court for the state of 
North Carolina, appointed in 1801 h\- ]*Ir. Jef- 
ferson. He resided in Eayetteville; he was a 
native of Granville County. 

Of his ear]}' education we have no informa- 
tion. But he was for years a trustee and an 
active friend of the university. Kind and 
courteous in his manners, upright and patieikt 
as a judge, he possessed abilities of a reputa- 
ble order; but to preside as the associate 
of Marshal, Daniel, and AYayne, demanded no 
ordinary powers. In the latter days of his 
life he was fond of narrating the events of his 
_youth. He had known Wasliington, and heard 
him deliver his first address to congress at 
Philadelphia. He knew Adams, Jefferson, 
Madison, Monroe, Hamilton, Charles Carroll, 
Rufus King and other celebrities of the revo- 
lution, as well Richard Caswell, Judge Iredell, 
Governor Johnstone, Nash, Burke, Spaight, 
Ashe, Davie, and others of our own state, and 
such giants as Cameron, Gaston Toomer, 
Means, Dufiy and Strange had practiced before 
him; all of whom preceded him to the grave. 
Had he written the reminiscences of his times. 
How agreeable \^■ould sucli a work have been 
to our age! 

He wrote a work " on the Duties of a Justice 
of the Feace^," and with Yancey and Taylor re- 
vised our statute laws. He died December 
,20, 1857. 

John D. Toomer was a native of Wilming- 
ton; educated at the university but did not 

He rejiresented this countj' in the senate of 
.the state legislature in 1831 and 18-32, and 
succeeded Judy.e Strange, in the house in 1836. 
He had been a judge of the superior courts in 
1818, and was on the supreme court bencli in 
1829, by appointment of the governor, but was 

not elected by the legislature. In 1836, he 
was again on the superior court bench which 
he resigned from ill health in 1840. He was 
an eloquent advocate, a learned judge, a writer 
of great literary attainments, and an accom- 
plished and urbane gentleman. He died in 
Pittsboro in 1856. 

Louis D. Henry, born 1788, died 1846, re- 
sided for years in this county. He was a 
native of New Jersey, educated at Princeton, 
■^A- here he graduated in 1809. He read law 
with his uncle, Edward Graham, in New 
Berne, and practiced with great success. He 
was distinguished for his courteous manners, 
his finished elocution, and his accurate and 
extensive memor3^ His genial temper and 
popular manners were duly appreciated by his 
fellow citizens. He represented the count}' 
1821 and 1822, and the town in 1830-'31 and 
'32, and in the latter year was chosen speaker. 

In early life, when quite young, he became 
involved in a duel v/ith Thomas J. Stanlj', 
(about 1812) which terminated in the death 
of the latter. 

He was appointed Minister to Belguim bj- 
the President (VanBuren,) which mission he 
declined, but he accepted the appointment of 
commissioner to settle claims against Spain. 

In 1842, he made an unsuccessful campaign 
as candidate for governor of the state. This 
was his last appearance in political life, for 
four years after he died suddenlj- at his resi- 
dence in Raleigh. 

■Mr. Henry was no ordinary man. Gifted 
by nature with high mental endowments, cul- 
tivated by education, of a most agreeable pre- 
sence, an exquisite taste f )r poetrj' and music, 
with most melodious voice, he ^vas a welcome 
and favoured guest wherever he moved. 

Mr. Henry was tv.'ice mainied. By his last 
wife,, who survived him, he had several chil- 
dren. One of whom married Duncan K. 
McRae, another John H. Manh', and another 
was tlie first ■wife of R. P. Waring, of Charlotte. 


Robert Strange, born 1796, died Februar}' Ilanghton, distingnised as a statesman and 
19tl), 1854, who lived and died in Fayette- advocate; Cadwallader Jones, late attiM'ney- 
ville, was a native of Virginia. He was eda- general of the state; Richard H.Smith, and 
cated at Hampden Sydney, studied law and others, composed the class, 
settled at Fayetteville, from wliich town he llis gentle and genial manners, and frank 
was elected a representative to the legislature and gentlemanly deportment made him a uni- 
1821; I'e-elected, with two intermissions, until versal favorite with the faculty and students, 
1836, when he was electeil one of the judges Kud so won upon the affections of the vener- 
of the superior courts, in Avhich position he aide president, Dr. Caldwell, that he was often 
was so acceptable that in 1836, he was elected heard to say: "it would gladden his heart to be 
United States senator. Here he shone con- the father of such a son as James C. Dobbin." 
spicuous for the suavity of his manners, his He read law with Judge Strange, then one 
affable demeanor, and his brilliant abilities, of the judges of the superior courts, with whom 
Under instructions from the legislature, he was a special favorite, 
elected in the plirensy of the "Log Cabin" He was admitted to the bar in 1835, and de- 
campaign of 1840, he resigned, glad to escape voted all of his enei'giesto the profession. In 
from " the peltings of the storm " of political it he was eminiently successful; this, toi, at a 
life to the more germane and protitable pur- adorned by T(.)omer, Eccles, Henry, and 
suits of tlie law, which lie practiced with great others. 

success until his death. He \vas twice married. He was often solicited to represent his 

His second wife, Mrs. Nelson, survived him county, but he invariably declined, alledging 

but a short time. that he felt more satisfaction in the discharge 

James Cochrane Dobltin, born 1814, died of his professional duties, and in the quiet corn- 
August 4, 1857, was born, lived, and died in forts of his famil^^ than in the contests of 
Fayetteville. He was the son of John M. political warfare. 

Dobbin, and Abness, daughter of JaniesCoch- But such talents ;ind merit could not re- 

rane, after whorji he was named, and who main unappreciated. In 1845, unsolicited anil 

represented the Orange district in the Twelfth unexpectedly to him, he was nominated for 

Congress, 1811 and 1813. His father, a sue- congress by a convention in the Raleigh dis- 

cessful merchant in Faj'Cttox ille for thirty trict. The district was a doubtful one, and 

years, died in 1837 universally' loved and la- had previously otily Ijeen can-ied by a small 

mented. majority for the democratic ticket. 

Mr. Dobbin was pre[iared for college by The opposition was able and active, and his 

William J. Bingham, of Hillsboro; in 1828 he competitor, John H. Hiiughton, a practiced 

entered the freshman class. His course in col- and successful politician. Yet such was the 

lege was marked by a faithful discharge of gallant and genial bearing of Mr. Dobbin and 

every dutj'. Though much the 3'oungest mem- his captivating and winning eloquence, that 

ber of tlie class, during the whole collegiate he was elected by a mijorit}' of two thousand 

course, he was among the fii-st, and graduated votes. His fame preceded him to congress, 

with high honors in 1832, and this was no idle and he was placed on the committee of elec- 

and empty compliment, when it is stated that tions, a most important and trying position for 

such mimls as Thomas S. Ashe, (now one of the a young and inexperienced member. But here 

judges of the supreme court,) ThonnisL. Cling- he so bore himself as to win the approbation 

man, late United States senator; John H. of his associates, by a close attention to his 



dnties, decidiiio; accordiiicr to the instice of 
each case, and his own convictions of right 
althougli frequently to the prejudice of his own 
own part}'. 

His speecli on the Oregon question; the 
three million bill; Mexican war; public lands; 
the tariff, and other questions, established for 
him the reputation of a sagacious and honest 
statesman. After his term expired he de- 
clined a re-election to congress, intending to 
devote himself to his profession, in which he 
now stood in the foremost rank. But the 
people did not allow him to retire from their 
service; he was returned from the county in 
1848, 1850 and 1852, to the legislature. He 
was chosen the speaker of the house in 1848 
and 1850. His course, so patriotic and yet so 
modest, commanded the respect and regard of 
all. His efforts in behalf of the Insane Asy- 
lum, on the memorial of that "white winged 
messenger of peace," Miss })ix, is the monu- 
ment of his patrotism and his philanthrophy. 
The memorial was referred to a select commit- 
tee, on motion of John W. Ellis, and a bill 
was reported by him appropriating one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. In the mean time, 
Mr. Ellis, on being elected judge, resigned, 
the laboring oar was then allotted to Hon. 
Kenneth Eaj'ner. who, in a speech of great 
power and of impassioned eloquence, advoca- 
ted the measure; but it was lost by a vote of 
66 to 44, and the measure seemed to be irre- 
trievabh' lost. 

Miss Dix felt deeply the failure of a measui-e 
so dear to her heart and to humanity; she 
called on Mr. Doljbin, who had not been pre- 
sent at the discussion, his lovelj' wife having 
only a day or so previoush' died; Miss Dix 
reminded him of his wife's earnest request to 
support this bill. The appeal did not fall 'un- 
heeded. The next day the bill was reconsid- 
ered. Mr. Dobbin, in the language of the 
Kaleigh Register, " delivered one of the most 
touching and beautiful efforts ever heard in 

the legislature." The bill passed almost unan- 

The stranger, wandering in our midst, as he 
gazes in pride on "the cloud capt turrets" of 
this splendid edifice, erected at our capital, may 
well pause and breath a benediction and 
thanks to the names of Dorathea Dix, Ken- 
neth Rayner and James C. Dobbin. 

Mr. Dobbin's next public service was as a 
delegate to the convention at Baltimore to 
nominate candidates for president and vice- 
president. He was elected the chairman of 
the North Carolina delegation. After a pro- 
tracted and animated canvass, it was found 
impossible co nominate Buchanan, Marcy, 
Cass, or Douglas, or any one acceptable to the 
contending factions. It was apprehendedthat 
the convention would adjourn in confusion, 
and without any nomination. At this crisis 
Mr. Dobbin arose, and in a modest, unobstru- 
sive manner, and with matchless, eloquence, 

■ Like the sweet South. 

Breathing on ;i bank of violets, 
Stealing and giving odor," 

spoke as- follows: 

"Mr. President: Pardon me for obtruding one 
word before North Carolina casts her vote. 
We came to pander to no factious artitices here, 
to enlist undei- no man's banner at the hazard 
of principle; to embark in no crusade to 
prostrate any asjiirant for the sake of sec- 
tional or personal triumph. We came here 
to select one of the army of noble spirits in 
our ranks to be our leader and champion in the 
glorious struggle for the great principles of 

"Again., and again, have we tendered the 
banner to the North. Safe our hippy Union, 
guard well the rights of the states, sa}' we, 
and you can have the honor of the standard 
bearer. Zealously and sincerely have we pre- 
sented the name of Buchanan, the nobe son 
of the Ke}' Stone state, around wliom the af- 
fections of our hearts have so long clustered. 
We have turned to the Empire State, New 
York, and sought to honor one of her distin- 
guished sons. We now feel that in the midst 
of discord and destruction, the olive Ijranch, if 
tendered once more, cannot be refused. We 


feel the hour now has corm when the spirit of lots Mr. Dobbin received within one or two 

strife must be banished, and the mild, gentler ^f enouo-h votes to elect him. All of us who 

and holier spirit ot patriotism reisjn in its " , .. ,,,,•, , 

stead! Come then, Mr. President, let us go were members of that legislature can remem- 

to the altar and make sacrifices for our beloved ber the intense excitement of the time. The 

country. We now propose, with other friends, opposition was able, active, and not over scru- 

the name of one who was in thefield iust long ■ t; it -. i 4. i ^ i, • j x- 

, ^ 1 • ].• II ^ IT ^ pulous. 1 hey could not elect; but bv aid ot 

enough to prove himsclt a gallant soldier, and ir j > . 

who was long enough in Ihe councils of the one or two meddling marplots of the other 

nation to demonstrate that he is a statesman side the^^ could prevent the election of the 

of the strong mind and honesty heart; who has democratic candidate. Amid all this excite- 

exhibited in the career of legislation, that he ,r t^ ,,- ■, , 11 1 

knew the rights of the South, while he re- ">eiit Mr. Dobbin appeared the only calm and 

speeted those of the North, as well as of the considerate person among us. After some 

East and the West; whose principles of de- fo,.tj ballotings. he requested that a caucus 

mocracy are as solid and enduring as the , , , , ,, ", ' 1 -^i n- . i ■ 

■.. i^-u I- I ■ XT XT I- should 1)6 caled, and with unaitected sincerity 

granite hills 01 his own JNew Hampshire na- ' ■' 

tive land— General Franklin Fierce. and glowing eloquence he requested his name 

" Come, friends and brothers, let us strike to be withdrawn and some other person vcted 

hands now ; now for harmony and conciliation, j.^,^,_ ^^ ^^^ ^^,j^j^ g^^.^,^,^^, ^1,^ distracted 

and save oui- cherished principles and our be- "^ ' 

loved country." by jealousies, and a feart'ul chasm of disorder 

had been opened, engulphing its unity, if not 
This speecti was cheered with the wildest its very existence, lie withdrew his name; 
enthusiasm. Several states, as A^ermont and but it was in vain. If he could not be elected 
New Jersey, changed their votes to Pierce, no other person should be, and the state iiad 
The delegations from New York, Pennsylva- only one senator for a long time, 
ilia, Indiana and other states, retired for con- On the accession of General Pierce, witb.oiit 
sultation, but soon returned and joined their any effort of friends or himself, and unex- 
voices in the general pean of j.iy. Dispatches pected to all, for he had recommended another, 
and congratulations on the event wei'e I'Ceeived he was tendered the position of Secretary of 
from Douglas, Houston, and others. Thepresi- the Navy. The manner of his successful dis- 
dent of the convention tlien announced the charge of these important duties, his pure and 
votC' (two hundred and eighty-three) for unspotted integrity, gave more strength to this 
Franklin Pierce. branch of the public service than it has e\"er 
It was acknowledged that the address of receivexl before or since. His decided and 
Mr. Dobbin had done much to secure this re- frank course, his gentle and knightly courtesy, 
suit. He was selected as one of electors with his frank and open demeanour won the hearts of 
Burton Craige,L.OVB. Branch, Thomas Bragg, those in the service, and he left the depart- 
and others, and made a gallant camjiaign for ment without an enemy in or out of the navy, 
the ticket and cast the vote of the state for He possessed in a high degree the faculty 
Pierce and King. of " reading men," and the talent of diseerii- 
At this time (] 8.52,) the legislature had to ing.merit. He granted with pi'omptness aiu' 
elect a senator in congress. The democratic reasonable request, while he could refuse with 
party in caucus, with much unanimity, nomi- delicacy and tact, any improper application, 
nated Mr. Dobbin. The parties (democrat Whilst his health was always delicate, yet he 
and whig) v.'cre nearly equally divided. The attended labcu'iously every duty of this import- 
selfish ambition of one or two aspii'aiits pre- ant position. It i* a singular fact, already al- 
vented an election; although on several hal- luded to, that our state has rarely been hnn- 


ored by a cabinet appointment, but when it lias '• Should, however, the wcene be changed and 

it was the Navy Department. otherwise, let your better-half and your boys 

T- . , . , , , , • , m- know that Mr. Dobbin is one that they may 

It 13 also sino-ular that the cabinet of Pierce, approach and find their steady friend. But 

which has had no superior in the history of the perhaps we may meet in years to come, and 

republic for integrity, ability, or usefulness, is then what friendly chats, Shakespeare, poli- 

, , , , ■ ,", , ", " ■ 4. 1 - 11 tics. Good-live. God preserve and bless you, 

the onlv caljinet that ever existed, m whicb - ,} -^ „ -r, -'„ ' 

' . " James C. Dobbin." 
there was, during its legal existence, perfect in- 
tegrity, with out resignation or change. These But if the life of Mr. Dobbin was one con- 
distinguished men seemed to be as united in tinned exercise of the noblest functions of our 
their social and official relations, as they were nature, and bis career as short as it was bril- 
for the welfare and honor of their countiy. liant, it was eclipsed by the salilime manner 

This terminated, the public life of Mr. of his death. 

Dolibin, a career so brilliant and yet so short. His health, never strong, was exhausted by 

In private life his character exhibited it- his official laliors at AVashington, and he re- 
self still more lovely. As a son, he was turned home only to die. We are informed 
obedient and docile; as a husband, tender; as a by Ecv. Mr. Gilchrist, who was with hira in 
father, provident and affectionate, and as a his last moments, that Mr. Dobbin was con- 
friend sincere, frank, and unseltish. scions for some time of his approaching disso- 

I trust it will not be deemed ostentatious Intion, and wlien the icy hand of death touched 

when I say of Mr. Dobbin, as did Anthony of his heart, he did not shrink from its approach 

Caesar: " He was my friend, faithful and just, but calmly bade his little children and his 

to me " earnest and sincere. He sustained my weeping friends adieu; and with fixed h.ands, 

course, when absent from the country under composing himself in his bed, he was heard to 

peculiar circumstances, when assailed by pre- whisper, " praise the Lord, oh my soul!" and 

judice and sectional jealousy. I allude to the with these words his spirit departed, 

course pursued by me in Central America. To " Sure the lust end 

the li^t hour of bi^ Hfe he coiitinupd li;-^ Of the a;oO(l m;iii is peace ! How culm his exit; 

uie la^r nour or ni^, lire ne connnui a nib Night clews fali not move gently to the ground 

kindl}' offices. Nor we^ry worn o t winds expire more soft." 

As I was leaving the country, I received the Mr. Dobbin left three children; two sons, 

followin.g letter, which better expresses his both since dead, and a daughter. The sad 

friendship and generous, noble natui-e than any fate f)f his brotliei-, John V. Dobbin, who per- 

possible language of mine: ished at sea, in the steam ship Central America, 

"Washington, October Znl,lihi. ''^^^ already been alluded to. (See Beaufort 

'' Dear Wheeler: County.) 

"The beautiful painting has arrived, and Wa,-ren Winslow, l,orn 1810, died 1862 
shall conspicuouslv adorn my parlor. , ,..,,.,. .^ 
' " I prize it highly. It is the picture of the ''''^' '"'''"' ''''°'^ ''""' ^^'°'^ ^^ Fayetteville. He 
beloved Washington. It is one of ' Sully's ' was educate d at the University of Xorth Car- 
paintings too. It comes to me from the warm olina, and graduated in 1827, in s:ime class 
heart of a true friend, and therel)y seems to -ii i i . n v) v , , ,- n, 
1 1 1 ■ 1 .^ 1 1 ■ 1 1 T -i with .1 u( ge A. <_). r. JNicno son, ot Tennessee 
liave borrowed a richer touch, which lends it •" V -imeasoc, 

additional beauty. Charles B. Shephai'd, Lewis Thompson and 

" I shall remember you, when you are far, others, 

far away; and when you return, and see my jj^ .t^^ij^.^ i^„ ^^.^^^ ^^^^^.^^^ ,,,!;_ jj^. 
little folks, tell them how warm was the 

friendship between yourself and their father, senator m the state legislature the same year, 

whose life was so hopeful and yet so short. (1851,) and was chosen speaker. In the election 



of Governor Reid as senator in congress he a lawyer, but abandoned the profos-ion and 

became ex ojficw govevnov of the state. The joined the ministry. As a writer slie has at- 

next year he was elected a member of the tained great success. Many of her proluetions 

Thirty-fourth Congress, 1855,-'57, and was show the fire of genius. 

re-elected to the Thirty-fifth, 1857, -'59, and The Presbyterian board of publication have 

Thirty-sixth Congress, 185 9,-'61, when the issued several of her works as Sunday-school 

state seceeded. 

books, and her poems in tlie North Carolina 

He (in 1854) was sent on a special mission rresliyteriau and the Central Pros' lytorran, 

by Mr. Pierce to Madrid, in reference to published at Richmond, Virginia, have at- 

the Black Warrior affair. tained celebrity, and sucli happy conceits, as 

When the civil war commenced he took an that of " Linda Lee " address alike the fancy 

active part. lie died in Fayetteville in 1863. as the heart. 

Governor AVinslow had many genial and A few of her poems are preserved in '• Wood 
generous qualities, and was much loved b}' his Notes," a collection of North Carolina poety, 
friends. The troubles of the country hurried made by Mrs. Clarke, and published in 1854, 

but most of them have appeared <<nly in tlie 

Henry Washington Hilliard, mentioned in 
the same woi-k '•' The Living Writers of the 
Sontli," is a native of CnmlierUand County, 
liorn 1808. He has lieen distin2;uis]ied as a 

him to an early grave. 

Duncan Kirkland MacRae, l)orn August 
16th, 1820, is a native of Fayetteville, son of 
John MacRae, Esq. He v/as educated at the 
University of Virginia, and at William and 
Mary; studied law with Judge Strange, and 

was a successful and eloquent advocate. Elected lawyer, a diplomist, a p )litician, and a divine, 

to the legislature in 1842. He was educated at Cohimbia, S mth Caro- 

He was an unsuccessful candidate for gov- lina; studied law and settled at Athens, 

ernor in 1848, being defeated by Governor Ellis. Geoi'gii. In 1851, he was elected a professor 

On the accession of General Pierce, he was in the LTni versify of Georgia; and inlS38,wa-< 

appointed Consul of the United States at a mendier of the legislature. Tliree years 

Paris, where he remained onlj^ a few years. 

On bis return he removed to Memphis, Ten- 
nessee, then to Chicago, and recently returned 
to his native state, and is now residing at 

He married Virginia, daughter of Louis D. 
Heniy, and has several children. 

Mrs. Mary Ajar Miller, is mentioned among 
the "living female writers of the south." 
She was born in Fayetteville, and on the death 

later he was a[ipointed churge (V.:ff<iJres to 
Belgium. From 1845 to 1852, he was a rep- 
resentative in congress from Georgia, siibse- 
quentl}' he became a Methodist preadier. 

He became envoy extraordinary and minis- 
ter plenipotentiary of the United States to 

His literary pioductions are — 

I. Speeches and Addresses, which contain 
his speeches delivered in congress and some 

of her father. General Henry Ayer, removed literary addresses. 

with her mother, when she was only eight II. DeVane, a story of Plebeians and Patri- 

years old, to Lexington, North Carolina, to be cians, (1866,) which exhibits the highest evi-. 

educated by her uncle, the Rev. Jesse Rankin deuce of scholarship, and a high appreciation 

of the Presbyterian church, who had a school of the true, the beautiful and the good. 

at that place. She married a j'oung lawyer, Wesley Clark 'l^roy resides in Fayetteville, 

Willis M. Miller, who gave great proiiiise as but is a native of Randolph County, where he 


was born on Jul}' 30, 1833. His father was a a native North Carolinian, and has many warm 

representative from Randolph in 1827. His friends. He now resides in the city of New 

mother was a daughter of Colonel Andrev,- York, and as a book publisher has ijeen greatly 

Balfour, whose atrocious murder is recorded beneficial to southern literature.* 

under the head of Randolph County. Many other names worthy of record are pre- 

Mr. Troy was a member of the house in sented in the history of Cumberland, as 

1876. Bethum,in congress 1831,-'33; Cameron, judge 

Edward J. Hale, who for a long time con- iu Fhn-ida, Davis, Dutfy, Eccles, Jordan, Mil- 
ducted the Fayetteville Observer with inde- ler, Porterfield, S. D. Furviance, and many 
fatigable industry and unsurpassed ability, is others; but to those who have accurate infor- 
a native of Moore County, born in 1802. His mation as to their lives and services we must 
press was the leading one of the state, and con- leave this pleasing task, and especially as more 
ducted at times with much violence, which space has been devoted to this interesting- 
doubtless age and time have corrected. He is county that the limits of our work justify. 

' o^ 


Dk.. Henry Marchand Shaw, born Novem- several shai'p and heavy engagements at Roan- 

ber 20th, 1819, died February Ist, 1804, oke Island, New Berne, and other places, in 

resided in this county, which he represented which he bore himself with coolness, gallantry 

in the senate of the state legislature in 1852; and enterprise. 

and the Edenton district in the Thirty-third On February 1, 1804, he became engaged in 

Congress, 1853,-'55, and Thirty-fifth Congress, a skirmish with some advanced troops at 

1857,-'59 Batchelor's Creek, near New Berue, was mor- 

He was one of the electors in 1857 on the tally wounded, and died immediately on the 

Buchanan ticket. field. His fall was deeply lamented by his 

He was born in Newport, Rhode Island; comrades and his country. He died the death 

.the son of Rev. William A. Shaw, a minister he had often expressed a wish for — the death 

of the Baptist church. He graduated as a of a soldier in defence of his country's rights, 

phy.sicinn in Philadelphia, in 1830, and came and his country's honor. 

with his father to North Carolina, and settled " Tre, vero felix Agricola; non vitaj tantum 

in this county. claritate, sed etiam opportunitate mortis. "t 

When our civil war commenced, he cast his Emerson Etheridge, was born September 28, 

fortunes with the destiny of his adopted 1819, in this county, and, when thirteen years 

state, and was appointed colonel of the ei^'lith 

. J, -KT ,-, r^ T " *.\foore II., 411. 

:regiment of JNorth (yarolina troops, and did t " Thou truly art hiippy. Agricola, not so much 

■ir-t^'P HPi-vipp in tliic: 1-,f^i;^-;,^,> TT„„. • from tlie brilliiincv of your life, but in the ch-cum- 

act.%e seiMce m tins potitiom He was m stances of your death.'' 



old, moved to Tennessee, and became a mem- 
ber of congress from Tennessee in tbe Thirty- 
third (1853,-'55) Thirty-fourth, (1855, 1857,) 
also, Thirty-sixth Congress, (1859,-'60.) On 
the meeting of the Thirty-seventh Congress 
(1861, -'63) he was elected clerk of the house, 
the duties of which he discharged with fidelity 
and ability. He is a lawyer by profession, of 
large observation of men and measures, and 
possesses rare conversational powers equalled 

by few persons in this or any other country-. 
-Man}' other names cluster around this an- 
cient county, the memories of whom deserve 
to be cherished. The Baxters, Bells, Doziers, 
the Etheridges, (Willis, Caleb and Joseph 
W.) Ferrebees, Halls, Jones, Lindsays, Salyear 
Simmons, and others; but our limits do not 
allow the space, and we leave this dnt}' to 
some son of Currituck to rescue these materials 
from the carroding tooth of time. 


The revolutionary history of this county is 
connected with that of Rowan County, from 
which it was taken in 1822. 

James Madison Leach resides in this county. 
He is a native of Randolph County, born 1821, 
educated chiefly at home. He was for a time 
a cadet of the military academy at West Point. 
He read law with his brother. Julian E. Leach, 
and attained nmch distinction at the bar as an 
able, astute, and successful advocate. But his 
fame is cljiefly based upon his success as a 
statesman. In 1848, he was elected to the 
legislature, and continuously to 1856, and 
in 1856 he was one of the Filmore electors. 
He was elected to the senate in 1865,-'66,-'67, 
and again in 1879. He was elected a member 
of the Thirty-fourth Congress, 1859,-'61, his 
opponent being General A. M. Scales. 

In the war he entered the confederate arm}", 
and served as colonel of the eleventh regiment 
of North Carolina troops. But on being elec- 
ted a member of the confederate congress, 1864, 
-'65, he resigned his commission in the arm}-. 

Since the war he has served as a meinlier of 
the Forty-second and Forty-third Congresses, 

The political career of General Leach has 
been brilliant and successful. In no instance 
has he ever been defeated in an election be 
fore tlio peoi)le. His shrewdness as a piJitician, 
his powers as an oi-ator and logician, combined 
with a pleasing address, render him invincible. 

lie married in 1846, Lizzie Montgomery 
Lewis, and has an interesting family of three 
sons, Wilmont, Henry Archer and Ja.mes M. 
t(j inherit his name and reputation. 


The men of this ancient county in revolu- ration in 1777, the original is on file in the 

tiouary times, proved their devotion to the clerk's office ofthe county, they held that, "The 

cause of liberty. They united in wresting King of England, nor any other foreign power, 

their inde[!endence from England, in a decla- had an}- right to the sovereignty of this state; 


and the}- renounced all allegiance to the same, A monnment marks liis grave in the con- 

and I'esoh'ed to sup[iort smd maintain the in- gressional burying ground, 

dependence of the state against the said Owen Rand Keenau, son of Thomas, was 

King." born March 24, 1806. Studied medicine, and 

This is signed by Henry Cannon, William afterwards law. Member of the legislature 
Dickson, Alexander Gray, Samuel Houston, 1834,-'35,-'36, and of the confederate con- 
James Lockhart, Michael Kennon, James Ken- grass, 1862. 

non, James Sampson, Edward Toole, and Charles Hooks, a native of this count}', often 

others. represented it in the legislature. Ii: 1817, he 

James Gillaspie was a native of this count}', succeeded AVilliam Ii. King in congress, and 

We kiio^'\' but little of him, except from tlie was re-elected to congress in 1821, -'23. He 
public records, which inform us that he was ,. also moved to Alabama. 

often a meml>er of the legislature, and a member Thomas Ke^nan.also a native of thiscouuty, 

from this distrit't in the Thiid Congress, (1793, and fronr whose family the county town de- 

'95;) Fourth Congress, (1795,-'97;) Fifth ('on- rives its name, was, in 1804, in the senate of 

gress, (1798,-'99;) Eighth Congress, and until the legislature, and from 1805 to 1811, repre- 

his death, which occured while he was in con- sented this district in congress. He removed 

gress, January, 1805, at Washington city. to Alabama, where he died near Selma, in 1822. 


Chakles Price, late speaker of the house John E. Plnssey, represented Dulphin in 1815,- 

(1876,) resides at Mocksville. He was born "16,V17,-'18, in the house, and from 1833 to 

in A¥arren County, July 26,1847. He read 1S3(^, in tlie senate. 

law with Judge Pearson; and after obtaining John B. Hussey received :ill the educational 
a license settled at Mocks^■ille, where he soon advantages of the day. He was educated at 
by liis attainments, his pleasant address, and the Kenansville academy, the Cablwell iusti- 
high moral character, won '• troops of friends." tute, and the university. The war prevented 
Such was the appreciation of the people that his graduating, and at the early age of fii'teen 
in 1872, they elected him to the senate. He he entered the army in the thirty-eighth 
was also a member of the constitutional con- Korth Carolina regiment, and was in several 
vention of 1875, and a member of the house in engagements around Richmond. In 1803, he 
1876, of which body, over memliers of more was assigned to the signal service at Smith- 
years, he av as chosen speaker; a just compli- ville, and was the signal officer of "The Helen," 
ment to his genius, talents and ability. a Liverpool blockade runner, in which capacity 

We would do injustice to modest and sub- he made many successful trips to Nassau, Ber- 

stantial merit, and solid ability, were we to mudas and Halifax. After this service he was 

omit in our sketches the name and services of assigned to duty on the Cape Fear, and was 

John Bryan Hussey. wouiided at the fearhil b.ittle of Fort Fisher, 

He is a native of Duipin County, born Jan- taken prisoner and confined at Fortress Mon- 

uaiy 1, 1846. His family is well known for roe and Fort Delaware. The war being over, 

their abilit} and integrity. A near relative, he was released. He studied law with Wil- 


liani A. Allen, and was licensed in 1868. He ville,and subsequently conducted the News at 

removed to Newton, and thence to Hickory, Raleigh. He was appointed librarian to the 

where he established the Piedmont Press, house of representatives in 1879, which position 

In 1874, he started the Landmark at States- he now occupies with great satisfaction to all. 


ALTHOtJGH this county, from its inland .posi- Colonel William Polk, received a severe and 

tion, was not exposed to the dangers of attack dangerous wound. With a patriotism de- 

in the revolution, yet no section of the state serving all praise, a marble monument has 

was more sensitive of its duty, or sent more been erected over their graves by the lib- 

wilhng and patriotic sons to do battle in the erality of J. F. Watson, of Philadelphia, 

cause of the country. A sister of Colonel Irwin married Lawrence 

Among these, conspicuously stands the name Toole, whose son, grandson, and great grand 

of Henry Irwin, killed in battle 1777. He had son, bear the same name — Henry Irwin Toole,' 

for a long time been a resident and merchant all distinguished for ability and influence, 

of Tarboro, much esteemed for his integrity, The first took a commission in the war, and 

patriotism, and courage, and very popular, was in the battle of the Great Bridge, Vir- 

He was a member of the provincial congress, ginia. 

at New Berne, in 1775, also of the congress at It would be unpiardonable on this oc- 
Halifax, in 1776, and by that body appointed casion says an able article on the County 
lieutenant-colonel of the second regiment, of Edgecombe in 1810, by Dr. Jeremiah Bat- 
of which Edward Buncombe was colonel, tie, (see University Magazine, April, 1861,) 
This gallant regiment marched to join the not to mention tlie merits and services of 
army of t!ie north, and on the fatal field of Colonel Jonas Johnston, born 1740, died July 
Germantown, (October 4th, 1777,) both he 29th 1779, who rose from obscurity and 
and his comniander fell. . acted a conspicuous part in our revolution- 
Colonel Irwin left one son and two daugh- ary struggles. He was born in the year 
ters. One of his daughters married Lovatt 1740, in Southampton County, Virginia, 
Burgess, whose only son, Thomas Burgess, dis- and came when a youth with his fatlier to 
tinguished as a lawyer, died in Halifax a few this county. He was raised a plain indus- 
years since.. Another daughter married Gov- trious farmer, without education. But he 
ernor Monford Stokes, whose oidy child by possessed native talent, and unflinching 
this marriage was Mrs. William B. Lewis, of patriotism. At an early day he embarked in 
Nashville, Tennessee, v,-hose only daughter the cause of liberty, and ever proved himself a 
married Monsieur Pageot, the French Min- true patriot, hero and statesman. From time 
ister. to time, ho flUed every office in the county 
The battle of Germantown brought sadness both civil and military. He represented the 
and sorrow to many a hearthstone of North county in the convention, 1776, and was ap- 
Carolina,for in it the patriotic generals, Nash, pointed major by the provincial congress. He 
Turner, Lucas, and man}' others, gave up their was a member of the commons in 1777,-'78. 
lives for their country, and here the veteran, He was a natural orator. After one of his 



speeches in the general assembly, more remark- 
able for sound sense, than for grammatical 
stj'le, he was asked by a professional gentle- 
man " where lie got his education." He refilled, 
" at the plough handles." He was modest, yet 
determined, prompt, yet cautions. From the 
date of his commission to his death he was 
constantly employed. He was at the battle of 
Moore's Creek Bridge, and in 1779 in com- 
mand of a regimeut, he went to the assistance 
of South Carolina. He was in the battle of 
Stono, where he bore himself with the intrep- 
editj' of a vetei'an, receiving a wound. His 
care and tenderness of the soldiers under liis 
command are remembered to this day with 
affection and gratitude by those who served 
under him. 

From the privations of war, and the de- 
bilitating effects of a southern climate, his 
health gave way, and he died, on his return 
home, at the house of Mr. Amis, on Drowning 
Creek, near the South Cai'olina line, on July 
29, 1779. 

He left several children, one of whom was 
the maternal grand-mother of the late Richard 
Hines, member from this district to the Nine- 
teenth Congress, (1825,-'27.) 

The Haywood familj^, one of the most num- 
erous, also one of the most distinguished in 
the state, had its first origin in North Caro- 
lina, in this county. 

For the genealogy of the Haywood family 
see appendix. 

This genealogical table was the work of 
much research, and is for the first time printed. 
It was compiled chiefly by the late Governor 
Henry T. Clarke, one of this numerous family, 
and may be useful in tracing lines of relation- 
ship that would otherwise be obliterated by 
time. Of the progenitor, John Haywood, lit- 
tle information of his life and services are 

Of his son, William Haywood, died 1779, 
we have more information. He was a mem- 

ber of the committee of safety for the Hali- 
fax district, 1775; a member of the provincial 
congress at Halifax, in April, 1776, also of 
the same bod^^ at the same place in November 
following, and was one of the cotumittee to 
form the state constitution, and by that body 
appointed one of the council of the state. " He 
was the father of ten childi'en, most of whom 
reai'ed families to usefulness and distinction. 
These, will be severally noticed in the coun- 
ties in which they resided. 

There are few families in the state with 
whom are connected names better known. 

Among them are two United States Sena- 
tors, William Haywood aiul George E. Bad- 
ger; three Governors, Dudlej', Clarke, and 
Manly; two Judges, Badger and John Hay- 
wood, the historian of Tennessee; four mem- 
bers of congress, William S. Ashe, E. B. Dud- 
lej^ Sion H. Rogers, and Thomas RufHii; army 
officers, General Junius Daniel, Colonel Wil- 
liam H. Bell ; navy officers, Admiral II. II. 
Bell; lawyers, Badger, Burgess, Hogg, McRae, 
Edward G. Haywood, and others. 

Thomas Blount v>'ho resided in this county, 
and represented this district in congress, and 
died while in congress, February 7th, 1812, 
has already been noticed. 

I Henry Toole Clark, born 1808, died April 
14th, 1874, son of Honorable James W. 
Clark, was born on his father's farm, " Wal- 
nut Creek," about nine miles above Tarboro, 
on the banks of Tar River. 

His eai'l^' education was conducted at a 
schoid in Tarboro, ke|it by George Phillips, and 
the Louisburg academy, and when only four- 
teen years old .heA\'as sent to the university at 
Chapel Hill. Among his class mates were Hon- 
orable Daniel M. Barringor, Rev. Samuel Ire- 
dell Johnstone, and others. At this time this 
venerable institution contained a body of young 
men unsurpassed at any period of Its liistoiy. 
Graham and Manly (both afterwards govern- 
or) Polk, and others, were on its rolls. 



After graduating in 182fi, he read law in 
Ealeigh under the guidance of his kind^man 
William 11. Haywood, jr., who was his nestor 
in politics, as well as in law. He was admitted 
to the bar, hut never praetieed, nor did he 
take much interest in polii.ics until 1850, when 
he was elected senator in the legislature from 
Edgecombe, and continued to occap\' this 
position without intei'missiou until 1861. In 
1858, ho was chosen speaker which he occupied 
until early in the summer of 1861, when he 
summoned to Raleigh, upon the illness of Gov- 
ernor Ellis, and on his death he became gover- 
nor of the state. This was a perilous period of 
our history and demanded tlie exercise of pru- 
dence and sagacity; Governor Clark discharged 
his duties to tlie best of his aliility. 

At the close of his administration he retired 
to his home, near Tarbor, where he was near 
being captured by a raid of Federal cavalry. 
He escaped, but his house was plundered, the 
jewelry and watches taken from the ladies 
of his family, and all the stores for their sup- 
port carried off or destroyed. 

After the war closed, Governor Clark was 
again elected to the senate (1866) under 
Johnson's reconstruction acts. This was his 
last pulilic servic.--. 

He had been for years the presiding justice 
of the peace for the county. 

During tlie whole course of his life he was 
a laborious and devoted student of the history 
of his state. As a local chronicler of the 
present, or a patient anticpiorian of the past, 
he was unijuestionab'e authority, recognized 
as sucli \>y all. It was for many years the 
earnest wish of his heart to have printed the 
early journals of the assembly and such docu- 
ments in theoflice of the secretary of the state, 
as illustrated the early history of our state, but 
in vain. A distinguished statesman of South 
Carolina, Waddy Thompson, was wont to say: 
" iSiorth Carolina has a proud and glorious 
revolutionary history, far superior to any of 

her sister states, but has had none since." It is 
because we have had so few like Governor 
Clark, who wish to preserve these precious 
memorials, and 

" Bequeath them 
As a rich legacy unto their issue '' 

There were few men in Xorth Carolina bet- 
ter posted as to her men, families and sections. 
Only a year or two before his death, he pro- 
posed to me to unite in a periodical, devoted 
to history and genealogj'. He left on bistable 
at the time of his death, a letter on this sub- 
ject to the Ilonoraljle Kemp P. Battle. 

We do not claim for Governor Clark the 
renown of the accomplished statesman, or the 
thrilling eloquence of the orator, but he was 
an honesi man, and always ecpial to anj- duty 
assigned to hitu by bis country; never above 
or below, but just erpial to the duties of his 

Simple and unaffected and unassuming in 
liis numners, modest in his demeanor, a gen- 
tleman by birth and education, as well as b}' 
di-sposition and nature; warm in his attach- 
ments and sincere in his friendships, he lived 
honored, respected, and trusted in life, and 
enjoying the esteem, respect, and regard of 
every one who knew him. 

He departed this life on April 14th, 1874. 
On the day of his burial all liusiness was sus- 
pended, and the town and surrounding coun- 
try united in the last tribute of respect to his 

He was married m February, 1850, to Mi's. 
Mary W. Hargrave, daughter of Theophilus 
Parker, who, with two sons and three daugh- 
ters survive him. Truly to him may be ap- 
plied the exquisite lines of Br^-ant: 

■' He so lived, that wheu the summous c luie to joia 
The iiinunierable caravan, that moves 
To that mysterious realm, where each shall take 
His chamber in the halls of death. 

Sustained and soothed 

By an unfaltering trust, he approaclied the grave, 
Like one that draws the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams." 



The Battle family, one of the most numerous 
and distinguished families of the state, had 
its origin in this count}'. Elisha Battle, the 
progenitor of the famil}', was born in Nanse- 
moud Countj', Virginia, January 9, 1723. He 
moved to Tar River, in this county, in 1748. 
About 1764 he joined the Baptists, was chosen 
deacon, and continued a consistent and zeal- 
ous member of this denomination until his 
death. Equally useful was he in the affairs of 
state; he was elected for twenty years suc- 
cessively to represent this county in the leg- 
islature; he was also a member of the provin- 
cial congress at Halifax, which formed the 
state constitution, and a member of the con- 
vention at Hillsboro, to deliberate upon the 
ratification of the Constitution of the United 
States. In 1742, he was married to Elizabeth 
Sumner; in 1799 (March 6th,) he died, leav- 
ing eight children. 

William Horn Battle, late one of the judges 
of the supreme and superior courts of North 
Carolina, was a native of this county, born 
October 17, 1802. He was the son of Joel 
Battle, and grandson of William, the fifth 
child of Elisha Battle, just mentioned. liis 
education was received at the university^ 
where he graduated in 1820, delivering the 
valedictory, then the prize of the scholar sec- 
ond in rank. This was no small distinction 
among such scholars as Bartholomew F. Moore, 
Bishop Otey, Charles G. Spaight, and others 
of that class. He read law with Judge Hen- 
derson, and was licensed to practice in 1824. 
From his modest and retiring demeanor, his 
success was but slow, and gave but little pro- 
mise of future eminence, and for years but 
few bi'iefs engaged his services. But he per- 
severed, and finally attained the highest hon- 
ors of his profession. This example should 
certainly afford encouragement to young and 
briefless lawyers. His time was occupied in 
constant study, and in laying deep and broad 
his knowledge of the law. He prepared a sec- 

ond edition of the first volume of Haywood's 
Reports, greatly enhanced in value by the ad- 
dition of notes showing the chatiges made in 
the course of forty years' legislation, and new 
decisions construing the law. This edition 
was received bj' the profession with great 
commendation, and gave Mr. Battle such a 
reputation that he was appointed b}' the gov- 
ernor, with other able jurists, to revise the 
statutes of the state. After the labor of three 
years, these "Revised Statutes" were submitted 
to the legislature for ratification, and adopted. 

Mr. Battle had been associated with Mr. 
Devereux as reporter of the decisions of the 
supreme court. On the resignation of his 
associate in 1839, Mr. Battle became the sole 
reporter. Tiie fidelity- and accuracy with 
which he discharged the duties of this post, 
won for him the approbation and applause of 
the profession on the bencli and at the bar, 
and, therefore, upon the resignation of Judge 
Toonier, lie was appointed by Governor Dud- 
ley, in August, 1840, one of the judges of the 
superior court, which appointment was con- 
firined at its next session by the legisla- 

In 1843 he removed to Chaiiel Hill, and in 
1845 was elected, by the trustess of the uni- 
versit}', Professor of Law, confej'ring upon him, 
at the same time, the degree of LL.I). On 
the death of Judge Daniel, he was appointed 
(May, 1848.) by Governor Graliam. one of the 
justices of tiie supreme court of the state, 
but this appointmenc was not coiiiirmed by 
tlie legislature, although, by the same body, 
upon the resignation of Honorable Augustus 
Moore, one of the judges of the superior 
court, he was elected to fill that vacancy. \He 
held this position for some time. In Decem- 
ber, 1852, he was elected by the legislature 
one of the justices of the supreme court. The 
circumstances, so gratifying and honorable, 
connected with this appointment are best ex- 
plained by the following correspondence: 



"City of Ealeigh, 

"House of Commons, 
"December 8rd, 1852. 

"Sir: The general assembly of the State of 
North Carolina, now in session, on yesterday, 
with an unanimity seldom equalled in the 
councils of the state, have elected you to the 
elevated position of jndge of the supreme 

"This will be doubtless unexpected to you, 
but we trust that it will be gratifying. It 
was done without any caucus or convention 
arrangement; but both of the great parties, 
now so equall} balanced in the legislature, 
have with patriotic unanimitj' thrown aside 
the shackles of party, and offer to your hands 
the highest office in their gift. 

"In the language of one of your distinguished 
compeers, we can say: 'To give a wholesome 
exposition of the law, to settle the Hiictna- 
ting and reconcile the seeming conflicting 
analogies of judicial decisions, to administer 
justice in the last resort with a steady hand 
and upright purpose,' are amriiig the highest 
civil functions that in our republic a citizen 
can be called upon to discharge. This post we 
now tender to you. In this case' the office bus 
sought the man, and not the man the office.' 
We sincerely hope that you will accept it. 

"With assurance of our personal regards f(ir 
your health and happiness, we are faithfully 
your friends, 

"Jno. H. Wheeler, J. G. MacDug.\ld, 
"Jno. Baxter, W. K. Martin, 

"A. M. Scales, H. Sherrill. 

"J. A. Waugh, R. a. Kussell, 

"C. H. Wiley, K. G. A. Love, 

"JosiAH Turner, jr., B. L. Duruaji, 
"W. J. Long. 

"To Hon. Wm. H. Battle, 

"Raleigh, N. C." 

"Chapel Hill, 

"December 10, 1852. 
"Gentlemen: Your note, directed to me at 
this place, informing me that the general as- 
sembly had elected me to the office of judge 
of the supreme court, and asking my accept- 
ance of it, did not find me here, for the 
reason that I had not then returned from my 
circuit. You are aware that upon my arrival 
in Ealeigh, on my way home, I addressed a 
communication to the honorable body, of 
which you are members, in which I signified 
my acceptance of the post which their partial- 
ity had assigned me. This would seem to 

render unneoessaiy any reply to your note, Imt 
the kind and friendly spirit which dictated it, 
and the highly complimentary term^ in which' 
it is couched, forbid my leaving it unuoticetl. 

"I do not pretend to be exempt from the 
amlDition of standing fair in the estinntion of 
my fellow-citizens, nor can I receive with in- 
difference any manifestation of their favor. I 
accept with a grateful heart the high and re- 
sponsible office which the}-, b}' their represen- 
tatives, liave conferred upon me I aeoopt it 
with a deeper feeling of gratitude because it 
was bestowed spontaneously and without dis- 
tinction of party. I know full well that its 
duties are of the gravest and most import-ant 
character, and that the successful pertormauce 
of them demands the highest attributes of 
the head and heart; attriljute-! which distin- 
guished and illustrated the official life of him 
whose vacant place I am now called uiion to 
occupy. I sometimes fear that I may luit be 
equal to the task which I have couseuted to 
assume. I might shrink from tlie attempt 
were I not cheered on b}' the refi',.H?tion that 
my labors for twelve years in a se:ircely L^s^ 
responsible position have been ai)proved by 
tlio present action of your honora'>lo body. 
With this animating reflection, an<l trusting in 
the beneficence of that Providence which has 
hitherto upheld and supported uio, I enter 
upon the discharge of the duties of m\- pres- 
ent office, determined to spend m3'self in the 
service of my native state, whit. h has so 
highly honored me. 

'•[''orthe kind and flatteringnianner in which 
you have thought proper to address me, please 
accept the assurances of my most grateful ac- 

"I am, with sincere regard, verj' truly yours, 
"William H. Battle. 

"To Messrs. 
"John II. Wheeler, J. G. MacDug.ald-,. 
"John Baxter, Wm. K. >Lvrtin, 

"Alfred M. Scales, H. Sherrill, 
"J. A. Waugh, R. A. Russell, 

"Calvin 11. Wiley, R. G. A. Love, 

"Josiah Turner, jr., B. L. Durham, 
"W. J. Long. 

"Raleigh, N. C." 

He held this high position until the civil 
war closed the courts, and in 1868 he returned 
to Raleigh. The space allowed for this sketch 
does not permit au}^ extended comments upon 
the judicial decisions of Judge Battle. He 


won, by long years of diligence and labor, a the professors in the United States Observa- 

reputation of the highest order for modest tory at Washington cit^',) Colonel W. L. 

merit, extensive learning, associated with a Saunders, Colonel Juni us B. "Wheeler, (Profes- 

fii-m and steady administration of justice. sor of Engineering at West Point.) Alexander 

His moi-al character was spotless; he was a Mclver, Hon. A. M. Waddell, Joseph A. En- 
consistent mendier of the Episcopal cliurch. glehard, William and Robert Bingham, and 
His death oc'anrred at Chapel Hill, March 14, many others. The classes of Mr. Battle were 
1879. He was married June 1, 1855, to Lucy, remarkable for their order, attention, and ap- 
second daughter of the late Kemp Plummer, a plication. He resigned this post in 1854, and 
distinguished lawyer of Warrenton ; she died having already been licensed, opened a law 
February 24, 1874, loved and appreciated by oflRco in Raleigh, and practiced with n^ich suc- 
all who knew her, for her accomplishments, cess. 

and virtues. The children of this distin- On the organization of the Bank of North 

guished couple are Di'. Joel J), (deceased,) Carolina, Mr. Battle, young as he was, was 

Susan C. (deceased,) Kemp Plummei', Dr. chosen one of the directors with such veteran 

William Horn, who married Miss Lindsay; financhTS as George W. Mordecai, George E. 

Richard Henry, married the daughter of Judge Badger, John H. Bryan, and others. Li 1860, 

Tbomas S. Ashe; Mary (deceased,) mariied lie was candidate for the legislature, and 

to WiUiam Van Wyck, of New York; Junius, failed of an election by three votes, 
killed at South Mountain, 1862; Lewis, killed In the stirring and exciting scenes that 

at Gettysburg, 1863. followed, Mr. Battle was for the Union, 

Kemp Plummer Battle, the eldest living and the President of the Union Club of 
son of Judge William Horn Battle, was born Wake. But when Lincoln called for men to 
near Louisburg, in Franklin County, Be- subjugate the south, he cast his fortunes with 
cember 19, 18-31. He was educated at the his state, and became a member of the con- 
best schools in the country, and graduated at vention of 1861, and with Mi-. Badger and the 
tbe university in 1849, receiving the first dis- other members, signed the ordinance of seces- 
tinction in all his studies. His companions in sion He united with the conservative party 
these honors were Peter M. Hale and T. J in electing Governor Vance by a hirge nuyor- 
Robiiison. Mr. Battle w:is nuide tutor of ity, and during the whole war was the warm 
Latin and Greek immediately after graduat- supporter of his ureasures. 
ing; and after serving in that capacity' for one In 1866, ho became a candidate for treasurer 
session, he was chosen tutor of mathematics, of the state, at the request of Governor 
This position he held for four 3'ears, during Worth, iind was almost unaniniouslj^ elected, 
the palmiest daj's of this ancient and renowned His of&cial reports are considered models of 
institution. He seems peculiarly fitted by na- financial abilitj-, conciseness and accuracy. He 
tare and education for this occupation; his shared the fortunes of the conservative party 
mind is clear and discriiiiinating, cultivated to with Governor Woith and other otHcials, and 
a high degree, apt to learn, and patient in im- was deprived of his othce in Julj-, 1868, l)y the 
parting instruction, kind and generous in bis nuindate of military power. This is the last 
temper, he had much success as a tutor. This post of political preferment which .Mr. Battle 
is evinced by his training to usefulness such held, nor was he sorry to quit the excitement 
minds as those of W. L. BeRossett, DuBrutz and contests of such a life, since they were not 
Cutlar, Major A. W. Lawrence, (Lite one of germane to his tastes, although he discharged 


the duties devolving upon liim witli talent 1742, had eight children, to-wit: Sarah. .John, 

and fidelitj-. Elizabeth, Elisha, William, Denipse}-, Jacob 

But the great mission of his life is the res- and Jethro. 

toration of the university of the state. It is his I. Sarah married (first ) .Jacob Plilliard, and 

«<»!«?/ia^e?' in very truth, from -which he imbibed had Elizabeth Ilil'.iard, (who married Wni. 

tjie knowledge and usefulness he had taught in Fort, and had Sarah who w;is married to 

her halls, and to build up the broken walls of Orren Battle;) also .Jacob, James, Mary and 

this literary Zion, he has devoted his time, all .Jeremiah; and to Sarah and Jacob llilliard 

his attention, and his private fortune. He was were also born .Jereiiiiali, who married Xancy 

elected a trnstee of the university in 18'32,and ililliard. Sarah also mai-ried (second) Henry 

served on the executive committee until 1868; Horn, and had Piet\', Charity, who married 

he 'made an elaborate and exhaustive report of Burwell Bunn, to whom were born Jeremiah, 

a plan to reorganize the universit}'. This William, Henrj' and Celia Bunn, who was 

plan was not completed in consequence of a married (first) to Sugg, and (second) Doctor 

change in the board, but when the appoint- Fort; to Sarah and Henry Horn were born 

ment of trustees became vested in the legis- (their last child) Henry. 

lature, he was elected one of the trustees, and 11. .John (died 1796,) marrierl Frances 
at the first meeting of the board was unani- Davis, to whom were born .Mary, married to 
mously chosen secretary and treasurer. J-Iere Allen Andrews, to whom were born Elizabeth 
was a field of labor demanding constant exer- Andrews, married to .John Cotten; .John mar- 
tion, nnflincbing zeal, and intelligence. All ried Miss Pope and .Jesse married Miss Battle. 
kinds of legal obstructions presented them- HI. Elizabeth married to .Josiah Crudnp. 
selves, and the destitution of all financial member of Congress, 1821,-'23, to whiun were 
measures seemed to render the missi(;n well born George, married J^eah Ellis; Josiidi mar- 
nigh hopeless. But Mr. Battle seemed a very ried Ann Da\'is, who had Mai-tha, Archibald 
Hercules in this work, and threw himself with Davis, Jaiiies, Edward, Alston, and Cullen 
such devotion into the cause, that success married Miss .Jones; to Elizabeth and .Josiah 
smiled on his eiforts. The payment of inter- Crudup wei'e born two more childr^'n, Chloe, 
est on the land scrip by the state, his elo- (married Joseph I>. Lee, their daughter Eliza- 
queiit appeals to the Alumni and others for beth married Cullen Andrews,) and Bethesda 
aid, the attendance of a goodly number of man-ied to Fowler. 

pupils, prove his work to have been successful. IV. Elisha Battle, -Junior, born 1749, mar- 
He is now the president of the university, ried Mary, daughter of Benjamin Bunn, had 
and we trust, under his guidance and his able Amelia, married Ross, Doctor Jeremiah, died 
corps of co-adjutors, its usefulness and fame 1824, William married Lamond, Jesse mar- 
will rival its former renown. Mr. Battle mar- ried Vick, Bennett married Hinton, and Sarah 
ried, in 18.55, Martha, daughter of James S. married Andrews. 

Battle. Three of his sons have been students in V. William,, died 1781, married Charity 

the classes of the university — the fourth gener- Horn, had Isaac, married Mary; Ann married 

ation of this family who have joined this in- Ross, (to whom were born William, James B.,. 

stitution. and Charity who married Hines;) .Joel born 

The genealogy of the Battle family: 1779, died 1829, mari'ied Mary, daughter of 

Elisha Battle, born January 9, 172-3, died Amos Johnson. These last had Laura married 

March 6^ 1799, married Elizabeth Sumner to Phillips, Susan married to McKee, Christo- 



pher Ciilumbus, Benjamin Dossey, Catherine, 
married Doctor Lewis, Richacd, Amos John- 
son, and William Horn, (see his sketch for 
his descendants.) 

VI. Dempsey, born 1758, died 1857, married 
Jane Andrews, had Amelia, married to Cuth- 
bert of Georgia, Andrews married Duggan, 
Callen married (tirst) Elizabetli, daughter of 
Jacob Battle, and (second) Jane Lamon. 

VII. Jacol), born 1774, died 1814, married 

Mi's. Edwards, had Marmaduke, Elizabeth, 

married in (1802) to Doctor Callen Battle; 
Cullen, Thomas, Lucy, .James S., born 1786, 
died 1854, married (first) Tempy Battle, and 
(second) Harriet Westray; to James S., were 
born xvlarniaduke, William S., married 
Dancy, Tniner Westray married daughter of 
Judge Daniel; Cornelia married John S. Dan- 
cy; Mary E. married (first) to W. F. Dancy, 
(second) to Dr. N. J. Pittman, Martha married 
to Kemp P. Battle, and Penelope married to 
W. R. Cox. 

VTII. Jethi'O married Martha Lane, died 
181-3, had Joseph S., married (first) Dunn, 
(second) Horn, to whom was born Temper- 
ance, married to Marriott; H. L. Battle, Dr. 
Ja.mes, John, George, Mary Ann married 
Bridgei's, Marcus and Martha; to Jetliro and 
Martha Battle was also born Orren, married 
Eort, and moved to Tennessee; and Alfred, 
who had Jethro: this Jethro died in the Mex- 
ican war; James L., Mary married to Tillory; 
Elizabeth married to Fort. 

The aljove table is from a geneological 
paper drawn by Governor Henry T. Clark, and 
may therefore be relied upon as being accu- 

Louis Dickson Wilson, born 1789, died Au- 
gust 12, 1847, was born, raised and lived in 
.this county. 

His education was not classical. He was 
placed in a counting-house, and became a 
.student of men rather than of books. He was 
.successful in business. From 1815 to 1846, he 

was member of either one or the other 
branches of the legislature. 

He was a member of that distinguished con- 
vention of 1835, to amend the constitution of 
the state. The meed of exalted statesmanship, 
or of brilliant eloquence, or of deep philoso- 
phical research, cannot be claimed for. him. 
Yet he was honest in his principles, and sin- 
cere in his convictions, and a laborious and 
useful man, rather than pretentious or showy, 
but of great popularity. 

After more than thirty years in the civil 
service of his state, in the war between the 
United States and Mexico, he joined the army, 
and as captain of the line, and marched to the 
seat of war. Without any application or 
knowledge on his part, he was made colonel of 
the twelfth regiment of infantry. While su- 
perintending a forward movement of this 
regiment from Vera Cruz, the visissitudes of 
war, the dangerous climate, with the weight 
of three score years, proved too nmch for his 
constitution. He was seized with the fever 
of the country, and died on Ma,y 12, 1847. 

He was never married. By his will his 
patrimonial estate, (land and slaves,) was be- 
queathed to his next of kin, (a nephew and a 
neice.) and the residue, about §40,000, to the 
poor of Edgecon)be County. 

The county court of Edgecombe has ordered 
the erection of an appropriate asylum as one 
of the first investments of the fund. 

This noble charity, as also the erection of a 
county called after his name, perpetuates his 
life long services in the councils of the state, 
and his lamented death, leading the columns 
of his troops to subdue the enemies of his 
country will keep his memory ever fresh in the 
heart of every .North Carolinian. The end of 
his life was just as he could have wished it: 

" Whether on the scaffold high, 
Or in the battle's van, 
The place for man to die. 
Is when man dies for man." 

The brilliant eulogium pronounced by Gov- 



eriior Brogden in con2;ress, in memory of Gen- 
eral Wilson, was worth}' of the theme. 

" Louis D. AVilson was one of nature's no- 
blemen, and his sympathies was ever on the 
side of justice and humanity. 

" He was a man of strict integrity' of charac- 
ter, a friend of the poor and needy, and pos- 
sessed many of the best traits and qualities of 
human nature. He was atfable and social in 
his manner, the embodiment of patriotism and 
the soul of honor. 

" Studiouslj' neat in his person, he was a 
favorite in all circles; he won the sobriquet 
for years of the Chesterfield of the senate." 

Duncan Laniond Clinch, born 1798, died 
1849, late brigadier-general in the United 
States army, was a native of this count}'. 

He was the son of Joseph Clinch, by a 
daughter of Duncan Laniond, a colonel in the 
revolutionary war, and a terror to the tories — 
one of these he hung in Nash County. 

General Clinch had attained the rank of a 
brigadier-general. When the Seminole war 
broke out in Florida, in 1835, he was in com- 
mand of that district, and at the battle of 
Oiiithlecooche (December 31st, 1835,) dis- 
[ilayed the most intrepid coui'age. Pie re- 
signed his commission the next j^ear, and from 
1843 to 1845, was a member of congress from 

He married a Miss Mcintosh. ' He died at 
Macon, Georgia. November 27th, 1849, leaving 
several children; one of his daughters married 
General Robert Anderson, of Fort Sumter 
fame. A son, John Houston Mcintosh Clinch, 
graduated at the university in 1844, in the 
same class with William A. Blount, Joseph 
M. Graham, Philemon B. Hawkins, Thomas 
Ruffin, and others. 

Another son, with his father's name, gradu- 
ated at the same university in 1847, in the 
same class with James J. Rettigrew, John 
i'ool, Matthew W. Ransom, and others. 

The genealogy of this family is comiected 
with that of tlie Bellamy's, which see. 

William Dorsey Pender was a native and 
resident of this county. He was educated at 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point. One of the earliest and most enthusi- 
astic in the cause he deemed just, he was made. 
May 27, 1861, colonel of sixth regiment of 
North Carolina troops, and such were his ser- 
vices that he soon became a brigadier general. 
He was universally regarded as one of the 
bravest and most efficient officers in the arm\-. 
General A. P. Hill pronounced him " one of 
the best officers of his grade he ever knew." 

General Lee, in his report on the Pennsjd- 
vania campaign, dated July 31, 1863, thus 

" General Pender has since died. This 
lamented officer has borne a distinguished part 
in every engagement of this army, and was 
wounded on several occasions, v.'hile leading 
his command ■with conspicuous gallantry and 
ability. The confidence and admiration in- 
spired by his courage and capacit}- as an officer, 
were onl}' equalled by the esteem and respect 
entertained, by all with whom he was associat- 
ed, for the noble qualities of his modest and 
unassuming character." 

Universally lamented and loved, he fell on 
the blood}' field of Gettysburg, and his remains 
now lie in the cemetery of Calvary church in 

An appropriate memorial window erected 
by his brother, Mr. David Pender, bears this 

'■ 111 Memoriam, 

I have fought a good flght; I have kept the faith " 

iSlajor General William Dorsey Pender, 

born Febiuary 6th, 1834, died July 18th, 1863. 

His name, so dear to every patriot, has been 
preserved by calling a county after him, and 
causes his gallantry and patriotism to be 
cherished in oar hearts. 

The battle of Gettysburg, enduring the first 
three days in July, 1863, was the bloodiest en- 
counter of the whole war, and proved the 
Waterloo of the unhappy contest. For here 
the flag of the confederacy fell never to rise 



again. Especially did the loss fall on North in all the battles fought by this noble army of 
Carolina, for here thousands of lier bravest, Northern Virginia, until the curtain fell at 
noblest sons found a soldier's grave. Not Appomattox, on the bloody drama. 
only did General Pender, full of gallantry and After the war, Major Englehard resumed the 
spirit, but Colonel Isaac E. Avery, J. K. Mar- practice of the law at Tarboro, and in addition 
shal also fell in this battle, General Pettigrew to his professional duties, exercised those of the 
was wounded, a few days afterwards, died, clerk and master in equity. 
General Scales, Colonel Lowe, and others of Repurchased, in 1865, James Fulton's in- 
equal merit, were wounded. Of the ten terest in the Wilmington Journal, and became 
thousand men lost by the confederates, the the successor, from March, 1866, of that able 
larger portion were North Carolinians. Of editor, and so became a citizen of Wilmington, 
Colonel Burgwyn's command, who was killed, , then wielding a powerful influence throughout 
(the Twenty-sixth North Carolina regiment,) the state. 

five hundred and forty were killed out of 
eight hundred. The heavy loss of the union 
army could be easily replaced, but the great 
gaps in the confederate ranks could never 
be closed aeain. 

In June, 1876, he was nominated at Raleigh, 
by the democratic state convention for secre- 
tary of state. He entered witli energy and 
ability into the canvass. He stood before the 
people almost every day, and with a po^ver of 

In reply to a recent letter of General Scales elocution rarel}' surpassed, and an oratory irre- 
and Captain J. J. Davis, Colonel John B. sistable, so urged the cause that, on Novem- 

Bachelder has given a graphic aceonnt of this 
desperate conflict, which, v.'ith the diagrams, 
affords an intelligible and reliable account. 

Joseph A. Englehard, the onlj' son of Ed- 
ward Englehard, was born at Monticello, Mis- 
sissippi, September 27, 1832. 

He was an educated man and graduated at 
the University of North Carolina, with the 
first honors, in 1854, in the same class with 
William L. Saunders, and others, fle then 
studied law at the Harvard law school, and 
w^ith Judge Battle; in 1856 he was licensed to 
practice. He settled at Tarboro, where he 

her 7, the whole ticket was elected, and he 
the first in the number of votes received. 

He performed all the duties of his position 
with satisfaction and intelligence, established 
order out of chaos, and system from confusion. 

Major Englehard was a devoted friend 
to the cause of ediication. He delivered 
the Alumni address at the universitj', where 
his sen had recently graduated. But this 
usefulness was soon to end, and after a short ill- 
ness he died on February 3 5, 1879, at the 
Yarboro House, Raleigh. His death was the 
regret of his friends, and an irremediable loss 

had married in 1855, Margaret, daughter of to the state. 

John W. Gotten. 

Pie entered the army in May, 1861, as captain 
and quarter-master of the thirty-third regi- 
ment, and the next year he was promoted to 
quarter-master of General Branch's brigade, 
with the rank of major. He was transferred in 
December, 1862, to Pender's brigade and be- 
came adjutant-general, and in May following 
he was made adjutant-general of Pender's, 
afterwards Wilcox's division, and participated 

Robert Rufus Bridgers, is a native of this 
county. He was born on Town Creek, No- 
vember 2-3, 1819. 

His early education was conducted by Ben- 
jamin Sumner, and finished at the university 
in 1841, when he graduated in the same class 
with Governor Ellis, Samuel F. and Dv. 
Charles Phillips, Judge Clarke, William F. 
Dancj', John F. Hoke, and others. To receive 
honors in such a class was no light praise. 



He read law, while pursuing his collegiate 
studies, with Governor Swain, and was licensed 
by the supreme court to practice the week 
after he graduated, and soon entered upon an 
extensive and lucrative practice. He entered 
the legislatui'e in 1844, and was re-elected in 
1856,-'58 and '60, 

After the state joined the confederacy, he 
was elected a member of the confederate con- 

gress, and was an active, useful, and able 

After the war he was elected president of 
the Wilmington and Weldon railroad com- 
pauy, and is distinguished for the abilitj' and 
iidelity with which he manages this important 

He married Miss Margaret Johnston and 
has an interesting family. 


This county presents the name of Colonel 
Benjamin Forsythe, a native of this section, 
who fell in battle in the war of 1812. He 
resided at Germantown, was a native of 
Stokes, and represented that county in the 
legislature in 1807 and '08. He received a 
lieutenant's commission, April 2.3, 1S08, in the 
regular army, and marched to Canada. In 
September, 1812, he crossed at Cape Vincent, 
attacked the British, and routed them. Pie 
took many prisoners and much ammunition and 
stores, vv'ith the loss of only one man. 

" In February following, he left Ogdensburg, 
and crossed at Morrist own, surprised the Brit- 
ish, and took lifty-two prisoners, among them 
a major, three captains and two lieutenants, 
without the loss of a man."* In 1813, he was 
distinguished at the capture of Fort George, 
Upper Canada. 

For his gallant conduct he was rapidly pro- 
moted, and attained the rank of colonel. 

On June 28, 1814, General Smyth formed a 
plan for ambuscading the British near Odel- 
tovvn. Colonel Forsythe liad ordurs to make 

♦Kiles Kegister, III.. 408. 

the attack and then retreat; so as to draw the 
enemy into the snare. He made the attack, but 
instead of falling back as prdfu-ed, his personal 
courage tempted him to m^e a stand on the 
road within fifteen rods of the enemy. In 
this exposed and perilous position he received 
a fatal wound, which broke his collar lione. 
He fell, mortally wounded, exclaiming with 
his last breath: " Bo^'s, rush on!" He was the 
only person killed; several were wounded. The 
enemy lost seventeen killed. His loss was uni- 
versally lamented, and he Avas buried the next 
day with the honors of war. 

By his intrepid courage and his fearless dar- 
ing, he became the idol of his troops, and the 
terror of the enemy. He was one of the best 
partisan officers that ever lived. t 

The legislature of North Carolina, in 1817, 
with patriotic philanthrophy, adopted the 
only son of Colonel Forsythe, and the only 
daughter of Captain Blakely, of the nav}', as 
children of the state, and made provision for 
their education at the public expense. James 

tSee Gardiner's Diet, of tlie Army; Drake's Biogra- 
phy Sketclies; Niles' Register, ill., 48. 


N. Forsythe, the son, entered the freshman with the command of Captain George MofFett, 

class at the nniversity in 182i, and subse- (making sixty men altogether.) they pursued a 

quentlj', with the acquiescence of Governor party of Indians between Forts Young and 

Burton, he was appointed a midshipman in the Dinwiddle, and were drawn into an ambuscade 

United States navy. He was on board the on September 30, 1763. They were fired on 

sloop of war, the Hornet, which was lost at from both sides of the trail, but maintained 

sea.* the fight for a considerable time; at length 

The county seat of Forsyth preserves the the}- were overpowered by numbers and were 

name of Joseph Winston. forced to give away, scattering as best they 

He was born June 17, 1746, in Louisa County, could. Several were killed; young Winston 
Virginia; a branch of the family, originally had his horse killed under him and was him- 
from Yorkshire, England, settled in Wales, - self twice wounded in the body and through 
and thence migrated to Virginia, where, says the thigh, making him u'ell nigh helpless. 
Alexander IT. Everett, they were the most He managed, however, to conceal himself un- 
distinguished in the colony. til the Indians had gone in pursuit of the 

"Two hundred years ago," says the bio- fugitives, when a comrade fortunately came 
graphical sketch of William Winston Seaton, to his aid, carried him upon his back for three 
(of the firm of Gales & Seaton,) "five broth- days, living upon wild roseberries, until at 
ers, Winston, from Winston Hall, Yorkshii-e, length they reached a friendly frontier cabin. 
England, gentlemen of fortune and famil}', Although he in time recovered, yet the ball 
emigrated to the colony of Virginia. These in his bociy was never extracted, and occasion- 
brothers were men of comely statue and ap- ally caused him exquisite pain, 
pearauce. They settled in Hanover County, Early trained to arms, for he was in Brad- 
stocking Virginia with a stalwart and pro- dock's defeat in 1755; in the revolution he 
phetic race, extending to Kentucky, Mis- was the early and devoted friend to the canse 
sissippi, and North Carolina, in which states, of independance, and co-operated with the 
to this day, they are noted for their fine patriots of that period in the meetings of the 
personal appearance." " The family of Win- people. 

stons," says Mr. Sparks, '• was among the most In 1769 we find that Joseph Winston and 

distinguished of the colony, and the genius others petitioned the Virginia authorities for 

and eloquence of Patrick Henry may be sup- a grant of 10,000 acres of land on the south 

posed to have been transmitted through this side of tlie Guj'andotte river; failing in this^ 

liue, from which he descended." The fiery he emigrated to North Carolina, and settled 

spirit " in words that breathed and thoughts on the town fork of the Dan, in that part of 

that burned," lighted the flame of liberty in tlie state, now Forsyth County. In 1775, he 

the hearts of his countrymen and relations, -^yag .^ member of the Hillsboro convention. 

Among them his cousin, Joseph Winston, who which met on August 21, 1775, and erected a 

won renown by his military career. provisional form of government for the state, 

Joseph Winston received a fair education, all hopes of reconciliation with the Royal 

but at the age of seventeen, joined a com- government having been ended. The sword 

pany of rangers, under Captain Phelps, who ^as drawn and the scabbard thrown away. In 

marched from Louisa County to Jackson February, 1776, he was in the expedition 

river, on the then frontiers, where, uniting- against the Scotch tories on Cross creek. In 

*MSS. letter of Governor Swain. this year he was created ranger of Surry 



Oouijty,and major of militia, serving in Rnth- 
erfoi'd's expedition against the Cherokee 
Indians. In 1777, he was a member of the 
House of Commons fi'om Suri'y, and with 
Waightstill Avery, William Sharpa and Rob- 
ert Lanier, placed upon that commission 
which made a treaty with the Cherokees 
at Long Island on the Holston, a treaty 
made without an oath and yet one that has 
never been violated. In 1780, he served 
with Colonel Davidson in pursuit of Br3'an's 
tories, and was with Cleaveland in his move- 
ments against the loyalists on New River; he 
was in a skirmish on the Alamance, and com- 
manded a portion of the right wing at King's 
mountain, October 9, 1780. 

At King's mountain he was a major of the 
North Carolina line, serving with Colonels 
McDowell and Cleaveland. The battle was 
fierce and bloody, in which tlie Americans 
drove the British and tories from their lofty 
position, whence their commander, Colonel 
Patrick Ferguson, had impiously declaimed 
'' that God Almighty could not drive them." 

In the plan of battle adopted by the colonels 
present on that occasion, Winston's battalion 
had to make a lengthy detonr of the mountain 
from a point at the junction of King's Creek, 
and the Quarry Road, and thence to move to 
the east side of the battle field and so reacli a 
point where his men were to move up the 
mountain's side, and make part of the " wall 
of fire " around Ferguson. The several corps 
were put in motion for the posts they were 
assigned in the day's operation. Both the 
right and left wings were somewhat longer in 
reaching their designated positions than had 
been expected. Win^jton's party had marched 
about a mile, when they reached a very steep 
ascent, which they took to be the point where 
they were to move up to the enenjy's lines. 
Some men came in view and directed them to 
distuount and proceed, as being at the point of 
attack assigned them, but before they had gone 

two-hundred paces they were again hailed and 
shown their true line of march, and were then 
assured they were yet a mile from their posi- 
tion in the alignment for the battle. Thej' 
then ran down the declivity with great pre- 
cipitation to their horses, and mounting them, 
rode, like so many fox-hunters, at almost a 
break-neck speed, through rough woods and 
brambles, leaping branches and crossing ridges, 
without any guide who had a personal knowl- 
edge of the country. They soon came upon 
the enemy, and, as if directed by the Provi- 
dence itself, at the very jwint of their intend- 
ed destination, where they did great havoc in 
that bloody fray.* In a few minute- the 
action became general and severe, continuing 
furiously for three-fourtlis of an hour, when 
the enemy being driven from the east to the 
west end of the mountain, surrendered at dis- 
cretion. Ferguson was killed with two hun- 
dred and six oi bis officers and men, and eight 
hundi'cd and ninety-nine of the British were 
captured. The Americans had eiglity -eight 
killed and wounded. •' The whole mountain 
was covered with smoke and seemed to thun- 
der." For his distinguished services on that 
day the legislature of the state voted Joseph 
Winston an elegant sword. 

Colonel John Campbell, of Abington, in pre- 
paring his '■' Memoir of the Militairy Transac- 
tions of West Virginia," says: 

"In the unique affair of King's Mountain, 
Colonel Winston played a conspicuous part. 
He led the right wing on this ' Bunker Hill of 
the south,' and contributed greatly to that 
momentous victory, of which the battle of 
Cowpens, Guilford, and the surrender of Corn- 
wallis at Yorktown, were the" direct conse- 

Mr. Jefferson, in a letter now before me, says: 
" he remembered well the deep and grateful 
impression made by that memorable victory. 
It was the joyful enunciation of the first turn 

*Wheeler's History of North CaroUna, II., 106. 


of the tide of success that ended the war with sister, who had a babe a month old, called to 

tlie seal of our independence." visit the mother, and proposed to adopt one 

In Febriiaiy, 1781, he led a party against a of the trio, and thus each would practically have 
band of tories, had a running fight with them, a set of twins to rear. Mrs. AVinston regarded 
killed some and dispersed the residue; he then the proposition favorably, and, as she sat up in 
joined General Greene with one hundred rifle- bed, carefully examined all three to determine 
men, and took part in the battle of Guilford which to part with and which to keep for her 
Court House, March 15, 1781; in which, al- own; at length she exclaimed: " I cannot, for 
thougl) Lord Cornwallis held the battle field, my life, decide; you cannot have either of 
yet his losses %vere so great, and the shock he them, sister! As God has given them to me, 
received so severe, that he afterward avoided He will give me strength to nurse them !" 
' battle, wliich before he so anxiously sought. And so He did, all of them lived and were 
Crippled and wounded, he retired to Wil- well educated. One of them became a raajor- 
mington, drew his slow length along, hoping general, another a judge, whilst the third be- 
to meet Arnold, if not Clinton, but from the came a state senator and lieutenant-governor 
effects of his barren victory at Guilford, he of Mississippi; a brother of these triplets, who 
never recovered, and tiually was compelled to remained in North Carolina, fought in the war 
suri'ender at Yorktown, October 19, 1781. of 1812, became a major-general and a member 

In 1793 and in 1803, Joseph Winston was a of the legislature, 
member of congress, In 1800, he was a presi- Israel G. Law, born 1810, died 1878, at 

dential elector, voting for Jefferson, and again Bethania, (then in Stokes,) worked on a 

in 1812, voting for Madison. farm till manhood, and then engaged in mer- 

For three terms he represented Surry chandizing, manufacturing, and banking, in 

County in the state senate, and when Stokes all of which he was eminently successful. He 

County was erected, he was appointed lieuten- was, in 1847, president of the branch bank of 

ant-colonel, and for five terms represented Cape Fear, at Salem, and at the close of the 

that county in the state senate, between 1790 war, obtained a charter for the First Xational 

arid 1812; in was during this last service that Bank at Salem. 


he was presented with the sword for military He was a member of the state convention in 

services in 1780,-'81 The county seat of For- 1865, with Judge Starbuck, and of the Fortieth 

syth county derives its name from him. lie and Forty-first Congress, 1867 to '71. 

is its patron saint. He was a man of large wealth, and well 

He was a man of stately form, old school known as a sagacious financier. He died 

manners, and of a commanding presence. His April 7th, 1878. 

home was within the lofty mountains of Stokes AVe should do injustice to the truth of his- 

und Surry, whose " cloud capt summits seemed tory to make no reference to the Moravians, 

■within a squirrel's jump of heaven." Here he located in this county. 

died April 21, 1815, leaving m;iny worthj' de- "There is not," says Williamson, "a more 

oendants. He was the uncle of William AVin- industrious and temperate body of people than 

ston Seaton,of the Naiiomd Intelligencer, Wash- the Moravians, who live between the Dan and 

•ington city. Yadkin Rivers." 

Dr. Draper, in his "King's Mountain In 1749, the British Parliament passed an 

Heroes," adds the following incident: He left act by which the Unitas Fratum, was acknovvl- 

thi'ee sons, Ijornat a single birth. A married edged as a Protestant Episcopial Church. By 



this act, the free exercise of all their rights as 
a church was secured throughout England 
and her colonies, which riglit was denied to 
them in other countries. Hence it was de- 
sirable to make settlements, where this libert}' 
of conscience could be enjoyed. Offers of 
land were made from various quarters; but 
the most acceptable was that of Lord Gran- 
ville, the owner of large possessions in North 

The Lord Proprietors, under charter of Charles 
II., (March 24th, 1663,) on account of the 
expenses incident to a distant colony, and 
the small revenue derived, in 1729, surren- 
dered their claims to the Crown, receiving 
in return £2,500 sterling each; only Lord Gran- 
ville retained his eighth part, which was laid 
off for him in 1743. He continued to receive 
rents, and have his agent and land office 
until the revolution. In the present century 
his heir brought suit in the circuit court of 
the Uuited States to assert his rights. Mr. 
Gaston was his counsel. The suit went on 
appeal to the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and there was dismissed for want of 
an appeal bond.* 

Lord Granville offered to Count Zinjsendorff 
100,000 acres on reasonable terms. At a con- 
ference of the brethren, held in London, ISTo- 
vemlier 29, 1751, the otfer was accepted, and 
on August 9, 1753, John, Earl of Granville, 
conveyed the title to a tract lying in the 
forks of Gargalee, or Muddy Creek, Rowan 
County, to James HutLon,of London, Secre- 
tary of the Unitas Frntrurn. By the repeated 
divisions of Rowan, this tract has been suc- 
cessively in Rowan county; in 1770, in Surry; 
in 1789, in Stokes; and in 1848, in Forsyth. 

An agent was sent out (Bishop Spangen- 
berg,) in 1752, who, with Churton, the Sur- 
vey or General and Agent of Lord Granville, 
after enduring incredible suffering and many 
privations, reached the Wachovia tract, so 

*Svvain's Lecture on the Regulations; Mooro I., 71, 

called from ( Wa:h, the principal creek; and luic 
meadow,) and made the survey. In 1782, 
the legislature of North Carolina vested "in 
F. W. Marshal, and his heirs and assigns 
forever, the Wachovia tract, and all the lands 
in North Carolina acquired by the brethren. 
Of the thirty thousand Germans who left their 
native land for the far west, eighteen thou- 
sand eventually settled in North Carolina. 
The colony of Moravians suffered all the trials 
and tribulations incident to a settlement in a 
new country. Their salt was brought from Vir- 
ginia; and the first bee hive, (an emblem of 
their industry,) from Tar River. The Indians 
for a while committed depredations and mur- 
ders. The war of the Regulation, and tiiat of 
the revolution brought many troubles to these 
peaceful and industrious non combatants. Hos- 
tile troops ravaged their fields and plundered 
their property. Bat the mild character of 
their people, their peaceful and indiistiious 
lives, their patient labor, and indefatigable 
industry triumphed eventually. In 1791, 
they were visited by Ge:ieral Wasiiington, 
and the brethren of Wachovia addressed him 
a note of welcome, to which he responded as 

'• To the United Brethren of Wachovia : 

"Gentlemen: I am greatly indebted to your 
respectful and affectionate expression of per- 
sonal regard, and I am not less obliged by the 
patriotic sentiment contained in your address. 

" From a society whose governing principles 
are industry and love of order, much may be 
expected towards the improvement and pros- 
perity of the country, in which tiiese oi,ttle- 
ments arc formed; and experience authorizes 
the belief that much will be attained. 

"Thanking you with grateful sincerity 
for your prayers in my behalf, I desire to 
assure you of my best wishes for your 
social and individual happiness. 

" George Washington." 

Bishop Ravenscroft, in his letters, describes 

* The Moravians: Tor this valual^le information "we 
are indebted to the worli of Rev. Levin T. Keicliel, of 
Salem, N. C, published in 1857. 



at great length, a visit he made in August, 1827 
to this benignant settlement, how cheerfully he 
was received, communed with the cliurch, and 
received with greatest cordiality and brotherly 
greeting. " 

The great feature of usefulness, and the 
most enduring monument of the society is the 
Salem Female Academy. The ancients were 
accustomed to inaugurate their rulers on the 
banks of a pure stream, hoping that their rule, 
like the pel acid stream, would refresh and 
fructify the' Avhole land by its benign influ- 
ences. So has this institution for nearly three- 
fourths of a century sent forth living streams 
of virtue and beautj' to delight, purify, and 
invigorate our land. It was established in 
1804, therefore it is one of the oldest literary 
institutions in the south, and is held in grate- 
ful remembrance by many Christian mothers 
who here received their elementary education 
and the holy impressions of eternal truth, and 
•had the satisfaction of seeing their daughters 
and grand-daughters, educated at the same 
place, connected with such pleasing and useful 
I'emembrances of their earlier days. 

The first pupils connected with the Salem 
academy, from Hillsboro,were Elizabeth Strud- 

wick, Ann and Elizabeth Kirkland, and Mary 

We have not been favored with any recent • 
statistics of this academy, but up to 1856 there 
had been three thousand four-hundred and 
seventy scholars entered; and in evidence of 
the healthfulness of the place, only twelve had 
died while at school. 

The founders and the principals, (all are 
Moravians,) have rendered this service to the 
country. They may well rejoice in their work, 
and feel 

"The warrior's name I 

'Tho pealed and chimed on every tongue of fame, 
Sounds les^ liarmouious to the grateful mind. 
Than he who fashions and improves mankind " 

Thomas Johnson Wilson, is a native of this 
county, born December 31, 181.5. Studied 
law, and was licensed 1874; elected solicitor 
of Stokes and of Davidson Counties. He was 
a member of the convention, 1861, and advo- 
cated the propriet}^ of submitting the question 
of secession to the people. 

He was elected in 1874, judge of the eighth 
judicial circuit, and held the courts for six- 
months until the supreme court decided that 
his [iredecessor, Judge Cloud, was entitled to 
hold over. 


-»— -t-®^ 


The origin of Ijmehlaw : During the revo- 
lution there was a noted tory, (and there were 
but few,) in that portion formerly called Bute 
Count}', now embraced within the counties of 
■Franklin and Nash, called Major Beard. 
Major John H. Drake lived near Hilliardston ; 
he and his family were decided whigs. He 

had a daughter, beautiful and accomplished, 
by whose charms Beard was captivated; and 
the tradition runs, that tho handsome figure and 
conmianding air of Beard had its effect on the 
young lady, notwithstanding the differerice in 
politics between him and her father. On one 
occasion, Beard encamped for the night near 



a mill on Swift Creek. This became known 
to Major Drake and other whisj^s, and they or- 
ganized a force to capture him. They came 
upon the tories early in the morning while at 
breakfast, surprised and dispersed them in 
great confusion; they leaving their breakfast 
and horses. The whigs pursued them with great 
earnestness. Britton Drake, brother of the 
young lady, of powerful frame and strength, 
armed with a rifle led the chase, and came sud- 
denly on Beard, who was hid behind some 
small pines. He did not move until Drake, 
who was not aware of his position came right 
upon him. Beard was armed only with a 
sword; he sprang upon Drake, who was too 
near and closely pursued to, shoot. lie club- 
bed his rifle and felled Beard to tlie ground; 
and as Drake thought he was dead, for he was 
senseless, Drake left him for dead and went in 
pursuit of other fugitives. When the pursuit 
was over, he returned to the -place of rencounter 
with Beard, and found that he. was not dead. 
After some consultation it was resolved to 
take him as a prisoner to headquarters of 
Colonel Seawell, commanding in camp at a 
ford on Lynch Creek, in Franklin County, 
about twenty miles off. He was tied on his 
horse and carried under guard. After reach- 
ing camp, it was determined to organize a 
court-martial, and try him for his life. But 
before proceeding to trial, a report came that 
a strong body of tories were in pursuit to res- 
cue him; thi.s created a panic, for they knew 
his popularity and power, so they hung him. 
The reported pursuit proved a false alarm, and 
it being suggested that as tlie sentence had been 
inflicted, before tlie judgment of the court had 
been pronounced therefore it was illegal. The 
b :)(h' \va8then taken down, the court reortran- 
ized, he was tried, craidemned, and re-hung by 
the neck until he was dead. 

*The Hon. B. F. Moore communicated the afore- 
going tradition to me, lie received it from the Uralce 

The tree on which he was hung stood not 
far from Rocky Ford, on Lj^nch's Creek; and 
it became a saying in Franklin, when a per- 
son committed any offence of magnitude, that 
" he ought to be taken to Lynch Creek;" and so 
the word " Lynch law " became a fixture in 
the English language.* 

Joseph J. Davis was born and bred in Frank- 
lin County. He is the sou of Jonathan Davis, 
and his wife, Maiy Butler; was born in 1828. 

His early education was conducted by John 
B. Bobbib, and finished at Wake Forest Col- 
lege. He received the degree of batchelor of 
law, at the university in 1850, and after re- 
ceiving a license to practice, settled in Oxford. 
In 1852, he moved to Louisburg. In 1866, he 
was elected to the legislature, receiving everv 
vote in the count}-. AVhen the civil war began 
he entered the army as captain of the forty- 
seventh regiment, commanded by the late 
Sion H. Rogers. His company was ordered to 
New Berne, where he received his "first bap- 
tism of fire," at Banrington's Ferry; and 
again at Blount's Creek. At the bloody bat- 
tle of Gettysbury, his regiment v\'as in the 
heaviest of the tight, and Captain Davis was 
wounded and taken a prisoner; he was confined 
at Fort Delaware and at Johnson's Island for 
twenty months, during this period, the curtain 
fell on the scene of war and he was discharged 
on i^arole. He returned home and resumed 
his profession. 

He was selected as one of the electors in 
1868, on the Seymour and Blair ticket, and was 
nominated in 1874, and triumphantly elected 
to congress; again in 1876, and again in 1S7S. 
He married Kate, the daughter of Robert J. 
Shaw, and has an interesting family. 

We might say much of Mr. Davis' course in 
congress, but this speaks for itself. No one 
was more attentive and faithful, and earnestly 
esteemed by all who knew him. Much to the 
loss of the nation and the regrets of his associ- 
ates, he declined a re-nomination to congress. 



Thomas Person, who died in November, 
1799, at the home of his sister, Mrs. Tom Tay- 
lor, in Franklin Count}', was a native of Gran- 
ville. He was distinguished for his enter- 
prise, his devotion to the cause of liberty, the 
foe of oppression, and the friend of the down 
trodden and persecuted. 

He sympathized deeply with the Regula- 
tors, suffering from the oppressive measures of 
the public officers. I find in the journals of 
the Colonial Assembly in the Public Records, 
in London, as follows: 

"1770, December 6, Mr. Husbands presented 
a petition of the in habitants of Orange 
County, complaining of sundry grievances; 
and praying for relief. 

"' Mr. Person presented a petition from the 
inhabitants of Bute County, complaining of 
the many exhorbitant and oppressive meas- 
ures practiced by the public officers."* 

For this independent course General Per- 
son received severe treatment from General 
Tryon; and was for a time confined in prison, 
and at other times in prison bounds or on his 
parole. When on parole, he boarded at the 
house of Rev, Mr. Micklejohn, who preached 
in Hillsboro. Soon after the battle of Ala- 
mance, six of the Regulators were hanged 
by order of Tryon, in sight of the Court 

At one time his life was in eminent peril 
from the choleric Tryon, who in 1771 issued 
his proclamation oft'ering pardon to those who 
would come in and fake the oath of allegiance 
to the King, except Thomas Person, and some 

The reverend divine, on one occasion, in 
regard to his prisoner, is said to have dodged 
the truth, or clearl_y equivocated. It Avas 
suspected that the general had broken his parole 
by passing the bounds of Hillsboro. In fact he 
had much money and bonds at his home at 
Goshen, exposed to marauders and thieves. 

* Colonial Documents, 180. '■ 

With the connivance of his friend, at night, 
he mounted his fleet mare, rode to Goshen, 
secured his valuables in a brick kiln, and re- 
turned by dawn of day to Hillsboro. The 
officers of Tryon demanded of the parson: 
"If Gen eral Person had not left his prison 
bonds the night before." " I supped and break- 
fasted witli the general," was the delphic 

The University Magazine, IV., 250, says: 

" A faithful biographical sketch of the Rev- 
erend George Micklejohn is greatly to be de- 
sired. He resided in Hillsboro before and 
many years after the revolution. On the first 
attempt at organization of the university' in 
1794, he among others was named for the presi 

Bishop Meade in his work" Old Churches, 
Ministers and Families in Virginia " states that 
" the successor of the Reverend John Cameron, 
(father of Judge Duncan Cameron) as the 
rector of Cumberland Parish in Virginia, at 
his death 1815, was the Reverend John Mickle- 
john, but not as the regular minister. He 
was then at an advanced age, and probably 
died there." 

But severe as his trials were, General Per- 
son was ready to take up arms in 1774, for 
the cause of the people and against the pow- 
ers of royalty. 

He was a member from Granville, in 1774, 
of the first colonial assembly that niet at New 
Berne, in open defiance of the royal governor. 
He was also a member of the provincial con- 
gress that met at Halifax, April 15, 1776, and 
again on November 12th following^ which 
body formed the constitution, and with Cor- 
nelius Harnett and others was appointed one 
of the council of state. This proves the confi- 
dence entertained for his patriotism and in- 

He was elected to the first legislature under 
the constitution (1777,) and continued in the 
service of the people, enjoying their regard 



and confidence till the day of his death. He 
was a surveyor by profession and was an ex- 
tensive land owner. His deeds covered 70,- 
000 acres. He gave largely to the university, 
and a hall called by his name bears testimony 
to his alnlity. He gave his friend, who had 
stood by him in his troubles, Parson Alickle- 
john, his " Goshen place" in Granville, where 
ho lived, which is called to this day "the 

General Person was never married. He 
left two sisters, one of whom, Martha, married 
Major Thomas Taylor, in Franklin, at whose 
house he died; and Mary, who married George 
Littlejandone brother, William. He adopted 
William P. Little, his sister's child, when only 

two years old, and educated him at Sprig's 
college near Willianisboro,in Granville County, 
where John Ha^'wood, Sherwood Haywood and 
Robert Goodloe Harper,* were educated. 

He died in 1799, and was buried at Personton . 
in Warren County, five miles from Littleton. 

Judge Henderson, of our supreme court, 
always spoke of General Person with the 
fondest affection, (and acted as his counsel, 
wrote his will, which was, however, not found 
after his death,) and often declared that "he 
was one of nature's noblemen." His services 
and his sufferings demand our respect, and his 
patriotism our gratitude. His memor}^ is very 
aiDpropriatelj' preserved by calling one of the 
best counties of the state after his uame.f 


The character and services of Rev. Hum- 
phrey Hunter, boi'ii 1755, deserves a place in 
our record and reniembrances,as a true christian 
and a patriotic citizen. " He was a native of 
Ireland and a man of letters," born near Lon- 
donderry; he combined in his character all the 
elements of that Scotch-Irish character, so 
conspicuous a type in our struggles for liberty. 
W-'itli a widowed mother he came to America 
and settled near Poplar Tent, then Mecklen- 
burg County, and here he was I'aised. When 
the orders were offered for a convention, at 
Charlotte, which met on May 19 and 20, 1775, 
he attended, and his testimony is clear on the 
subject of the celebrated declaration of inde- 
pendence at that time and place. He soon 
after enlisted as a private in a corps of cav- 
alry, commanded by Charles Polk, and served 

with credit and honor. He also served in a 
campaign against the Indians, under Colonel 
Robert Mebaiie. He also served as lieutenant 
in Captain Given's company, under General 
Rutherford, and was in the battle of Camden, 
(August, 1780,) where he was taken prisoner. 
After some time spent in confinement, he es- 
caped and returned home. After remaining at 
his mother's residence afew daj^sheagain joined 
the army, under General Greene, as a lieuten- 
ant under Colonel Hour}' Lee, and was 
wounded in the severe battle of Eutaw 

* Mr. Harper acquired great distinction in after 
life. There is a tradition that he was born in this state, 
and many have so stated. Dr. Hawlis and Mr. Drake 
think differently. 

tXhe sketch, meagre as it is, is collated from the 
journals of the colonial assembly in London, our own 
legislative journals, and from a recent article in the 
lialeigh Observer. 



Springs. This closed liis military career. He 
returned home and renewed his classical 
studies. In 1787, he graduated at Mount Zion 
College, in Winnsboro, Sonth Carolina. He 
then studied theology, under the care of the 
presbytry of South Carolina, and was licensed 
to practice. In the first year.s his services 
were confined to South Carolina. In 1805, 
he accepted a call from the Steel Creek 
church, in Mecklenburg County, and here he 
labored successfully and acceptably for many 
yearS; and there he died on August 21, 1827, 
in the peaceful hope of a glorious immortality. 
He left several children, one of whom, Dr. C. 
L. Hunter, is distinguished as an author and a 
gentleman. He lies in the church yard of 
Steel Creek church, and on his tombstone is 
recorded the inscription: 

" Sacred to the memory of the Reverend Humphrey 
Hunter, who departed this life August 21, 1827, in the 
73d year of his age. He Avas a native of Irel ud and 
emigrated to America at an early period of his life. He 
was one of those who early promoted the cause of lib- 
erty in Mecklenberg County, May 20. 1775, and subse- 
quently bore an active part in securing the independ- 
ence of his country. For nearly thirty-eight years he 
labored as a faithful and assiduous enilmssador of 
Christ, strenously urging the necessity of repentance, 
and pointing out the terms of salvation. As a parent, 
he was kind and affectionate; as a friend, warm and 
sincere; as a minister, persuasive and convincing. " 

On the heights of King's Mountain, in the 
southern part of this county, stands a plain 
headstone bearing these words: 

" Sacred to the memory of Major William Chronicle, 
Captain William Mattocks, William Rabb, and John 
Boyd, who were killed here fighting in defense of 
America, on the 7th of October, 1780 '' 

William Chronicle lived near Ai'mstrong's 
ford, on the south fork of the Catawba river. 
His mother was first married to a Mr. McKee, 
and by this marriage she had one son, the late 
James McKee, who was a soldier of the revo- 
lution, and the ancestor of several families of 
that name in this neighborhood. After his 
death she married Mr. Chronicle, by v/hom 
she had an only son, the gallant soldier of 
King's Mountain. The universal testimony of 
all who knew Major Chronicle is, that he was 

an intrepid soldier and an earnest advocate of 
liberty. His first appearance in the v.^ar was 
in South Carolina in 1779, after the fall of 
Savannah. In the fall of 1780, a call was made 
for a regiment from Lincoln, (then Tryon 
County,) to repel the enemy marching from the 
south, and flushed with victory. Of this regi- 
ment William Graham was colonel, Frederick 
Hambright, lieutenant-colonel, William Chron- 
icle, major. Major Chronicle was peculiarly 
fitted for the life of a soldier. Brave to a 
fault, energetic in movement, and calm in 

Colonel Graham, on account of illness, was 
not at the battle of King's Mountain, and the 
conmiand of the regiment devolved on Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Hambright and Major Chroni- 
cle. Onward brave men marched with 
their leaders, and approached within gunshot 
of the enemy, when a volley was fii'ed l)y the 
enemy, who then i-etreated. The l^rave 
Chi'onicle fell, pierced through the heart by a 
rifle ball. At the same time fell Captain 
Mattocks, William Rabb, and John Boyd. 

This battle of King's Mountain, from its lo- 
cation and other causes, has never had the 
important place in history that it deserves_ 
"There is no diflicultj in_j:leclaring, that if 
Ferguson had jiot_ fallen at- -King's Jylountain, 
*-'5J'Il^^Ill?--3'5'J3JiL_iioi . liaye „suiTencler8d at 
Yorktown. It was the pivot on which the 
revolutionary war in the south turned."* It 
is in many respects, the most important, the 
most glorious battle_fought in the great con- 
test for liberty. It was fought on our side 
exclusively by volunteers, without the pres- 
ence or advice of a single regular officer. It 
was won by raw militia, never before under 
fire, over trained troops, commanded by a vet- 
eran officer of approved and desperate courage, 
who had no superior in the English arnn-. 

Frederick Hambright, born 1740, died 
1817, was also one of the gallant heroes of 

""Univeisity Magazine, February, 1858, VII., p. 245. 



King's Mountain. He was a native of Ger- 
many; emigrated to America in 1727, and 
finally settled on Long Creek, then in Tryon 
County, wliere he lived when the battle of 
King's Mountain took place. He early em- 
barked in the cause of independence; in 1777, 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and was 
throughout the war an active and fearless offi- 
cer. At the battle of King's Mouritain, 
Colon_el William Graham, who had command 
of the Lincoln regiment, on account of sick- 
ness in his family', was ab sent , and the com- 
mand devolved upon Colonel Hambright. 
Nobly did he sustain this perilous charge; in 
the conflict he was severely wounded by a 
large rifle ball passing through his thigh; but 
he refused to leave the field, and continued 
encouraging his men, he led them to battle 
and to victory. The effects of this wound 
caused him to falter in his walk, during the 
remainder of his life. 

He was twice married, and left a large 
family to emulate his patriotic example. He 
died in 1817, and was buried at Shiloh, in the 
limits of the pr esent c ounty of Cleaveland. 
His tombstone bears this inscription: 

•' In memory of Colonel Frederick Hambright, who 
departed tins life March, 1S17, in the 90th year of his 

Robert Hall Morrison, D.D., resides at Cot- 
tage Home, near the line between Gaston and 
Lincoln Counties. 

He was educated at the university and grad- 
uated in 1818, in the same class with James K. 

Polk, Robert Donaldson, William D. Mosely, 
Hamilton C.Jones, Hugh Waddell, and others. 
He studied for the ministry, and has spent a 
life long service in this holy calling. 
• He has had the charge of several Presbyterian 
churches in the state; has been president of the 
Davidson college, and until recently the loved 
and venerated pastor of Unity church, near 
Beattie's Ford. It has been my privilege to 
sit for many years under the teachings of this 
most excellent man. I can saj' that I never 
more trul}- felt the influence of religious 
truth and its importance, than as it fell from 
his lips, as also the force of the example of one 

" Whose doctrine and whose life 

Co-incident exhibit lucid proof. 
That he is honest in tUe sacred cause.'' 

He is now near the close of a long and well 
spent life; possessing the esteem of all who 
know him. 

He married Mary, the third daughter of 
General Jose[)h Graham,* by wliom he had 
several children: 

I. Isabella, married to General D. H. Hill. 

II. Ann, married to General T. J. Jackson 

III. Margaret, married to James Erwin. 

IV. Eugenia, married to General Rufus Bar- 

V. Joseph, married to Miss Davis. 

VI. Alfred. 

VII. Laura, married to John L. Brown. 

VIII. Robert. 

IX. Susan, married to Alphonzo C. Avery. 


AViLiiiAJi Paul Roberts is a native of this moted to a captaincy, and in a short time, al- 

county, born July 11, 1841. though the junior captain, was made )najor; 

His occupation is that of a farmer, but his war and in that same year was promoted to a col- 
record is brilliant. Entering the army in June, onelcy. In the next year, 1865, he was commis- 
1861, as a non-commissioned officer in the sec- sioned brigadier, then only in his twenty- 
ond North Carolina cavalry, he was soon pro- ^~ ^^Qge geueaology, see Lincoln County. 


fourth j'ear, the youngest brigadier in the ser- leading a retired life. But in 1875 his 
vice. His brigade was one of the best ]<:nown friends and admirers elected him to the consti- 
and most highly appreciated in the army of tutional convention, and in 187G he was elected 
iS^ortheri! Virginia. a member of the house. Here his services were 
After the war closed, General Roberts, lil^e so appreciated that the state democratic con- 
Cincinnatus, went to tlie plough and sought veotion in 1880, without his knowledge or con- 
repose in the peaceful pursuits of agriculture, sent, nominated him as auditor of the state. 


John Tenn, born 1741, died 1788, one of John Williams, who lived and died in this 

the signers of the declaration of independence county, was a native of Hanover County, Vir- 

of July 4th, 1776, lived and died in this ginia. In April, 1770, while attending court 

count}-. He was born in Caroline County, at Hillsboro, he was set on hv the regulators, 

Virginia, the onlj^ son of Moses I'enn and and severely beaten by them. His early edu- 

Caroline, his wife, who was the daughter " of cation was neglected, as he was raised to the 

John Taylor of Caroline," distinguished as a trade of a house carpenter. But he possessed 

politician and a political writer. His father strong native sense, and was chosen one of 

died whilst he was only a youth, and his educa- the first judges, in 1777, with Samuel Spencer 

tion was defective. He read law with Ed- and John Ashe as associates. He was elected a 

mund Pendleton, and displayed much genius member of the continental congress in 1778, 

and eloquence. He moved in 1774 to Granville, and died in October, 1799. 

and the next j'ear succeeded Richard Caswell The Hicks family were distinguished among 

as a delegate to the continental congress at those worthj' of remembrance in Granville. 

Pliiladelpbia, which sat from 1775 to 1780. Captain Robert Hicks lived about a mile 

He was appointed receiver of public taxes for from Oxford, in 1770. 

JN'orth Carolina by Robert Morris. This posi- The family is English, and settled in BVook- 

tion he soon resigned. He died September, Ij'ii, New York, iii the locality now known as 

1788. Hicks street. The family was distinguished 

James Williams, who fell in battle at King's in England for its courage and ability, and 

Mountain on October 7, 1780, was a native of one of them was knighted for his deeds of 

Granville County. He moved (1773) to Laurens daring. 

district. South Carolina; became active in Robert Hicks entered the revolutionary 
the partisan warfare in chat state, and dis- army, and was in the battle of Guilford, 
tinguished himself in the battle of Musgrove with the North Carolina militia, where these 
Mill. After that engagement he went to I'aw and undisciplined troops were i:)laced by 
Hillsboro, where he raised a troop of cavalry. General Greene in the front line, and there, 
and returned to South Carolina. He fell at overwhelmed by the British, fled; young 
King's Mountain, at the same moment that Hicks stood his ground, and fought single 
the leader of the British forces was slain, and handed, until nearly surrounded, and after his 
was buried on the battle field.* men had gone a considerable distance, he then 
escaped and shared, during the remainder of 

*Lossing; University Magazine, VII., 245. the war, its dangers and its glori^ -> 



.He died suddeiily of a disease of the heart, 
and left a large family, some of whom still 
live in G-ranviUe. 

Oiie of his sons is a professor of a medical 
college in New Orleans, and another moved to 
Arkansas, another, Dr. John R. Hicks, one of 
the best and purest of men, died not long 
since, near Wiliiamsboro in this county. The 
old homestead is now owned b\ a colored man, 
whose wife once belonged to one of Captain 
Hicks daughters. Her husband now owns the 
home from which her young mistress went 
3'ears ago as a bride. How strange is the rev- 
olution of time and circumstance! 

Captain Benjamin Norwood, like Robert 
Hicks, was one of the revolutionary heroes of 
Granville. On the approach of Cornwallis he 
recruited a company, and was present in the 
battle of Guilford, and, like Captain Hicks, 
behaved with great personal gallantry. He 
fought for some time after his men had 
ingloriously fled. The conduct of these two 
patriots should condone the conduct of their 
. men, who unused to the pomp, pride and cir- 
cumstance of war, utterly undisci[ilined, were 
opposed from the first to regular veterans. 
Captain Norwood did good service in the war, 
and died lamented and loved. He had two 
brotliers who lived in other portions of the 
state. One in Lenoir,. Ca.ldwell County, and 
the other in Orange. His wife was a sister of 
Governor Aiken, of South Carolina, and Mrs. 
Cicero W. Harris, of Wilmington, is one of his 

Robert Burton, born 1747, died 1825, lived 
and died in this county. He was born in 
Mecklenburg County, Virginia, and moved 
to Granville about 1775; here he was appointed 
an officer in the army. He was a member of 
the Continental Congress, 1787, and one of the 
commissioners to run the line between North 
Carolina and South Carolina in 1801, and 

He was distinguished as a successful farmer. 

He married the only daughter of Judge 
Williams, and died in 1825, leaving nine chil- 
dren surviving, among whom were the Burtons 
of Lincoln, (Hon. Robert H. Burton and A. 
M. Burton.) 

The Henderson familj^ has been long 
favorably known in North C^iroliiia as one of 
distinguished ability. Its name has been in- 
scribed on a count}', on a town, and on a 
village; the talents of its members have been 
displayed at the bar, in the pulpit, on the 
bench, and in the halls of congress. The 
progenitor of this family in North Carolina was 
Richard Henderson, who came from Han-', 
over count}', Virginia, about 1762, and settled 
in this county. 

I found in the Roll's office, London, among 
the records of the Board of Trade, these en- 

"1769, March 1st. At a meeting of the 
Council; present. Governor Tryon, John Ruth- 
erford, Benjamin Heron, Lewis Be Rosett 
and Samuel Strudwick. 

"Richard Henderson, Esq., was appointed 
Associate Judge, &c., as also Maurice Moore, 
Esq." * * * j^,[p_ Henderson, Governor 
Tryon reports, "is a gentlemaii of candor and 
ability, born in Virginia, and lives in Hills- 
boro, where he is highly esteemed. The Gov- 
ernor stated that he wished to have appointed 
to these two places, Mr. Edmund Fanning 
and Mr. Marmaduke Jones, but they de- 
clined ." 

I found among the papers of the Board of 
Trade, on file in the Rolls Office, London, a 
letter from Judge Hentlerson to Governor 
Tryon, dated September 24th, 1770, at Hi lls- 
boro, stating, "on that day, Herman Husbands, 
James Hunter, William Butler, Ninian Bell 
Hamilton, Jeremiah Fields, Matthew Hamil- 
ton, Eli Branson, Peter Craven, John Fruit, 
Abraham Teague, and Samuel Parks, armed 
with cudgels and cowskin whips, broke up the 
court and attempted to strike the judge, (Hen- 
derson,) and made him leave the bench. They 
assaulted and beat John Williams severely. 





and also Edmund Fanninsc, until he retreated 
into the store of Messrs. Johnstone and Thack- 
ston; thej' demolished Fanning's house. Not 
only were these beaten, but Thomas Hart, 
John Luttrel, (clerk of the crown.) and many 
otliers, were severely whipped." 

Another entry, January 25th, 1771, ordered 
that Richard Henderson, who appeared as 
prosecutor of the several charges against 
Thomas Person, should pay all costs. 

Another rec{jrd : "Proclamation of Governor 
Martin, dated February 10th, 1775, issued as 
governor and as agent and attorney of Lord 
Granville, forliidding Richard Henderson 
from purchasing or holding any lands from the 
Cherokee Indians." 

Extracted from Governor Martin's dispatch; 
"■I enclose a copy of Lord Dunmore's procla- 
mation, also Richard Henderson's plan of set- 
tlement of a large tract of land on the waters 
of the Kentuck}', the Cumberland, the Ohio, 
and the Tennessee." 

These extracts prove the enterprise and 
character of Judge Henderson, under the royal 
rule. After independence had been declared, 
and the state government organized and es- 
tablished in North Carolina, he was elected 
one of three judges of the court, which he de- 
clined td accept, or resigned in a few months. 
The chief reason that caused this, was that 
Judge Henderson ^yas at that time the chief 
manager of the " Transjdvania Land Com- 
pany." He and his associates had bought, for 
a fair consideration, of the Cherokee Indians, 
who had offered their lands for sale, a rich 
tract of countr;/, in which was embraced a 
considerable portion of Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. The treaty by which this purchase was 
made was concluded in 1775, on the AVatauga 
river, at which Daniel Boone was present. 
The stsites of Virginia and North Carolina de- 
clared this void. 

His associates in this transactions were John 
Williams, Leonard Henly Bullock, of Gran- 

ville, William Johnston, James Hogg, Thomas 
Hart, of Orange. 

The company took possession of these lands 
on April 20th, 1775. 

The Governor of North Carolina, (Martin,) 
by proclamation, declared this purchase ille- 
gal; the state of Virginia did the same, and 
the state of Tennessee claimed these lauds; 
but the states of North Carolina and Virginia 
each subsequently granted to the company 
200,000 acres as remuneration. 

In 1779, Judge Henderson was appointed 
with Oroondates Davis, John Williams, of Cas- 
well, James Kerr, and William Baily Smith, 
to run the line between Virginia and North 
Carolina into Powell's Valley. 

The same year he opened a land office at 
the French Lick, (now Nashville,) for the sale 
of the companj''s lands. 

Judge Henderson had several brothers, the 
youngest of whom was Major Pleasant Hen- 
derson. He was born in 1750, and served in 
the war of the revolution. In 1789, he suc- 
ceeded John Haywood, as clerk of the House 
of Commons, which position he held for forty 
years, continuously. He married. (1786,) a 
daughter of Colonel James Martin, of Stokes 
County, and settled at Chapel Hill, where he 
resided for many years, and reared a large 
family. He moved .in 18-31 to Tennessee, 
where he died in 1842, in the Both year of his 
age, leaving Dr. Pleasant Henderson, of Salis- 
bury, born 1802; Dr. Alexander Martin Hen- 
derson, horn 1807; Mrs. Hamilton C. Jones, 
of Rowan County. 

Judge Henderson married Elizabeth Keel- 
ing, a step-daughter of Judge Williams, and 
had six chilclren. 

I. Fanny, born 176-t; married to Judge 
Spruce McCay, of Salisbury. 

II. Richard, born July, 1766. 

III. Archibald, born 1768. 

IV. Elizabeth, bora 1770; married William 
Lee Alexander. 


V. Leo!iard, born 1778. . his element. It was in the profession of the 

VI. John LawsoUjboni 1770. law thut he attained his matchless reputation, 
Judge Richard Henderson returned honie and was pronounced by one qualified tojudge:* 

from Tennessee in 1780, and surrounded by "The most pei-fect model of a lawyer the l)ar 

peace and plenty, esteemed and loved by all of North Carolina has ever produced." 

who knew him, he departed this life on Janu- "He contributed, " says Judge Murphey, 

ary 30, 1786. " more to give dignity to the profession than 

His ihiughters, intelligent and accomplished, any lawyer since the daj^s of General Davie, 

married men of ability and high reputation, and Alfred Moore." 

Each of his sons studied the profession of the He looked, as did Hooker, " with reverence 

law, ill which their father was distinguished, on tlie science of the law," for with him, he 

and tlie\- did Jiis name no dishonor. thought, that " her voice was the harmony of 

Richard Henderson, first son of Richard, was the world and her seat the bosom of God." By 

highl}- educated, gr:i(luated at universit}' in the teachings of the law, men are taught the 

1804, read law, and gave every promise of dis- great lessons of ol)edience to rules and rever- 

tinction; but he died at an early age. enee for their administration. No one under- 

Archibald Henderson, b irn 1768, died 1822, stood this better than did Archibald Hender- 

the sec.>nd son of Richard and Eliz.foeth son, and in his practice no one more studiously 

Keeling, lived and died in Salisbiuy; and was observed it. Mr. Henderson has often said 

the acknowledged head of the profession in that he knew " but few men fitted for the 

Western North Carolina. He v/as educated bench. He had known many good lawyei-s, Imt 

at the schools and academies of the county, few good judges." The qualifications requisite 

lor his name does not appear among the gradu- for a good judge, are rarely combined. Many 

ates of tlie university. He studied law with esteem legal learning, the first qualification, 

his relati\'e, Judge Williams, and settled in Mr, Henderson thouglit strong common sense, 

Salisbury. He was a nieniber of the House of the Jii'st qualification; an intimate knowledge 

Commons from Salisbury, in 1807 to 1809, 1814, of men, particularly of the middle or lower 

1815,1819, 1820, and a member of coiigi'ess classes, their passions and jjrejudices, modes of 

from 1799 to 1803. These were e.xciting thoughts, was the swo??d; good moral character, 

times ill congress. Onr limits do not allow us subdued feelings, without prejudice or par- 

to detail the exciting questions of that day, tiality, was the i/i/cci; independence and energy 

but one may be alluded to. For the first time of will tha fourth, and legal learning the last." 

in our history the election of piesident de- Lord Mansfield gave this advice to a brave 

volvcd on the bouse of representatives, and old admiral, who, for his gallantry and services, 

the foundations of our republic were severely had been appointed a judge by the crown, to 

tested. Mr. Henderson, with William Barry some distant point, and at once went to him, 

GroN'e, Joseph Dickson, William H. Hill to procure some law l)ooks to qualify himself, 

voted for Aaron Burr, whilst Willis Alston, " You do not need any such aid," said Lord 

Nathaniel Macon, Richard Stanford, Richard Mansfield. "Go to your post; hear both 

Dobbs Spaight, David Stone, and Robert Wil- sides patiently, and then decide with energy 

Hams, supported Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Hen- imd firmness, according to your own views; but 

derson was a decided federalist, and was able Ri^'t^ few or no reasons for your opinion." 

and eloquent But, alth... ugh he shone as '-a It has been said that one of the best at- 

biight, peculiar star " in politics, this was not ^Mge A. D. Miu-phey. 



torney -generals the state ever had, never the circuit courts, was established to be held 

opened a law book until he had been appointed. 1)3' the same judges twice a year, at Rnleigh, 

By his marriage with Sarah, daughter of Wil- in the intervals of the ridings of the superior 

liam Alexander, and the sister of Governor courts, this was called the court of confer- 

Nathanial Alexander, Mr. Henderson had ence. Two vacancies occurred, occasioned by 

Archibald and Mrs. Boyden, the relict of the death of Judge McCay and the elevation -, 

Honorable Nathaniel Boyden; he died October of Judge Stone to the office of governor; to 

21, 1822, and in the Lutheran church yard, in one of these Mr. Hender.son was elected. He 

Salisbury, an appropriate monument marks his discharged the duties of judge in a manner 

grave, erected by the members of the bar. highly creditable to himself and satisfactory 

Leonard Henderson, born 1772, died August to the public for eight years, then he resigned, 

\_^ 12, 1883, was the third son of Richard and doubtless because of the laborious duties and 

~^"^'" Elizabeth Keely; he was not the least talented, meagre compensation received, only §1,600 a 

and in many respects the most distinguished, year was paid. 

even more than his able brother, of whom In 1810, the legislature, ap[ireciating the evils 
we have just written. He was born Octo- of this judicial sj'steni, and the inadequate 
her 6, 1772, on Nutbush Creek, in Granville compensation to the judges, organized the pre- 
County. He lost his father when a youth, sent supreme court, with its present powers 
and his mother survived her husband only and more liberal salaries. On December 12, 
live 3'ears. It is stated, as an evidence of the 1818, John Hall, Leonard Henderson and John 
simplicity and frugality, as well as of the in- Lonis Taylor were elected to this bench, 
dustry, of the matrons of that dajs that his These were the right n)en in the i-ight place, 
mother taught her sons, as well as her daught- It was peculiar}' the sphere in which Judge 
ers, to card and spin. Henderson was destined to achieve his great 
The early education of Judge Leonard Hen- reputation. He possessed unquestionably 
derson was obtained in the country schools, genius of the highest order; above all he had 
He read the Latin and Greek classics under an honest as well as a strong mind. Ilis 
the Reverend Mr. Patillo, a Presbyterian knowledge of the great principles of jurispru- 
elergyman, who married a sister of Robert dence was deep and clear, in all his opinions 
Goodloe Harper, and with this limited stock of a search for tlie truth seemed to be the pre- 
learning, which was as much as his finances dominant idea. He was impatient when he 
would allow, he commenced the stud}- of the found himself opposed by precedents, Avhich 
law with his relative, Judge John Williams, to his mind were not supported by principle, 
whose sister his paternal grandfather had His maxim was " inveirimn out faciam vium," 
married. After his admission to the bar he held, that is, if he could not find a straight, clear 
for several years, the place of clerk of the dis- path, leading to truth, he would mnke one. 
) trict court at Hillsboro, a position of much " This," says Judge Battle, who was his pupil 
dignity and emolument. At this time, the and friend, and from whose admirable mem- 
state was divided into few districts, and in oir, I extract these memoranda, " was tlie only 
each district court was held twice a year. In fault he had as a judge." He had for years a 
1806, this s^'stem was abolished, and a su- law school where many listened with pleasure 
perior court was held in each county twice a and profit to his lucid and learned teachings. In 
year; these were divided into six circuits. A early life his mind had been tinctured with 
court of appellate jurisdiction, distinct from infidelity, but a short time before his death 


3 83 

he professed a belief in Jesus, as the saviour of 
sinners. He died at his residence near Wil- 
liamsboro, in Aus^ust 13, 1833. A widow, nee 
Farrar, a niece of Judge WilUianis, and five 
children survived him. 

L Archibald Erskiue, (since dead,) married 
Anne, daughter of Richard Bullock. 

II. Dr. William Farrar Henderson, married 
Agnes Hare, of Williamsboro. 

III. John Henderson, died unmarried. 

IV. Fanny, married Dr. William V. Taylor, 
who lived in Memphis. 

V. Luc}', married Dr, Richard Sneed. 
John Lawson Henderson, son of Richard 

and Elizabeth, born 1778, died about 1844, 
was the youngest son, iind if equally gifted as 
his distinguished brothers, acquired less fame 
as a lawyer and statesman, although more 
liberally educated. He graduated at the uni- 
versity in 1800, in the same class with Wil- 
liam ChtuMW, senator from Bertie. lie studied 
law, but from his retiring temper, modest 
demeanor and indolent dis['Osition,he did not 
succeed in the practice. He was blessed with 
a clear, discriminating mind, high and gene- 
rous impulses. 

He represented Salisbury in the House of 
Commons, 1816,-'16,-'23, and "24. 

In 1827, he was elected the comptroller of 
the state, and subsequently, the clerk of the 
supreme court, in which office he died, at Ra- 
leigh, 1844. He was never married. 

Robert Ballard Gilliam, born 1805, died Oc- 
tober 17, 1870, was born, lived and died in 
Granville County. 

He was the son of Leslie Gilliam, who was 
a worthy and respectable citizen, and for a long- 
time the sheriff of this county. 

He was liberally educated, and graduated 
at the university in 1823, in the same class 
with Daniel W. Courts, George F. Davidson, 
Isaac Hall, Richmond M. Pearson, Alfred M- 
Scales, and otliers. He read law, and com- 
menced I he practice at a bar composed of gen- 

tlemen of great power and eloquence. Among 
these were the late Chief Justices Ruffin and 
Nash, Governor Iredell, George E. Badger, 
Willie P. Mangum, Samuel Hillman, William 
H. Haywood, Hugh Waddell, and others. In 
this galaxy of talent and learning, Mr. Gilliam 
shone conspicuous. 

He was a member of the convention in 1835, 
the most distinguished body of statesmen ever 
assembled in the state. 

He was a member of the commons in 1836,- 
'38 and '40, and again in 1846,-'48 and 1862, 
was elected speaker of the house. In 1863, he 
was elevated to the bench, where he remained 
till the close of the late war between the 
states. Upon the restoration of the Federal 
authority, he was again placed on the bench, 
where he remained until 1868. 

A few months before his death, he was 
elected a member of congress, (October 17, 
1870,) but before he took his seat he died. As a 
statesman, he was a pure and patriotic; as a law- 
3'er, he was learned and able, and liis ability 
was only equalled b}' the kindly qualities of 
his heart. Such were the conspicuous traits 
of his character, which endeared him to all who 
knew him. He was twice married, first to 
Miss Noble, of Virginia, and second to Miss 
Kittrell, but left no issue. 

Abram Watkins Venable, born 1799, died 
1876, was the son of Samuel Venable, and the 
nephew and name sake of Abram B. Venable, 
who was a member of congress from Virginia, 
1791 to 1799, and United States senator 1803 
and 1804; was detailed by the Jeftersonian 
party, on account of his financial abilities, to 
be the president of the Bank of A-^irginia. He 
perished in the burning of the Richmond 
Theatre, December 26th, 1811. 

A. W. Venable v.'as born in Prince Ed- 
ward County, Virginia, October I7th, 1799. 
His mother was a daughter of Judge Carring- 
ton. Educated at Hampden Sydney College, 
where he graduated in 1816, he studied medi- 


cine for two years, and then went to Princeton, failed to pass. Such had lieen the course of the 

where hej^raduated in 1819. He then studied banks that great prejudice existed against them 

law, and was admitted to the bar in 1821. amongst the people. Air. Potter was elected to 

He settled in Oxford, and in 1832 was elec- the Twentieth Congress the next year, and re- 
tor on the Jackson ticket, and again in 1836 elected to the Twenty-second Congress. But 
on the YanBuren ticket, with Nathaniel Ma- this brilliant career was brought to an ignom- 
con and others. This was the last public act inous close b}' P<jtter himself. He committed 
of Macon's long and eventful career in politics, a brutal mayhem upon two of his wife's rela- 

Mr. Venable was elected, in 1847, a member tions, for which he was fined and imprisoned, 

of congress, over Judge Kerr; and again in He then went to Texas and. there was killed 

1849, elected over Henr